computer science 1.docx - docshare.tips (2022)

1.

Design a program that reads credit card account records and prints payoff schedules for customers. Input records contain an account number,
customer name, and balance due. For each customer, print the account number and name; then print the customer’s projected balance each month
for the next 10 months. Assume that there is no finance charge on this account, that the customer makes no new purchases, and that the customer
pays off the balance with equal monthly payments, which are 10 percent of the original bill.
2.1 Design the output for this program; create either sample output or a print

2.

Assignment 2
Decision Support System (DSS)

Description

Marks out of

Wtg(%)

Due date

ASSIGNMENT 2

100.00

25.00

14th October 2015

This assignment must be your own work. It is acceptable to discuss course content with others to improve your understanding and clarify requirements, but
solutions to assignment questions must be done on your own. You must not copy from anyone, including tutors and fellow students, nor allow others to copy
your work. All Assignments will be checked using collusion monitoring tools to ensure that each assignment is the original work of the submitting student.
Assignments that do not adhere to this requirement will be deemed as being the result of collusion or plagiarism. This may lead to severe academic penalties as
outlined in USQ Policy Library: Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure. It is your own responsibility to ensure the integrity of your work. Refer to the USQ Policy
Library for more details:
· Academic Integrity Policy
· Academic Integrity Procedure
In completing this assignment, you are expected to use available resources such as the practical activities in the study modules, the Course Study Desk –
especially the Discussion Forums (click the Study Desk link on UConnect – http://uconnect.usq.edu.au>), as well as exploring and experimenting on your own.
Applicable course objective:
· demonstrate problem-solving skills by identifying and resolving issues relating to information systems and their components, and proficiently utilise different types
of information systems software (especially gaining proficiency in utilising databases, spreadsheets, and presentation applications).
· demonstrate written communication skills by understanding basic information, communication and technology (ICT) terminology for effective communication and
applying it within a business environment.
Applicable graduate qualities and skills gained from this assessment instrument:
· Problem Solving (Skill U2)
· Written & Oral Communication (Skill U4)
This assignment is quite complex, and exposes you to many different components in Microsoft Excel 2007/2010/2013, some or all of which might be very
unfamiliar to you. The assignment description provides some explanation of how to use these components, but you are also expected to use available resources
such as Online Help, the Beskeen et al text, the Practical Skills sections at the end of each Module in the Study Materials, the SAM online tutorial activities and the
course discussion forums, as well as exploring and experimenting on your own.
Preamble
Dr Vivien “Viv” Aldi was extremely impressed with our computing firm’s –Valkyries Technologies – development of theFour Seasons Music’s Database
Management System (DBMS) utilising Microsoft Access 2007/2010/2013 (Assignment 1). The business has contracted our firm to assist in setting up more ofthe
business’s various computer-based information systems.
The next computer-based information system that the business is interested in is a Decision Support System (DSS) utilising Microsoft Excel 2007/2010/2013. The
DSS will be used to analyse sales trends for the business to determine future courses of action for the business.
Dr Vivien “Viv” Aldi would like the information in the Database Management System (DBMS) (Assignment 1) imported into Microsoft Excel 2007/2010/2013 so that
the information can be summarised as a report and some future analysis of sales trends performed. The suppliers used by the business, source items from either
Austria (AT) orSaint Lucia(LC). They allow the business to select from either of these two regions on an ad hoc basic depending on the most favourable exchange
rate at the time.
Dr Vivien “Viv” Aldi has noted that a number of the business’s competitors are providing a discount to customers who place large orders. The business would like
to see what affect adopting a similar policy would have on the business. The business has also noted a growing number of online businesses are starting to
provide free freight delivery as a way of encouraging more online business; The business would like to run a number of scenarios based on potential Mark-up and
Freight options to ascertain the best combination for the business if they were to adopt this policy too.
All phases in this project must be developed with professionalism and user-friendliness in mind.
Anne Vallayer-Coster, Attributes of Music, 1770.

Decision Support System Design
Mr Peter Tchaikovsky, your manager, has set up the following tasks for you to complete for this phase of the project:
1. Create a Spreadsheet and import the four (4) Access 2007/2010/2013 Tables into four (4) Worksheets
2. Data Validation Check
3. Create an Index Worksheet
4. Create a Data Input Worksheet Template for later use
5. Create a Calculations Worksheet Template for later use
6. Create Name Ranges for the Customers, Items, and Suppliers data
7. Create a Report Worksheet and set up the column headings
8. Modify the Report Worksheet by Cell Referencing all the Orders Table data
9. Modify the Report Worksheet by using VLOOKUP to get Customer, Item and Supplier data
10. Modify the Data Input Worksheet to include extra data needed for tasks 11 to 14

11. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a Nested IF to calculate Cost Price (AU)
12. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a Nested IF to calculate Selling Price
13. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a Nested IF to calculate Freight Cost
14. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a AND / IF to calculate Item Discount
15. Modify the Report Worksheet by using simple formulas to find Purchases and Sales, and Modify the Report Worksheet by using a formula to calculate the
Order Discount
16. Modify the Data Input Worksheet to include extra data needed for tasks 18 to 22
17. Modify the Calculations Worksheet by using simple formulas
18. Modify the Data Input Worksheet by Cell Referencing all the Calculations data
19. Create an Documentation Worksheet
20. Create eight (8) Scenarios on the Data Input Worksheet
21. Create a Scenario Summary of the eight (8) Scenarios
22. Create an Analytical Essay to describe the findings made using the Spreadsheet
Task 1: Create and Import
Open a single newExcel 2007/2010/2013 spreadsheet and name the file - ‘[lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ [assignment number]’
(eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign2.xlsx).
Import the following four (4) database tables from your Assignment 1 Microsoft Access 2007/2010/2013 Database File and into Microsoft Excel 2007/2010/2013
(tblCustomers, tblItems, tblSuppliers, tblOrders). The easiest and quickest way to import data from Access 2007/2010/2013 into Excel 2007/2010/2013 is by using
the “Import From Access” Wizard. The following steps will assist you with this process:
1) Select the first unused tab at the bottom of the Spreadsheet, right click on it and rename it “CustomersTable”.
2) Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called “Customers Table”.
3) Go to theDataIcon Ribbon (see below)
4) Click on theFrom Access option in the Get External Dataicon area.
5) In theGet External Data – From Accesswizard popup,browse to find your Assignment 1 Access Database file and select the – then click Open.
6) In theSelect Tablewizard popup, select tblCustomers – click OK.
7) In theImport Datawizard popup, selectTableandExisting Worksheet$A$3as the location to Import the place to put the data.
8) Left click anywhere on the imported data in worksheet then go to theDesignIcon Ribbon and selectConvert to Range then click OK.
9) Check that the data has correctly been imported correctly into this worksheet.
10) Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the headings are in English (Customer ID not CustID).
Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Repeat the above 10 steps for the rest of the Access Database tables naming each worksheet as follows:
Database Table

Worksheet Name

Worksheet Title (Cell A1)

tblItems

ItemsTable

Items Table

tblSuppliers

SuppliersTable

Suppliers Table

tblOrders

OrdersTable

Orders Table

Task 2: Data Validation Check
Check the imported data in the CustomersTable, ItemsTable, SuppliersTable and OrdersTable to ensure that:
1. The column headings are displayed correctly
2. The content of each column displays in a format that appears valid for that type of data (apply appropriate formatting if required).
3. The content of each column contains complete and accurate data values (eg. Phone numbers are not truncated).
4. The content of each column contains reasonable data values for the use of this business.
If you discover that the data imported in any of your 4 table worksheets contains missing or inaccurate values, please contact the CIS5100 course team
immediately. You will be issued with a new copy of the Assignment 1 Access 2007/2010/2013 Database file (containing the 4 Database Tables) to restart Task 1.
Task 3: Index Worksheet
Add a worksheet labelledIndex before the four tables from Task 1. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Index Worksheet. Ensure that it
contains all the recommended data for this worksheet listed in Appendix 7 of the Study Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations.
Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 4: Data Input Worksheet Template
Add a worksheet labelledDataInput after the Index worksheet from Task 2 (but before the four tables from Task 1) that conforms to Appendix 7 of the Study
Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Data Input Worksheetand then input the following
template in the exact cellsshown below onto this worksheet:
A
3

B

C

D

Changing Cells:

4

Recommended MarkUp Type

[Insert Markup Type here]

5

Recommended Freight Type

[Insert Freight Type here]

6

Store Recommended MarkUp %

[Insert Standard MarkUp % here]

7

Recommended Exchange Rate Type

[Insert Exchange Rate Type here]

8

Exchange Rate (AT to AU)

[Insert AT to AU Exchange Rate here]

9

Exchange Rate (LC to AU)

[Insert LC to AU Exchange Rate here]

10
11

Quarterly Income:

12

Total Sales

[Insert Cell Reference here]

13
14

Quarterly Fixed Expenses:

15

Bank Charges

[Insert Bank Charges Expense here]

16

Electricity Expenses

[Insert Electricity Expense here]

17

Freight Inwards Expenses

[Insert Freight Inwards Expense here]

18

Internet Expenses

[Insert Internet Expense here]

19

Telephone Expenses

[Insert Telephone Expense here]

20

Wages Expenses

[Insert Wages Expense here]

TotalQuarterly Fixed Expenses

[Insert Cell Reference here]

21
22
23
24

Quarterly Variable Expenses:

25

Total Purchases Expenses

[Insert Cell Reference here]

26

Total Freight Outwards Expenses

[Insert Cell Reference here]

TotalQuarterly Variable Expenses

[Insert Cell Reference here]

27
28
29
30

Total Profit:

[Insert Cell Reference here]

31

Total Discount for Orders:

[Insert Cell Reference here]

32

No. Orders Discount Applied:

[Insert Cell Reference here]
* This template will be modified with correct number, formula and function in tasks 10 onwards.[1] [2]

Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 5: Calculations Worksheet Template
Add a worksheet labelledCalculations after the DataInput worksheet from Task 4 (but before the four tables from Task 1) that conforms to Appendix 7 of the Study
Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Calculations Worksheetand then input the following
template in the exact cells shown below onto this worksheet:
A
3
4

B

C

D

Quarterly Income
Total Sales:

[Insert Formula here]

5
6
7

Quarterly Expenses
Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses:

[Insert Formula here]

8
9

Total Quarterly Variable Expenses

10

Total Purchases Expenses

[Insert Formula here]

11

Total Freight Outwards Expenses

[Insert Formula here]

Total Quarterly Variable Expenses:

[Insert Formula here]

12
13
14

15

Total Profit:

[Insert Formula here]

16

Total Discount for Orders:

[Insert Formula here]

17

No. Orders Discount Applied:

[Insert Formula here]
* This template will be modified with correct number, formula and function in tasks 10 onwards.[3]

Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 6: Name Ranges
On theCustomersTable,ItemsTable andSuppliersTable worksheets set the following Cell Range Names:
· Cust– on all the data (not headings) in the CustomersTable worksheet
· Itms– on all the data (not headings) in the ItemsTable worksheet
· Supp– on all the data (not headings) in the SuppliersTable worksheet
Note: You must only create the three name ranges listed in this task, any other name ranges used may result in loss of marks.

Task 7: Report Worksheet Headings
Add a worksheet labelledReport after the Calculations worksheet from Task 5 (but before the four tables from Task 1) that conforms to Appendix 7 of the Study
Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Report Worksheetand then type the following column
headings, starting in cell A3:
· Customer ID, Title, Family Name, Given Names, Address, City, State, Postcode, Distance (km), Item ID, Classification, Instrument, Freight Weight (Kg), Supplier
ID, Supplier Name, Supplier Recommended Markup (%), Order Date, Order Qty, Cost Price (AT), Cost Price (LC), Cost Price (AU), Selling Price, Purchases, Item
Discount, Sales, Freight Cost, Order Discount.
Modify the Report worksheets to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the headings are in English (Customer ID not CustID). Use bold, italics, font
size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 8: Report Worksheet Cell Reference
On theReportworksheet, Use the Cell References formula, to obtain all 1000 rowsof data from theOrdersTableworksheet for the following:
· Customer ID, Item ID, Order Date, Order Qty.
(For example, type =OrdersTable!A4 to reference data in cell A4 of the OrdersTable worksheet.)
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Modify the Summary worksheets to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the data is formatted correctly.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column.
Task 9: Report Worksheet VLOOKUP
On theReport worksheet use the VLOOKUP function with theCell Range Names (Task 2), obtain all 1000 rows of data from the CustomersTable, ItemsTable
and SuppliersTable worksheets for the following:
· Customers Worksheet:
o Title, Family Name, Given Names, Address, City, State, Postcode, Freight Distance (Km)
· Items Worksheet:
o Classification, Instrument, Freight Weight (Kg), Supplier ID, Cost Price (AT), Cost Price (LC)
· Suppliers Worksheet:
o Supplier Name, Recommended Markup (%)
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Note:All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit H and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating VLOOKUP functions
Task 10: Modify Data Input Worksheet
On theDataInput worksheet perform the following:
· typeStore into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Markup Type here],
· type212.5% into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Standard MarkUp here],
· typeAT into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Exchange Rate Type here],
· type1.46538 into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert AT to AU Exchange Rate here],
· type1.146797into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert LC to AU Exchange Rate here].
Task 11: Report Worksheet Cost Price (AU) Nested IF
On theReportworksheet:
1. Develop an IF function using the newRecommendedExchange Rate Type value (from the DataInput worksheet to calculate the Cost Price (AU) (in the Cost
Price (AU) column) using the following criteria:
· If the Exchange Rate Type isAT then the Cost Price (AU) is calculated by multiplying the Cost Price (AT) by the Exchange Rate (AT to AU) cell on
theDataInput worksheet.
Hint:
Cost Price (AT) x Exchange Rate (AT to AU)
· If the Exchange Rate Type isLC then the Cost Price (AU) is calculated by multiplying the Cost Price (LC) by the Exchange Rate (LC to AU) cell on
theDataInput worksheet.
Hint:
Cost Price (LC) x Exchange Rate (LC to AU)
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
2. Ensure that you includerounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF function anderror checking(Beskeen Excel Unit
E) to avoid incorrect results due to typing mistakes.

Note:All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as
indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these Nested IF functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions
3. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Cost Price (AU) IF function, perform the following two tests on it to ensure that it is working correctly:
· On theDataInput worksheet, typeLC into the Exchange Rate Type cell.
· Go to theReport worksheet and observe whether the Cost Price (AU) have changed.
· On theDataInput worksheet, typeGIGO into the Exchange Rate Type cell.
· Go to theReport worksheet and observe whether the Cost Price (AU) now displays an error message.
Task 12: Report Worksheet Selling Price Nested IF
On theReportworksheet:
1. Develop an IF function using the newRecommendedMarkUp Type value (from the DataInput worksheet) to calculate the Selling Price (in the Selling Price
column) using the following criteria:
· If the MarkUp Type isStore then the Selling Price is calculated by increasing Cost Price by the Store’s Recommended MarkUp % from theDataInput worksheet
Hint:
Cost Price (AU) + Cost Price (AU) x Store Recommended MarkUp
· If the MarkUp Type isSupplier then the Selling Price is calculated by increasing Cost Price by the Supplier’s Recommended MarkUp
Hint:
Cost Price (AU) + Cost Price (AU) x Supplier Recommended MarkUp
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
2. Ensure that you includerounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF function anderror checking(Beskeen Excel Unit
E) to avoid incorrect results due to typing mistakes.
Note:All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as
indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these Nested IF functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions
3. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Selling Price IF function, perform the following two tests on it to ensure that it is working correctly:
· On theDataInput worksheet, typeSupplier into the MarkUp Type cell.
· Go to theReport worksheet and observe whether the Selling Prices have changed.
· On theDataInput worksheet, typeGIGO into the MarkUp Type cell.
· Go to theReport worksheet and observe whether the Selling Prices now displays an error message.
Task 13: Report Worksheet Freight Cost Nested IF
1. On theDataInput worksheet, typeStradivari Freightinto the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Freight Type here].
2. On theReportworksheet develop an IF function using the newRecommendedFreight Type value (from the DataInput worksheet to calculate the Freight Cost
(in the Freight Cost column) using the following criteria:
· If the Freight Type isStradivari Freight then the Freight Cost is calculated a quarter of a cent ($0.0025) per kilometre (Distance) and three dollars seventy-five
cents ($3.75) per kilogram of the item’s freight weight per item ordered (Order Qty).
Hint:
($0.0025 x Distance + $3.75 x Item Weight) x OrderQty
· If the Freight Type is Guarneri Transportthen the Freight Cost is calculated at three dollars and fifty cents ($3.50) for the first quarter of a kilogram (0.25 kg) and
then at three dollars and fifty cents ($3.50) per kilogram of the item’s freight weight over a quarter of a kilograms (0.25 kg) per item ordered (Order Qty).
Hint:
($3.50 + IF(Item Weight > 0.25 kg, (Item Weight – 0.25kg) x $3.50, 0)) x OrderQty
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
3. Ensure that you includerounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF function anderror checking(Beskeen Excel Unit
E) to avoid incorrect results due to typing mistakes.

Note:All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as
indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these Nested IF functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions
4. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Freight Cost IF function, perform the following three tests on it to ensure that it is working correctly:
· On theDataInput worksheet, typeGuarneri Transport into the Freight Type cell.
· Go to theReport worksheet and observe whether the Freight Costs have changed.
· On theDataInput worksheet, typeGIGO into the Freight Type cell.
· Go to theReport worksheet and observe whether the Freight Costs now displays an error message.
Task 14: Report Worksheet IF / AND: Item Discount
1. On theReportworksheet develop an IF / AND function to calculate the amount ofItemDiscount given to an individual item on an order (in the Item Discount
column) using the following criteria:

· If theOrderQty is greater than or equal toten (10) of the same item in any single order AND theSelling Pricefor that item is greater than$150.00, then
theItemDiscount is calculated at8.125%of theSelling Pricefor that item, otherwise theItem Discount iszero.
Hint:
=IF (AND (OrderQty >= 10, Selling Price > $150), Selling Price x 8.125%, 0)
2. Ensure that you includerounding(to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF / AND function.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message.Brackets must only be used as
indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these IF / AND functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions
3. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Item Discount IF / AND function and filled it down the column, review the values to ensure that it is working
correctly in the following situations:
· OrderQty is less than ten (10) andSelling Price is less than or equal to $150, should result in $0.00 Item Discount.
· OrderQty is less than ten (10) andSelling Price is greater than $150, should result in $0.00 Item Discount.
· OrderQty is greater than or equal to ten (10) andSelling Price is less than or equal to $150, should result in $0.00 Item Discount.
· OrderQty is greater than or equal to ten (10) andSelling Price is greater than $150, should result in an Item Discount.
Task 15: Report Worksheet Purchases, Sales and Order Discount Formulas
On theReportworksheet calculate the following three simple formulas:
1. Purchases by multiplying Order Qty with Cost Price (AU).
2. Sales by multiplying Order Qty by the difference of Selling Price less the Item Discount amount.
Hint:
=(Selling Price – Item Discount) x Order Qty
3. Order Discount by multiplying Order Qty with Item Discount.
Note:All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these formulae to reduce complexity and redundancy of code. Brackets must only be used as indicated
in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Task 16: Modify Data Input Worksheet
On theDataInputworksheet:
1. Replace the phrase “[Insert Bank Charges Expenses here]” in cell D15 with$2,830.46
2. Replace the phrase “[Insert Electricity Expenses here]” in cell D16 with$4,694.57
3. Replace the phrase “ [Insert Freight Inwards Expense here] ” in cell D17 with$80,721.94
4. Replace the phrase “ [Insert Internet Expense here] ” in cell D18 with$3,503.57
5. Replace the phrase “[Insert Telephone Expenses here]” in cell D19 with$4,882.58
6. Replace the phrase “[Insert Wages Expenses here]” in cell D20 with$44,148.76
Task 17: Calculations Worksheet Formulas
On theCalculationsworksheet calculate the following four simple formula:
1. Replace the phrase in D4 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Sales by adding all the Sales in the Sales column on the Reports
worksheet.
2. Replace the phrase in D7 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses by adding all the Quarterly Fixed Expenses on
the DataInput worksheet.
3. Replace the phrase in D10 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Purchases by adding all the Purchases in the Purchases column on the
Reports worksheet.
4. Replace the phrase in D11 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Freight by adding all the Freight Costs in the Freight Cost column on the
Reports worksheet.
5. Replace the phrase in D13 “[Insert Formula here]” with a formula to calculate the Total Quarterly Variable Expenses by adding all the Quarterly Variable
Expenses on the Calculations worksheet.
6. Replace the phrase in D15 “[Insert Formula here]” with a formula to calculate the Total Profit by subtracting the Total Quarterly Fixed and Total Quarterly
Variable Expenses from the Total Sales on the Calculations worksheet.
7. Replace the phrase in D16 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Discount for Orders by adding all the Order Discounts in the Order
Discount column on the Reports worksheet.
8. Replace the phrase in D17 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Number of Orders where a Discount was Applied by using the COUNTIF()
function to count all cells with an Order Discount greater than 0 in the Order Discount column on the Reports worksheet.
Hint:For details on COUNTIF usage see Beskeen Unit E.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Task 18: Data Input Cell References
On theDataInputworksheet:
1. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D12 with a cell reference to the Total Sales amount on the Calculations worksheet.
2. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D22 with a cell reference to the Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses amount on the Calculations
worksheet.
3. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D25 with a cell reference to the Total Purchases Expenses amount on the Calculations worksheet.
4. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D26 with a cell reference to the Total Freight Outwards Expenses amount on the Calculations
worksheet.

5. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D28 with a cell reference to the Total Quarterly Variable Expenses amount on the Calculations
worksheet.
6. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D30 with a cell reference to the Total Profit amount on the Calculations worksheet.
7. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D31 with a cell reference to the Total Discount for Orders amount on the Calculations worksheet.
8. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D32 with a cell reference to the No. Orders Discount Applied amount on the Calculations worksheet.
Note: Ensure that you only use cell referencing for the Totals data.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Modify the CustomerTable, ItemTable, OrdersTable, SuppliersTable, DataInput, Calculations and Report worksheets to a professional level of presentation, making
sure that the data is formatted correctly. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 19: Documentation Worksheet
Add aDocumentation worksheet after the four tables from Task 1. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Documentation. Ensure that
contains all the recommended information for this worksheet listed in Appendix 7 of the Study Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations.
The Documentation Worksheet must demonstrate the following:
· A statement outlining the purpose of the Spreadsheet:
Purpose should outline why the Spreadsheet was created including – discussion about the Markup Type, Exchange Rate and Freight Type.
· A statement about the protection level that should be used on each Worksheet.
Protection should look at all 10 Worksheets and outline whether each sheet should contain protection and why.
DO NOT actually apply protection to your Spreadsheet – this will result in it being unable to be marked.
· A statement about how the user can access and use the Worksheets.
User Notes should provide a step by step guide for a new user to use the Spreadsheet from changing the values on the DataInput Worksheet to observing the
outcome of these changes on both DataInput and Report Worksheets.
· A statement about what calculations have been used in the development of this Spreadsheet.
Calculations Notes should provide a brief description of each calculation found on the Calculations and Report Worksheets (does not need to discuss individual
Cell References and VLOOKUPs – these can be discussed generally as a single calculation type).
Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 20: Scenarios
Using the Scenario Manager in Excel create and check the following eight (8) Scenarios using theChanging Cells ofD4, D5and D7 on the DataInputworksheet:
Markup Type

Freight Type

Exchange Rate Type

1

Store

Stradivari Freight

AT

2

Store

Stradivari Freight

LC

3

Store

Guarneri Transport

AT

4

Store

Guarneri Transport

LC

5

Supplier

Stradivari Freight

AT

6

Supplier

Stradivari Freight

LC

7

Supplier

Guarneri Transport

AT

8

Supplier

Guarneri Transport

LC

See the Beskeen Excel Unit K and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating Scenarios.
Task 21: Scenario Summary
Using the Scenario Manager in Excel create aScenario Summary worksheet from the DataInput worksheet based on the eight (8) Scenarios from Task 20 and
focusing on the Result cells D12, D22, D25, D26, D28, D30, D31 and D32on the DataInput worksheet.
Place the Scenario Summary worksheet between the Calculations and Report worksheets.
Note:Format your Scenario Summary worksheet to look professional as follows:
· Modify the heading of the Scenario Summary
· Remove the Current Value and Notes
· Label the Changing Cells and Results Cells
See the Beskeen Excel Unit K and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating Scenarios.
Task 22: Analytical Essay
Mr Peter Tchaikovsky has asked you to develop an analytical essay (at least 500 words in length) to the client, Dr Vivien “Viv” Aldioutlining the major issues that
the Decision Support System’s results have highlighted. Create aWord 2007/2010/2013 Document and name it ‘[lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _
[course code] _ [assignment number’
(eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign2.docx).
Essays have a particular structure - An introduction, a body (where you write your answer in a number of paragraphs, usually one for each idea or topic) and a
conclusion. The conclusion is where you sum up your 'argument'. Essays normally do not have headings.
The information at the following URL may be useful:
http://www.usq.edu.au/learningcentre/assignment-skills/writing-assignments/essay-writing
The body of your essay should consider the following issues:
· Define what a Decision Support System is.
· Explain why a Decision Support System is the appropriate tool for this project.
· From the results of the Decision Support System results discuss the following (keeping in mind the information provided in the preamble on page 2):

1. Which Mark-up Type would be most appropriate for the business? Why?
2. How would the choice of the Mark-up Type impact on the customer’s decision to purchase from the company? Why?
3. What would be the impact on the business’s profit if the plan to provide a discount to large orders was implemented? Why?
4. Which Recommended Freight Type would be most appropriate for the business? Why?
5. What would be the impact that the different Recommended Freight Types would have on the business’s profit if the cost was transferred to the business instead
of the customer (as discussed in the preamble)? Why?
6. Which country would be most appropriate for the business to import from at the moment? Why?
7. What issues could cause the business to rethink its choice of country of import? Why?
The essay should be using a proportional font (eg. Arial, Times New Roman etc.), with a font size of 11 or 12, and be laid out using 1 ½ line spacing.
Note: It is expected that you will use the Baltzan et al textbook to answer the items Mr Peter Tchaikovsky has given you for the body of the letter. There is no need
to reference any materials taken from this particular textbook. However if you include materials from other sources, you need to include a brief Bibliography on a
separate page (see the following USQ website for referencing help:http://www.usq.edu.au/library/referencing/harvard-agps-referencing-guide).
Submission Guidelines
Attach theExcel 2007/2010/2013 & Word 2007/2010/2013 files using the naming convention below, to your online assignment submission in the Assignment 1
area on the CIS5100 StudyDesk before midnight Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST) on the day the assignment is due.
1.

[lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ assign2.xlsx(eg.genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign2.xlsx).

2.

[lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ assign2.docx (eg.genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign2.docx).
Note: Simply changing the file extension to.xlsx or .docx on an Excel 2003 or Word 2003 file will not result in a suitable submission. If the assignment files cannot
be opened by the marker, it may be treated as late until a suitable replacement is received.
Upon completion of the submission process, check your uConnect email account for an automatically generated confirmation email (if you do not have an email
account, print out the Submission Complete screen before exiting the Submission System). You must check that the file name and file size are listed correctly, if
there is a problem with either, please email the course leader immediately.
If you have difficulties submitting through the StudyDesk Assignments submission tool, please review theStudent Instructions document listed also on the
CIS5100 StudyDesk. As a last resort only, email the course leader for instructions on an alternative course of action.
Please note that:
· The following is the USQ Assessment – Assignment (Late Submission) and Compassionate and Compelling Circumstances procedure that relate to Extensions
and Late Assignments. They can be found under the following links:
§ Assessment – Assignment (Late Submission) Procedure:http://policy.usq.edu.au/documents.php?id=14749PL#4.2_Assignments
§ Assessment of Compassionate and Compelling Circumstances Procedures:http://policy.usq.edu.au/documents.php?id=131150PL
· Students seeking extensions for any Assignment work must provide appropriate documentation to support their request before the due date of the
assignment (see points 4.3 and 4.4 in the Assessment of Compassionate and Compelling Circumstances Procedures above to see what is considered as
Compassionate and Compelling reason for an extension and the level of documentation that will be needed).
· An Assignment submitted after the due date without an approved extension of time will be penalised. The penalty for late submission is a reduction by five
percent (5%) of the maximum Mark applicable for the Assignment, for each University Business Day or part Business Day that the Assignment is late. An
Assignment submitted more than ten (10) University Business Days after the due date will have a Mark of zero recorded for that Assignment.
§ The StudyDesk Assignments submission toolwill accept late assignments up until 23:55pm on the 10th University Business Day after the due date.

[1]The row and column details are included above to establish exact cell references only. These are not to be included within your final DataInput worksheet.
[2]AT is the country code for Austria; LC is the country code for SaintLucia.
[3] The row and column details are included above to establish exact cell references only. These are not to be included within your final Calculations worksheet.
Attach 2
3

assignment 1 and 2 i had completed assignment csc2406 u have to do web technology assignment

Attach 3
4

kindly do do assignment it is crustal

Attach 4
5

i have got a copy of assignment 1 which is quite helpful. i have send it together with the other zip folder. is that okay?

Attach 5
6

I need help with excel here is the problems I got wrong I-5 Insert a nested lookup function in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using

the apartment number referenced in cell B2. 5.000 A nested lookup function was not inserted in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using the
apartment number referenced in cell B2. 0.000/5.000 I-7 Perform an advanced filter based on the criteria range. Filter the existing database in place. 10.000 An
advanced filter based on the criteria range was not performed. 0.000/10.000 I-8 In cell C7, enter a DCOUNTA function to calculate the number of apartments to
remodel. 3.000 A database function was not entered to calculate the number of apartments to remodel in cell C7. 0.000/3.000 I-9 In cell C8, enter a database
function to calculate the total lost rent for the month. 2.000 A database function was not entered to calculate the value of lost rent in cell C8. 0.000/2.000 I-10 Enter
a database function to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in cell C9. 2.000 A database function was not entered to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in
cell C9. 0.000/2.000 I-13 Insert a formula in cell E3 to calculate the total number of periods. 2.000 In the cell [E3] on Sheet (Loan), the 'Formula' was not set to
'B4*B5'. 0.000/2.000 I-16 In cell E6, insert a function to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2.000 A
function in cell E6 was not inserted to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. 0.000/2.000 I-17 Complete the loan amortization table for the first five payments
only. In cell A11, enter 1. In cell B11, create a relative reference to cell B7 and in cell C11, create a relative reference to cell E2. Use the DATE function to complete
the Payment Date column and financial functions for the Interest Paid and Principal Payment columns. In cell F11, enter =C11-E11. In cell C12, create a relative
reference to cell F11. Note: Be sure to only complete the table through row 15. 18.000 Row [11] that starts with "1" was not detected in the submission. Engine
reported the failure as ‘The loan amortization table was not completed for the first five payments only.' 0.000/5.400 Row [15] that starts with "5" was not detected in

the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘The loan amortization table was not completed for the first five payments only.' 0.000/1.800 Row [11] that starts with
"1" was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘Financial functions were not used for the Interest Paid columns.' 0.000/3.600 Row [11] that
starts with "1" was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘Financial functions were not used for the Principal Payment columns.'
0.000/3.600 Row [12] that starts with "2" was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘A date function was not used for the Payment Date
column.' 0.000/3.600 I-18 Create a footer with the sheet name code in the center, and the file name code on the right side of each worksheet. 6.000 Header(s) and
Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘A footer with the sheet name code in the center, on the right side of Summary
worksheet was not created.' 0.000/1.000 Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘A footer with the file name
code on the right side of Summary worksheet was not created.' 0.000/1.000 Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
failure as ‘A footer with the sheet name code in the center, on the right side of Database worksheet was not created.' 0.000/1.000 Header(s) and Footer(s) was not
detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘A footer with the file name code on the right side of Database worksheet was not created.' 0.000/1.000
Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘A footer with the sheet name code in the center, on the right side of
Loan worksheet was not created.' 0.000/1.000 Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the failure as ‘A footer with the file
name code on the right side of Loan worksheet was not created.'

7

Implement a modified version of the card game WAR. In this game there will be two players, and each player will be dealt 26 cards. The players do

not get to choose which card they will play. Instead, the top card from each of the Hands is played, so a total of two cards are played. The card with the higher
value wins, giving the player who played it a point. After 26 rounds the game is over and a winner should be declared based on points.

In the event of a tie between cards. For example 5 of clubs vs. 5 of hearts, the tie will be broken as follows:

diamonds (lowest value), followed by clubs, hearts, and spades (highest value)

So in this case, the 5 of hearts beats the 5 of club

8

I-5 Insert a nested lookup function in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using the apartment number referenced in cell B2.

A nested lookup function was not inserted in cell E2 that will look up the rental
price in column D using the apartment number referenced in cell B2.
I-7

Perform an advanced filter based on the criteria range. Filter the existing database in place.

An advanced filter based on the criteria range was not performed.
I-8

In cell C7, enter a DCOUNTA function to calculate the number of apartments to remodel.

A database function was not entered to calculate the number of apartments to
remodel in cell C7.
I-9

In cell C8, enter a database function to calculate the total lost rent for the month.

A database function was not entered to calculate the value of lost rent in cell
C8.
I-10

Enter a database function to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in cell C9.

A database function was not entered to calculate the year of the oldest remodel

5.000

0.000/5.00
0
10.000

0.000/10.000
3.000

0.000/3.00
0
2.000

0.000/2.00
0
2.000

0.000/2.00

in cell C9.
I-13

0
Insert a formula in cell E3 to calculate the total number of periods.

In the cell [E3] on Sheet (Loan), the 'Formula' was not set to 'B4*B5'.
I-16

2.000

0.000/2.000

In cell E6, insert a function to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. Ensure that the function returns a positive value.

A function in cell E6 was not inserted to calculate the total interest paid on the
loan.

2.000

0.000/2.00
0

Complete the loan amortization table for the first five payments only. In cell A11, enter 1. In cell B11, create a relative reference to cell B7 and
I-

in cell C11, create a relative reference to cell E2. Use the DATE function to complete the Payment Date column and financial functions for the

17 Interest Paid and Principal Payment columns. In cell F11, enter =C11-E11. In cell C12, create a relative reference to cell F11. Note: Be sure to

18.00
0

only complete the table through row 15.

Row [11] that starts with "1" was not detected in the submission. Engine
reported the failure as ‘The loan amortization table was not completed for the
first five payments only.'

0.000/5.40
0

Row [15] that starts with "5" was not detected in the submission. Engine
reported the failure as ‘The loan amortization table was not completed for the
first five payments only.'

0.000/1.80
0

Row [11] that starts with "1" was not detected in the submission. Engine
reported the failure as ‘Financial functions were not used for the Interest Paid
columns.'

0.000/3.60
0

Row [11] that starts with "1" was not detected in the submission. Engine
reported the failure as ‘Financial functions were not used for the Principal
Payment columns.'

0.000/3.60
0

Row [12] that starts with "2" was not detected in the submission. Engine
reported the failure as ‘A date function was not used for the Payment Date
column.'

0.000/3.60
0

I-18

Create a footer with the sheet name code in the center, and the file name code on the right side of each worksheet.

6.000

Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
0.000/1.00
failure as ‘A footer with the sheet name code in the center, on the right side of
0
Summary worksheet was not created.'
Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
0.000/1.00
failure as ‘A footer with the file name code on the right side of Summary
0
worksheet was not created.'
Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
0.000/1.00
failure as ‘A footer with the sheet name code in the center, on the right side of
0
Database worksheet was not created.'
Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
0.000/1.00
failure as ‘A footer with the file name code on the right side of Database
0
worksheet was not created.'

Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
0.000/1.00
failure as ‘A footer with the sheet name code in the center, on the right side of
0
Loan worksheet was not created.'
Header(s) and Footer(s) was not detected in the submission. Engine reported the
failure as ‘A footer with the file name code on the right side of Loan worksheet
was not created.'

Attach 8

9

What industry cultures comprise your career field workplace? Discuss at least two ways that this industry cultural mix can be an advantage to the

workplace environment. My career field is: Information Technology.

10

The note played by a string on a guitar is determined by the frequency at which the string vibrates The frequency f of a vibrating string varies directly

with the square roof of the tension T and inversely to the length L. What is the effect on the frequency if the length is doubled and the tension is quadrupled ?

11

I have homework on Access data base I did all the tables thats needed and I cant continue, I have to make some game list report that I dont know how

to do and I have to answer questions by using queries. I do not know how to do it, do you have anyone that could do it for me it is due tonight at 11:59

12

manufacturer is evaluating options regarding his production equipment

13

If you have a PC, identify some situations in which you can take advantage of its multitasking capabilities.

14

Consider a network message transfer between a source S and a destination D through 3 routers R1, R2 and R3 as shown below:S ----------------R1 ----

---------------R2 ------------------R3 ------------------D
A message M needs to be transferred from S to D. M will be divided into packets, therefore M/packet_sizeis the number of packets. For example, if M is 100 MB,

and packet size is 10MB then there will be 10 packets. Write a simple program to simulate the arrival of a packet at R1, then R2, then R3, and then D, and finally
the program should indicate how long it would take for the entire message M to arrive at D. In the program the user should be able to choose different packet sizes
and bandwidths of the links. Ignore processing, queuing and propagation delays.Keep in mind that when the first packet is being sent from R1 to R2, the second
packet is being sent from the source host to R1. Now fix the bandwidth of each link to 100Mbps. Run the program for different message sizes and packetsizes.
Draw graphs of total delay time vs. message size and total delay time vs. number of packets.

15

write a pseudo code for smallest numbers in an array

16

please give me solution for this assignment

Document Preview:
Enterprise Data Management SP5 Assignment 2 Case Study: 40% (Group of 3 – Internal; Individual – External) Due Date Oct 30th 11pm Submission Method
Submit via LearnOnline Case Background According to an article by Logistics Magazine (2008), Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is the world’s largest retailer, with nearly
6,500 stores and wholesale clubs across 13 countries. The company has more than 1.9 million associates worldwide, and revenue of more than $312 billion
(A$333.44 billion) in fiscal 2006. The company has even been termed “most admired retailer” by FORTUNE magazine. Wal-Mart also enjoys a reputation as a
leader in supply chain technology and efficiency. It invented the practice of sharing sales data via computer with major suppliers and has been a global innovator
in the use of wireless technology—warehouse management systems (WMS) and radio frequency (RF) data communication systems, for example—to track and
manage the flow of goods though its distribution centers. Srikanth (2011) adds to this information as follows – This year, the big giant of retail, Walmart, made
headlines in the technology media space when it announced its intentions to acquire Kosmix, a startup focused on social media. When this announcement
happened, many analysts were surprised and were analyzing the key reasons for a giant retailer to acquire a startup company. Post acquisition, the Kosmix team
operates as part of the newly formed company called WalmartLabs. Kosmix understands context extremely well. For example, if a user tweets ‘I enjoyed Salt,’ it
knows that the tweet is related to a movie starring Angelina Jolie, and not the salt we use for cooking. By applying semantic analysis to social media, Kosmix
understands the connections between people, topics, location and products. .. While the idea sounds great, doing this in reality is a huge problem — especially
since there are thousands of data pieces flowing in a torrent from live data sources such as tweets, Facebook posts and blogs....

Attach 16

17

A. Assume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listings and

also wants to have access to the citywide multiple listings serviceused by all real state agents. Which design strategy would you recommend for the construction
for this system? Why?

18

I have 7 programs in mash. Can you help me out

19

Mash programming

20

explain the bus system for four registers

21

A. Assume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listings and

also wants to have access to the citywide multiple listings serviceused by all real state agents. Which design strategy would you recommend for the construction
for this system? Why?

22

I have 7 programs in mash. Can you help me out

23

Mash programming

24

explain the bus system for four registers

25

i need a help for assignment

26

The project will consist of creating a simulation of an operating system scheduler handling multiple threads or processes. The student will create a

program that launches 6 - 10 worker threads simulating a processor bound, I/O bound and an intermediate of the two types. The program will schedule the tasks
using the First-Come, First-Served (FCFS), Shortest Job First, and Round Robin scheduling algorithms. The Program should be written in Java and the Round
Robin algorithm should employ the suspend() and resume() thread methods (yes I know the methods are depreciated). The student will take statistics and will
write a paper describing what they found.

Attach 26

27

Which of the following would be considered purposes of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act? Select Yes or No for each option.

To discourage internet service providers from allowing file transfers

--YesNo

To outline penalties for bypassing or providing tools to bypass protection mechanisms built into copyrighted software

--YesNo

To provide scenarios that define when it is legal to copy and sell copyrighted software

--YesNo

28

True or false? Holders of confidential information can release it to authorized users with permission.

1.

True

2.

False

29

Which of the following would most likely prevent your becoming a victim of cyberstalking while using social networking?

1.

Minimizing interaction with others on the social network

2.

Reading the privacy policy of the social networking site

3.

Monitoring your privacy settings and adjusting as necessary

4.

Posting photos of friends

30

How is “risk” defined in the context of information technology and information security?

1.

A risk is a potential compromise of a computer system, an account, a file, or another online resource.

2.

A risk is a potential compromise of a computer system, an account, a file, or another online resource and would most likely be perpetrated by a
malicious attacker.

3.

A risk is a security breach of a computer system, an account, a file, or another online resource but would never be the result of an accidental action by
a user.

4.

A risk is a security breach of a computer system or unauthorized access to an online account, file, or other resource.

31

b. Does it detect a burst error of size 16? Defend your answer.

32

Q. WAP to simulate the functionality of Lamport's Logical clock in C.

33

Q. Discuss FIVE(5) of the Shneiderman’s Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design with respect to w3schools.com ( http://www.w3schools.com/ ).

Provide screenshots to prove your argument.

34

Q. The study of usability of an interactive system is important to guide us to develop a system that enables the user to interact with it without much

difficulty. In this context “Learn ability” is how easy it is for users to learn about the system. Discuss the following learn ability requirements with any website of this
scope with followings. 1. Predictability 2. Synthesizability 3. Familiarity 4. Generalisability 5. Consistency

35

Q. What is Jacob's Nielsen10 Heuristics. Explain 5 heuristics of Jacob's Neilsen 5 heuristics. Also prepare a heuristics evaluation of website. Also

provide the screenshot for website evaluation.

36

If the derived class is struct, then default visibility mode is_______

37

Q. Write a program in c to implement the STP with a given graph.

38

Q. Write a program in c to implement SJF CPU scheduling algorithm.

39

Q. Write a program in c to implement shortest path finding system.

40

Q. Write a program to implement round robin scheduling algorithm in c

41

Q. Write a program in c to implement reminder generator.

42

Q. Write a program in c to implement priority based scheduling algorithm.

43

Q. Write a program in c to implement optimal page replacement policy.

44

Q. Write a program in c to implement LRU page replacement policy.

45

Q. Write a program in c to implement FIFO processing under the multi processing environment.

46

Q. Write a program in c to implement deadlock detection for multiprocessing environment.

47

Q. Write a program to find solution of linear system using Jacobi method.

48

Q. Write a program to find solution of linear system using Gaussian Elimination.

49

Q. Write a Program for synchronizing POSIX thread using Mutex variable.

50

Q. How the thread is synchronized by conditional variable? Write a Program for synchronizing POSIX thread using condition variables.

51

Q. What do you mean by pthread? Write an algorithm to implement pthread.

52

Q. Write down the Difference between Hyper Quick sort and sequential quick sort. Also write the algorithm of hyper quick sort.

53

Q. Explain the Algorithm and working of parallel prefix sum by suitable example.

54

Q. What do you mean by execution enviournment functions? List out at least six functions under it with suitable example and functionality.

55

Q. What do you mean by parallel construct? Explain at least 4 parallel construct with examples. Also, mention the usability of each individual parallel

construct.

56

Q. Explain the general design strategies of PRAM algorithms. How PRAM algorithm is different from sequential algorithm. What are the considerations

under design and evaluations of Parallel algorithms?

57

Q. What is difference between work sharing construct and combined parallel work sharing construct? Deduce your difference with the help of each

construct under both type of work sharing construct with suitable example.

58

Q. Consider the reservation table of question 3.b and insert a non computable delay D1 on 4th stage. Now do the followings. i. Forbidden latencies

and initial collision vector ii. State transition diagram iii. Simple cycles and greedy cycles iv. MAL and Lower Bound of MAL v. Pipeline throughput.

Q. B Consider the following non pipeline design with 20 ns clock interval. i. Determine
the reservation table. ii. Find Forbidden Latencies and generate initial collision vector. iii. Draw
state transition diagram. iv. List simple cycles and greedy cycles. v. Find MAL. vi. Calculate
pipeline throughput on obtained MAL.
59

Document Preview:
Consider the following non pipeline design with 20 ns clock interval. Determine the reservation table. Find Forbidden Latencies and generate initial collision vector.
Draw state transition diagram. List simple cycles and greedy cycles. Find MAL. Calculate pipeline throughput on obtained MAL.

Attach 59

60
Q. A Consider design of a two level memory hierarchy with following specification. i. Find the value of t2 to achieve the effective access time 10.04 ?s
if the h1=0.98 and h2=0.9. ii. Find the value of s2 if the total cost upper bounded by $15000.
Document Preview:
A Consider design of a two level memory hierarchy with following specification. Find the value of t2 to achieve the effective access time 10.04 s if the h1=0.98 and
h2=0.9. Find the value of s2 if the total cost upper bounded by $15000.

Attach 60

61

Q. What is pipeline processor? Explain about linear pipeline processor. Also, draw diagram of each model of linear pipeline processor

62

Q. A two level memory hierarchy m1 and m2 has size s1=256 KB and s2=2 MB. The hit ratio at m1 is 0.67 and m2 at 1. The cost per byte at m1 is Rs.

4.0 and at m2 is Rs. 0.5 per byte. Let, r = Teff/T1 where, T1= 0.5, T2 = 1 i. Find the value of r. ii. Find Avg. cost of above memory system.

63

Q. What is memory hierarchy technology? Explain why cost increases and size decrease of memory in bytes when we go lower level to higher level of

memory hierarchy.

64

Q. Draw the dependence graph with conclusion for the following parallel code. S1 : Load B, 10 S2 : Load A, 5 S3 : Add A, B S4 : Inc A

65

Q. A program consists of 3 different types of instructions. Each instruction requires 3 clock cycles to execute by a benchmark processor. What is the

speedup factor if same program is executed on three stage pipeline processor.

66

Q. What is Bernstein’s condition? Explain the dependence graph by showing the dependence relations according to Bernstein’s condition.

67

Q. A 40 MHz processor is used to execute code segment of 6 instructions in which two are same and four are different. The same instructions take 8

clock cycles and different instructions take 6 clock cycles. Find the Avg. CPI and CPU time.

68

Q. What is the role of pseudo terminal driver at TELNET Server side? Explain the reason.

69

Q. When web pages are sent out ,they are prefixed by MIME headers. Why?

70

Q. Explain working procedure of Simple Network Management Protocol.

71

Q. Explain SMTP, POP for internet.

72

Q. Explain how the DNS performs name resolution?

73

Q. Discuss the RPC Design and implementation issues.

74

Q. Explain DES and working procedure of DES.

75

Q. Write how a logical connection between two TCP entities is established using 3 way handshake?

76

Q. Show the working principal of RSA Algorithm with suitable example.

77

Q. Why Token bucket has merit over Leaky bucket Algorithm? Explain your reason with examples.

78

Q. Explain how do ARP and RARP map IP addresses onto data link layer on Ethernet.

79

Q. Draw and explain TCP header format.

80

Q. Draw IPV4 and IPV6 datagram header format.

81

Q. What is Count to infinity problem ? How it can be resolved?

82

Q. What are First and Last address for IP address 135.104.192.100 with mask 255.255.128.0

83

Q. A Explain the following terms (i)BackPressure (ii) Choke packet (iii) IP Address Notation (iv) Subnetting .

84

Q. Write difference between Pure Aloha and Slotted Aloha.

85

Q. Explain CSMA/CA Protocol with flow chart

86

Q. Explain CRC Generator and Checker for data =11100011 and generator polynomial = 11001.

87

Q. Explain three types of Error Detection Methods

88

Q. Explain CDMA for 4 stations by using 4bit station code.

89

Q. What are number of cables required for n devices connected in Mesh,Bus,Ring and Star topology.

90

Q. Explain the working principal of optical fibre transmission media with multimode graded mono mode step index.

91

Q. What is ISDN? Describe in brief the working of ISDN to provide various services.

92

Q. Explain Circuit Switching and Virtual Circuit Switching Concept with example .

93

Q. Write a program to implement RSA algorithm for encryption and decryption in ‘C’ language.

94

Q. Write a program to implement a socket program of server and client in ‘C’ language.

95

Q. Write a program to implement the LZW compression technique in ‘C’.

96

Q. Write a program in ‘c’ to implement Hamming code system of error control of data link layer.

97

Q. Write a program in ‘c’ to implement CRC (cyclic redundancy check) of data link layer error control.

98

Q. Write a program to implement the character stuffing of framing method in c .

99

Q. Write a program in ‘c’ to implement CRC (cyclic redundancy check) of data link layer error control.

100

Q. Write a program to implement the character stuffing of framing method in c .

101

Create a Web page for a store that rents computers by the hour.

• Use an external style sheet.
• Format the heading level styles in olive and the paragraphs in blue.
• Format the heading and body elements using sans-serif fonts, such as Arial and Helvetica.
Include headings, such as Services Offered, Hours of Operation, Rental Charges, and
Accepted Forms of Payment.
• Within the Rental Charges heading, create a table that lists the cost of different types of
computer platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.
• Format the rows in the table so that they alternate from white to gray.
• Within the gray rows, format the text to be white. Within the white rows, format the text to
be black. You will need to set the color and background-color properties for the table’s
elements using class selectors.
• Save the Web page as ComputerCenter.html and the style sheet as computers.css.

102

Q. Write a Program for line detection algorithm in Matlab.

103

Q. Write a program for edge detection algorithm in Matlab

104

Q. Write a program to implement the grahm’s scan line algorithm in Matlab.

105

Q. Write a program to implement the boundary extraction algorithm in Matlab.

106

Q. Write a program to implement ideal low pass filter in frequency domain in Matlab

107

Q. Write a program in Matlab to Plot the regular histogram of M x N Image of 3 bits in Matlab. Also equalize and plot the Flat histogram.

108

Q. Write and implement a program in Matlab to apply 3x3 non coefficient based mask to median filtering of the spatial digital image.

109

Q. Write and implement a matlab program to apply 3 x 3 mask based mean or average filtering on the digital spatial image.

110

Q. Write and Implement the program in Matlab to get the digital Negative of a digital image.

111

F=(SSN -> C, C-> A), C-/-> SSN, key = SSN)

After the 3NF Normalization, what decomposed relations most likely we will get?

112

Q. Write a prolog program to print the given numbers in vertical alignment.

113

Match the correct definitionor corresponding goal of each level of Normal Form.Match the correct definition or corresponding goal of each level of

Normal Form.

114

Q. Write a prolog program to check according to dictionary whether the given word is less than the other.

115

Q. Write a prolog program to alter the given sentence into another.

116

Q. Write a LISP function (app x y) to append two lists.

117

Q. Write a LISP function (mem el lt) to see if the said element (el) is in the given list (lt).

118

Q. Write a LISP function (len lt) to find the length of the list.

119

Q. Write a LISP function (factorial n) to calculate the factorial of a given number.

120

Q. Write a LISP function (max3 a b c) to find out the greatest among the given three numbers.

121

Q. Explain the process of forward chaining. Also, write a program in Prolog to implement forward chaining.

122

Q. Explain the query system. Also write a prolog program to generate a query system.

123

Q. Explain and write pseud code for 8-puzzle problem. Also write LISP program for 8 - puzzle problem.

124

Q. Write an algorithm and explanation for water jug problem in LISP. Also write the program in LISP for same.

125

Q. Write a LISP program to implement Depth-First Search. Also, explain and mention pseudo code for same.

126

Q. Write a LISP program to implement Breadth-first search. Also, explain the algorithm and pseudo code.

1.

127

Write a well researched academic Capstone Project Report between 3500 and 5000 words on the chosen capstone experience and its

application in your chosen organisation (35%)
1.

The purpose of this assessment is to produce a discussion that will be supported by and include your literature review with references
from respected sources from Assessment Item 2.

2.

The Capstone Project Design should demonstrate project management skills and include experience in other areas of study where
applicable.

3.

The Capstone Project Report may also have a systems development project included in the Report.

4.

The Requirements section belowhas a suggested format using six (6) main heading levels to use for the layout and organisation of the
report.

5.

You should demonstrate academic writing skills, critical and reflective thinking and include academic journals, conference proceedings,
eBooks, theses, industry magazines and well respected resources from the Internet among your references in APA style

6.

Ensure that the Project Report by you is your own work and has not been submitted elsewhere and comply with the University's
requirements for academic integrity.

2.

Present a Capstone Project Seminar (15%).

1.

The time has been deliberately limited to 10 minutes to force you into selecting the most appropriate subset of information to present for
this situation and you will be heavily penalised if you take more than 15 minutes.

2.

NOTE: If doing a video presentation (YouTube, Vimeo etc) then try to halve the time for the online audience. (Question time does not
count as part of the presentation time.)

3.

This seminar can be to a live class of peers or online as a video presentation, outlining the results of your Capstone Project.

4.

The seminar should be accompanied by appropriate audio/visual tools such as a set of presentation slides or examples of
hardware/software/systems that are necessary for the audience to understand and follow your presentation.

5.

You may be asked questions from the audience after your presentation.

6.

Please ask your local supervisor for the date, time or the URL of the Online Video you will be presenting. Presenting a seminar also
demonstrates that you have understood the project work that has been carried out.

128
The following machine description will provide the basis for this assignment. You willcreate a virtual machine/operating system for the machine
described below that will acceptprograms in the target machine language. The details for this assignment are presentedbelow following the machine description.
Document Preview:
1 CISC 640 Nova Southeastern University OS Problem Set Introduction The following machine description will provide the basis for this assignment. You will
create a virtual machine/operating system for the machine described below that will accept programs in the target machine language. The details for this
assignment are presented below following the machine description. MICROPROGRAMMING/MACHINE DISCRIPTION The following is a description of a
machine called SIMMAC that contains the following: 512 32-bit words of memory (memory is word addressable). Each Instruction consists of a 16-bit opcode and
a 16-bit operand. An ALU for performing mathematical operations. Registers ACC Accumulator; A 32-bit register involved in all arithmetic operations. One of the
operands in each arithmetic operation must be in the Accumulator; the other must be in primary storage. PSIAR Primary Storage Instruction Address Register;
This 16-bit register points to the location in primary storage of the next machine language instruction to be executed. SAR Storage Address Register; This 16-bit
register is involved in all references to primary storage. It holds the address of the location in primary storage being read from or written to. SDR Storage Data
Register; This 32-bit register is also involved in all references to primary storage. It holds the data being written to or receives the data being read from primary
storage at the location specified in the SAR. TMPR Temporary Register; This 32-bit register is used to extract the address portion (rightmost 16-bits) of the
machine instruction in the SDR so that it may be placed in the SAR. (No SDR to SAR 2 transfer.) CSIAR Control Storage Instruction Address Register; This
register points to the location of the next micro-instruction (in control storage) to be executed. IR Instruction Register; This register contains the current instruction
being executed. MIR Micro-instruction Register; This register contains the current micro-instruction...

Attach 128

129

Create an external style sheet (call it format1.css) to format as follows: document background color of white, document text color of

#000099, and document font family of Arial, Helvetica, or sans-serif. Hyperlinks should have a background color of gray (#cccccc). Configure the h1 selector to use
the Times New Roman font with red text color.

130

Password protect the database you created for your individual assignment in Week Three.

Create a matrix to indicate the permissions (read, insert, delete, modify) you would grant to different users of your database.
Create at least two different users and implement their permissions using SQL statements.

I need this information as part of the response:
The steps you took to password protect the database

The matrix

The SQL code for creating the users and implementing their permissions

Attach 130

131

Perform a benchmark analysis of the following problems:

Problem 1: Write an algorithm to classify the edges of a directed graph G into the four categories: tree edge, back edge, forward edge and cross edge (defined in
22.3 Depth First Search – Classification of edges).

Problem 2: An Euler circuit in an undirected graph is a circuit (i.e. a cycle that may go through some vertices more than once) that includes every edge exactly
once. Give an algorithm that finds an Euler circuit in a graph, or tells that the graph doesn’t have one.

Problem 3: Write a depth-first search algorithm to determine if an undirected graph has a cycle.

Problem 4: Write a breadth-first search algorithm to determine if a directed graph has a cycle

Implementation, testing and documentation required for each of the above 4 problems.

Note on SUBMITTING

1. Format: You should submit for each of the four problems: (1) all the source files (.java files under the src folder; please do not sent the class files or other files),
(2) a screenshot sample file (the output displayed while running your application to show the required functionalities) and (3) a documentation file. The
documentation should contain at least the design decisions, the test plan, the output for the runs. The documentation should be no more than two pages in length
and no less than one page. The font size should be 12 point, the page margins one inch, and the paragraphs single spaced.

2. Input data: you should test all your algorithms for at least 2 input graph data (the data does not have to be read from the input; hard-coded is good enough, for
full grade). One input data per problem is of your own choice, while the other one is mandatory as follows:

Problem 1– the directed graph G=(V, E) with the following sets of vertices and edges:

V=(A, B, C, D, E, F, G};

E={(A, D), (A, F), (B, A), (C, A), (C, B), (C, D), (C, E), (C, F), (D, B), (D, G), (E, G), (F, A), (G, E)};

Problem 2– the undirected graph G=(V, E) with the following sets of vertices and edges:

V={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10};

E={(1,2), (1,10), (2,3), (3,4), (3,6), (3,9), (4,5), (5,6), (6,7), (6,9), (7,8), (8,9), (9,10)}. Please notice that the graph is undirected; thus although an edge (n1,n2)ÎE
occurs only once in the edges set, it goes both ways, that is (n1,n2) AND (n2,n1);

Problem 3– the undirected graph G=(V, E) with the following sets of vertices and edges:

V= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

E= {(1, 2), (1, 6), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5), (5, 1),(6, 4), (6, 7)};

Problem 4– the directed graph G=(V, E) with the following sets of vertices and edges:

V=(A, B, C, D, E, F, G);

E={(A, B), (A, C), (A, F), (B, C), (B, D), (D, A), (D, C), (E, C), (E, G), (F, A), (F, C), (G, D), (G, E)}.

3. Submission: Wrap the files in an archive Prj2_your_nameP1.zip, Frj2_your_nameP2.zip, Prj2_your_nameP3.zip,and Prj2_your_nameP4.zip(containing all
the java files from your src folder, a screenshot sample and the documentation file for each of the 4 problems, separately)and attach the files.

132

Evaluation of QuickSort and HeapSort

You are required to implement correctlyand efficientlythe Heapsortand Quicksortadvanced sorting methods. You may find any necessary information and
pseudo-code in the book:

Heapsort: chapter 6 (Heapsort)

Quicksort: chapter 7 (Quicksort)

Before starting to work on the algorithms evaluation code, make sure you have a correct implementation of the algorithm. You need to show your algorithms sort
properly on a small-sized input.

1.

You are required to compare the two sorting procedures in the averagecase. For the averagecase you have to repeat the measurements m times
(m=5) and report their average. Moreover, to be a fair comparison, make sure you always use the sameinput sequence for the two methods.

2.

This is how the analysis should be performed:

- vary the dimension of the input array (n) between [100…1000], with an increment of maximum 100;

- for each dimension, generate the appropriate input sequence for the method; run the method, counting the operations (assignments, comparisons, and their
sum). Only the assignments and comparisons performed on the input structure and its corresponding auxiliary variables matter (no assignments/comparisons
on indexes have to be counted; justify why).

3.

Generate charts (1/operation measured) which compares the two methods under the total number of operations, in the averagecase. If one of the
curves cannot be visualized correctly because the other has a larger growth rate, place that curve on a separate chart as well. Name your chart and the
curves on it appropriately.

4.

Interpret the charts and write your observations, interpretation, conclusions, in a separate (document) file.

5.

Evaluate Quicksort in the bestand worstcases also – total number of operations. Compare the performance of Quicksort in the three analysis cases.
In the document file, justify the choice of the cases and interpret the results.

133

ram and rom

134

Outline the issues that Susan should consider which would support the development of a custom software application in-house.

135

hey.. I need ur help in data base assignment

Document Preview:
Assignment 2 School of Engineering and Information Technology ITECH1006/5006: Database Management Systems Aims • To analyse and comprehend a given
ER diagram and Database schema • To implement a database based on the given ER diagram and Database scheme • To write required SQL statements query
the database • Write SQL statements to manipulate the data in the database Learning Objectives In the process of this assessment task you will: • plan, schedule
and execute project tasks with a view to improving your personal productivity; • gain awareness of the typical challenges related to the practical implementation of
databases; • learn how to used Data Definition statements to implement a database from a given ER diagram and the corresponding Database schema • learn
how to use Data Manipulation statements to query a database, and insert and update data in the tables Due date: Week 11, Friday, 5pm Submit the individual
work file, named 'a2-.zip', by Week 11, Friday, 5pm via Moodle. Late submission: Any submission after the due date will receive a deduction of 10% per day, this
includes weekends. Marks: This assignment has a total 100 marks and it is worth 20% out of the total assessment. Extensions: An extension will only be
considered with supporting documentation from a health professional and if the problem/illness occurred within the week prior to the due date. If an extension is
granted the extension will then equal the number of days specified on the doctor's certificate, with a maximum limit of one week. Authorship: This assignment is an
individual assignment and it shall be completed by the individual student only. The final submission must be identifiably the work of the individual. Breaches of this
requirement will result in an assignment not being accepted for assessment and may result in the offending student or students being required to present before
the Disciplinary Committee. 1 Assignment 2 School of Engineering and Information Technology...

Attach 135

136

Write queries for the following tables.

T1 ( Empno, Ename , Salary, Designation), T2 (Empno, Deptno.)
(1) Display all rows for salary greater than 5000.
(2) Display the deptno for the ename=’syham’.
(3) Add a new column deptname in table T2.
(4) Change the designation of ename=’ram’ from ‘clerk’ to ‘senior clerk’.
(5) find the total salary of all the rows.
(6) Display Empno, Ename, Deptno and Deptname.

(7) Drop the table T1.

138

Threat Detection System. 2500 words

Document Preview:

Threat detection technologies-develop a security plan employing relevant technologies to detect contextual threats Your task is to develop a Security Plan for a
threat detection system employing relevant technologies. The Plan could be divided into the following sections: An overarching guideline Characterization of the
site and its facilities Identified of threats Specify the threat detection system using a performance criterion You are to use the (The Smith-Brooks Corporation)Case
Study Site Scenario and Plan document. Your scope shall only consider the: Production Facility Security Storage Facility Tips: You will need to make assumptions
to support your decision-making. For example, state where the facility is located, etc. Include such statements in the discussion or as a supporting spread sheet?
Given the nature of the unit, there has to be a primary focus on threat detections systems i.e., the system, detectors and sensors. Consider what we cover in the
unit and its supporting Modules. There is no need to go to great discussion on physical measure such as fencing, gates, lighting, etc., or Procedures such as
guard rosters, patrols, etc. The threat section should be brief, only to support your decision-making. Again, make assumptions to support the level of suggested
threat detection. You need to work from the supplied site plans and the physical building designs cannot altered. However, you do need to use these plans to
support your design and incorporate in the assignment. The assessment is attempting to replicate what really happens when security systems are designed!
Finally, check out the final unit Module 10 and supporting readings to give you an idea of what is expected. The Smith-Brooks Corporation Introduction The SmithBrooks Corporation is a specialised communications company that design and develop Integrated Circuit for large multinational communications companies.
Founded by Mick Grey in 1990, Smith-Brooks Co....

Attach 138

139
Assignment 3 is related to Assignment 2 and assignment 1.- Plagiarism must not be more than 10% in turnitin.- In text referencing must be APA
Styles. It is compulsory to have text referencing
Document Preview:
Assessment item Length: 4000 words (15-25 pages) Task WHAT TO DO: Write a well researched academic Capstone Project Report between 4000 words on the
chosen capstone experience and its application in your chosen organisation (35%) The purpose of this assessment is to produce a discussion that will be
supported by and include your literature review with references from respected sources from Assessment Item 2. The Capstone Project Design should
demonstrate project management skills and include experience in other areas of study where applicable. The Capstone Project Report may also have a systems
development project included in the Report. The Requirements section below has a suggested format using six (6) main heading levels to use for the layout and
organisation of the report. Ensure that the Project Report by you is your own work and has not been submitted elsewhere and comply with the University's
requirements for academic integrity. Requirements Suggested Template for the Capstone Project Report The following format with six (6) main heading levels
covers all aspects as required in the Capstone Project Report. Please insert the Literature Review as part of the report. You can adapt or modify it to suit the style
of Capstone Project that you are doing or add other heading such as an Appendix: 1. Introduction a. A definition and description of your chosen emerging
technology. b. A description of your chosen organisation, its characteristics and the industry it is part of. Clearly mention the number of employees and URL of the
organisation. c. A general overview of the organisation including technology adoption overall and how emerging technology is predominantly used within the
organisation. d. A one paragraph overview of what you intend to write in the rest of your report. e. Project Blog Web Address 2. Literature Review (2000-words)
NOTE: Include an updated version here of your Literature Review from Assessment Item 2, as the report writing...

Attach 139

140

Q. Write a program in c++ to implement virtual base class.

141

Q. Write a program in c++ to implement static member function with a class.

142

Q. What is stream in c++? Write a program in c++ to read the contents of a file and display on console output device.

143

Q. What is the meaning of operator overloading? write a program to overload unary '+' operator in c++.

144
- Assignment 3 is related to Assignment 2 and assignment 1.- Plagiarism must not be more than 10% in turnitin.- In text referencing must be APA
Styles. It is compulsory to have text referencing.-Assignment 3 - Requirement.docx (is the requirement of Assignment and assignment must be made in this
templates (systemwide_req_spec andvision)Document Preview:
The three assignments in this subject have been designed to reflect an iterative discovery process, with successive assignments building on what has gone before
and demonstrating an increasing understanding of the requirements for the proposed system. Guide to length: 3,000 words. Updated project vision - 6 % This
should link back to assignment 1 in regards to the headspace business, to the functional requirements of assignment 2 and now provide a more complete vision
by also incorporating the non-functional requirements and the fuller understanding of the vision students have now gained. Non-functional requirements
specification – 15% We have been learning about the FURPS+ acronym, as summarised in the text (pp 45-46). The ‘F’ part was dealt with in assignment 2, the
focus here is on the ‘URPS+’, that is, usability, reliability, performance, security and extending it to consider additional aspects. 3 marks for each of the 5 parts (U,
R, P, S, and +). Validation andprojectmanagementconsiderations – 5 % For this assignment we are limiting validation to validating use cases described in
assignment 2. Return to the use cases you identified in that assignment and demonstrate whether you still think they are valid or not. Project management is only
introduced in this subject and then formally covered in later subjects. Hence here we only want students to foreshadow considerations, such as budget and other
resources required, and possible timelines for project completion. 2 % – Validation of assignment 2 use cases. 3 % – Project management considerations.
Presentation, writing style, grammar and references - 4 % Students are encouraged to use the OpenUP templates for “Vision” and “System-Wide Requirements
Specification”. If you use the “System-Wide Requirements Specification” template please be sure to change the “3.4 Supportability” to “3.4 Security” (ie, we are
following the text book, in which the “S” in FURPS+ is Security, not Supportability). 2 marks...

Attach 144

145

Q. What do you mean by re-usability? Explain the concept of multiple inheritance. Also, write a c++ program to implement multiple inheritance.

146

Q. What is an inline function? Write a program in c++ to implement inline function

147

Q. Write a program in c++ to implement overloading of functions.

148

Q. Write a program in c++ to implement multiple catch statements with exception handling.

149

Q. Write a program in c++ to implement the handling of exception divide by zero error.

150

Q. Write a program in c++ to implement copy constructure

151

Write a program to implement Multi Linked List

152

Write a program to implement Railway Reservation System.

153

Write a program to execute file handing of upper and case alphabets.

154

Write a program to reverse a string using str functions.

155

Write a program to count number of alphabets in a string.

156

Write a program to multiply two matrices.

157

Write a program to calculate the largest and smallest number in an array.

158

Write a program to count the number of vowels and consonants in a string.

159

Write a program to check whether a 2-D matrix is Symmetric or not.

160

. Write a program to calculate sum of diagnols of a 2-D matrix.

161

Write a program to convert a lower case string to upper case string and vice versa.

162

Write a program to calculate mean, standard deviation and variance from an array of numbers.

163

Write a program to check whether a string is palindrome or not without using str functions.

164

Write a program to insert an element in an array of numbers at a specified position .

165

1. Write a program to delete an element from an array of numbers.

166

W Mart keeps track of a customer through a unique customer ID. W Mart gives one reward point for every $100 spent irrespective of the number of

transactions. The points accumulate over the time for a customer for his/her purchases. Finally, for each 100 reward points it gives an additional discount of $10 on
a purchase over $10 in a transaction.

167

What is constructor

168

I need it as soon as possible

Attach 168

169

Figure 4-72 represents a relative-magnitude detector that takes two three-bit binary numbers, x2x1x0and y2y=y0, and determines whether they are

equal and, if not, which one is larger. There are three outputs, defined as follows:

170

Go to the web page of the top 500 parallel computers. Give an overview of the properties of each of the first 10 on the list (half a page per

system).http://www.top500.org/lists/2015/06/

171

Credit card numbers follow certain patterns. A credit card number must have between 13 and 16 digits. It must start with: 4 for Visa cards 5 for Master

cards 37 for American Express cards 6 for Discover cards In 1954, Hans Luhn of IBM proposed an algorithm for validating credit card numbers. The algorithm is
useful to determine if a card number is entered correctly or if a credit card is scanned correctly by a scanner. Almost all credit card numbers are generated
following this validity check, commonly known as the Luhn check or the Mod 10 check, which can be described as follows (for illustration, consider the card
number 4388576018402626): 1. Double every second digit from right to left. If doubling of a digit results in a twodigit number, add up the two digits to get a singledigit number. 2 * 2 = 4 2 * 2 = 4 4 * 2 = 8 1 * 2 = 2 6 * 2 = 12 (1 + 2 = 3) 5 * 2 = 10 (1 + 0 = 1) 8 * 2 = 16 (1 + 6 = 7) 4 * 2 = 8 2. Now add all single-digit numbers
from Step 1. 4 + 4 + 8 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 7 + 8 = 37 3. Add all digits in the odd places from right to left in the card number. 6 + 6 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 7 + 8 + 3 = 38 4. Sum the
results from Step 2 and Step 3. 37 + 38 = 75 5. If the result from Step 4 is divisible by 10, the card number is valid; otherwise, it is invalid. For example, the number

4388576018402626 is invalid, but the number 4388576018410707 is valid. Write a program that prompts the user to enter a credit card number as a long integer.
Display whether the number is valid or invalid. Your program should meet the following requirements: - Allow user to enter number of credit cards that they would
like to check. You should repeat the process until user finish checking all the credit cards - Use methods to develop above program NOTE: You are required to
submit softcopy of assignment to LMS (Edu2.0) and hard copy by 30 MARCH 2015 during the lecture class. Your hardcopy of assignment should also include the
print screen of your program testings.

172

You are required to develop 1. Develop Problem Analysis Chart (PAC) (5 marks) 2. Interactivity Chart (5 marks) 3. Input Process Output Chart(IPO) (5

marks) 4. Algorithms and Flowcharts for the following problem: (10 marks) A program that prompts the user to enter the minutes (e.g., 1 billion), and displays the
number of years and days for the minutes. For simplicity, assume a year has 365 days. Here is a sample run: Enter the number of minutes: 1000000000 minutes is
approximately 1902 years and 214 days 1. Write a JAVA program for the above mentioned problem. (25 marks)

173

Function Overloading

Document Preview:
Modify the program below to demonstrate the function overloading, i.e., using the same function name (addNumbers) to handle the following inputs: (1) Add two
int numbers. (2) Add an int number and a double number. (3) Add three float numbers. Inside the main function, you should test the overloaded function with
various inputs. #include using namespace std; int addNumbers(int p1, int p2); int main() { int x, y; cout << "Enter an integer value for x: " << endl; cin >> x; cout <<
"Enter an integer value for y: " << endl; cin >> y; cout << "(x+y): " << addNumbers(x, y) << endl; return 0; } int addNumbers(int p1, int p2) { int answer; answer = p1
+ p2; return answer; }

Attach 173

174

Q. Compare and contrast datagram and virtual circuit packet switching. Use your own words and do not copy directly from any source, including the

textbook.

175

Q. A company has been granted a block of addresses which starts at 220.20.10.0/24. Create the following 8 subnets for this company: (a) 2 subnets

with 64 addresses each (b) 2 subnets with 32 addresses each (c) 4 subnets with 16 addresses each

176

Q. Why do route changes in RIP take long time to propagate?

177

Q. What is the maximum size of the IPv4 header?

178

Q. Why is path MTU discovery required in IPv6?

179

Q. Which address would a router use to send a packet to all other hosts on its subnet?

180

Q. When is a DNS response classifieds as a non-authoritative?

181

Q. What is the purpose of the hop limit field in the base header of an IPv6 datagram?

182

Q. What is the difference between the primary and the secondary DNS servers?

183

Q. What is size of the port address field in a UDP header?.

184

Q. Name three transport layer protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite.

185

Q. How many sequence numbers are consumed by an ACK segment that is carrying no data?

186

Q. How many equal-sized subnets can be created in a class C network by a subnet mask of /27?

187

Q. How does the destination know whether a datagram received is fragmented or not?

188

Q. An organization has been granted a block of addresses with the mask /22. If the organization creates 8 equal-sized subnets, how many addresses

(including the special addresses) are available in each subnet?

189

Q. An IPv4 router receives a datagram which is bigger than the Maximum Transfer Unit of the next network. Under what condition can the router

fragment this packet?

190

basic programming

Document Preview:
codeComprehension/orders.txtwomens sandals 1011 6 78.00 red 12 womens runners 2231 7 128.00 white 5 mens boat 7124 8 35.00 leather 3 mens dress 6122
11 165.00 black 0 childs sandals 3331 1 25.00 silver 6 childs school 2121 4 69.00 black 7 womens dress 4321 7 99.99 blue 2 womens sandals 2223 6 67.95
brown 5 childs school 2123 6 59.95 black 9 mens runners 53423 8 189.00 blue 5 childs runner 44453 3 59.95 orange 2 codeComprehension/Shoe.javapackage
sampleAssignment2; public class Shoe { private String style; private int size; private int code; private String category; private String color; private double price;
public Shoe(){ style=""; size=0; code=0; category=""; color=""; price=0.0; } public Shoe(String aCategory, String aStyle, int aCode, int aSize, double aPrice, String
aColor){ category = aCategory; style=aStyle; size=aSize; code=aCode; price=aPrice; color=aColor; } public String getColor() { return color; } public void
setColor(String color) { this.color = color; } public String getStyle() { return style; } public void setStyle(String style) { this.style = style; } public int getSize() { return
size; } public void setSize(int size) { this.size = size; } public int getCode() { return code; } public void setCode(int code) { this.code = code; } public String
getCategory() { return category; } public void setCategory(String aCategory) { this.category = aCategory; } public double getPrice() { return price; } public void
setPrice(double price) { this.price = price; } public int compareTo(Shoe anotherShoe){ if (this.getCode() > anotherShoe.getCode()) return 1; else if (this.getCode() <
anotherShoe.getCode()) return -1; else return 0; } public String toString(){ return code + "\t" + category + "\t" + style + "\t" + size + "\t" + price + "\t"...

Attach 190

191

bassice programming assessment

Document Preview:

codeComprehension/orders.txtwomens sandals 1011 6 78.00 red 12 womens runners 2231 7 128.00 white 5 mens boat 7124 8 35.00 leather 3 mens dress 6122
11 165.00 black 0 childs sandals 3331 1 25.00 silver 6 childs school 2121 4 69.00 black 7 womens dress 4321 7 99.99 blue 2 womens sandals 2223 6 67.95
brown 5 childs school 2123 6 59.95 black 9 mens runners 53423 8 189.00 blue 5 childs runner 44453 3 59.95 orange 2 codeComprehension/Shoe.javapackage
sampleAssignment2; public class Shoe { private String style; private int size; private int code; private String category; private String color; private double price;
public Shoe(){ style=""; size=0; code=0; category=""; color=""; price=0.0; } public Shoe(String aCategory, String aStyle, int aCode, int aSize, double aPrice, String
aColor){ category = aCategory; style=aStyle; size=aSize; code=aCode; price=aPrice; color=aColor; } public String getColor() { return color; } public void
setColor(String color) { this.color = color; } public String getStyle() { return style; } public void setStyle(String style) { this.style = style; } public int getSize() { return
size; } public void setSize(int size) { this.size = size; } public int getCode() { return code; } public void setCode(int code) { this.code = code; } public String
getCategory() { return category; } public void setCategory(String aCategory) { this.category = aCategory; } public double getPrice() { return price; } public void
setPrice(double price) { this.price = price; } public int compareTo(Shoe anotherShoe){ if (this.getCode() > anotherShoe.getCode()) return 1; else if (this.getCode() <
anotherShoe.getCode()) return -1; else return 0; } public String toString(){ return code + "\t" + category + "\t" + style + "\t" + size + "\t" + price + "\t"...

Attach 191

192

Draw a dependency diagram to show the functional dependencies in the relation

2. Decompose GRADE REPORT into a set of 3NF relations
3. Draw a relational schema for your 3NF relations and show the referential integrity constraints

193

The Linux System Linux History Design Principles Kernel Modules Process Management Scheduling Memory Management File Systems Input and

Output Interprocess Communication Network Structure Security

194

Task Description

You are to write a scholarly essay that critically evaluates the benefits and costs associated with developing a website. Also discuss the development of a
corresponding mobile website and discuss how the two differ and what costs benefits arise from developing both.
You should make a case for when the developing of an ASP.NET website is economically viable.
Document Preview:
Written Assessment task 3 Due date: 5:00pm AEST, Friday Week 12 ASSESSMENT Weighting: 15% 3 Length: 1,500-2,000 words Objectives This assessment
item relates to the course learning outcome numbers 4 and 5. More specifically, the objective of this assignment is for students to: Discuss the establishment of a
web presence for a small business and discuss the threats and opportunities in doing so. Details You are to write a scholarly report that critically evaluates the
benefits and costs associated with developing a website for a small business called “Let’s party!”. You should make a case for when the developing of an ASP.NET
website is economically viable. Compare other website development technologies and present the recent trends in website development. Also discuss the
development of a corresponding mobile website and discuss how the two differ and what costs benefits arise from developing both. You should submit your report
online using the Moodle learning system. All sources must be properly referenced. Use the following marking scheme to guide your report. Assessment criteria
Assessment Item 3 – 15 marks Marking Sheet To be attached to your assignment NAME: _____________________________ COURSE: COIT20231 Overall
Performance MARK / 15: Poor Good Excellent Mark Presentation - 4 Structure, grammar, spelling, referencing Poor structure, grammar, use of referencing and
spelling Some problem No problems 0 1 1 3 3 4 Introductory arguments - 2 Well defined introduction to what report is about Poorly introduced and defined At least
two papers adequately covered Excellent introduction 0 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.5 2 Report body - 7 Comprehensive summary of 3 relevant papers Research questions
addressed Comprehensive analysis of types and scopes of research Comprehensive evaluation of 3...

Attach 194

195

Many large, well-established hardware, software and consulting companies such as Cisco, Dell, IBM, HP, Microsoft, SAP and others are creating

massive cloud computing endeavors, often with what are termed, “virtualized resources.” Research cloud computing, in depth, and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of this type of computing to the organization.1 PAGE

196

Choose the best software development method for each of these listed; Joint Application Development (JAD), Rapid Application Development (RAD),

Extreme Programming (XP), Software Prototyping, and Open-Source Development

197

Which of the following is a reason for giving a Page Quality rating of Highest? (A) The page could be Vital for a particular query. (B) The page has no

Ads. (C) The website has an excellent reputation from experts. (D) The page has extremely high quality content and the author is an acknowledged expert in the
topic This question may have more than one answer. JUSTIFY

198

Organizations must ensure the security and control of systems and transactions with clients and vendors. Why is it important to ensure a proper level

of security?

199

Organizations must ensure the security and control of systems and transactions with clients and vendors. What security breaches may cause harm to

an organization or its clients?

200

Organizations must ensure the security and control of systems and transactions with clients and vendors. What tools are available to prevent

breaches?

201

why is it important to clearly define the data requirements of a database before creating it?JUSTIFY

202

By using accounting software, consider what you think is needed when purchasing a software solution for a company to manage both accounting and

payroll needs. What about having up-to-date state and federal payroll tax tables available to the system, or keeping track of human resource data?

203

How would compliance have prevented the attack against Adagia Telecom? Should Adagia report this attack to law enforcement? Why or Why not? If

the crime is reported, what challenges might law enforcement have in finding the perpetrator and prosecuting the case?

204

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) maintains the standards for HTML. What other projects does it currently maintain? Give a description of one

of its other projects

205

After you have answered the initial discussion question thoroughly and completely, let's look at the impact of a website on the bottom-line. We've seen

so far that while some websites are fantastic, others can be frustrating. Some studies have shown that users decide within the first 10 seconds whether to continue
using a site or to go somewhere else. What is the impact of a less-than-stellar website on its company's bottom line? What about customer loyalty?

206

SQL is the standard language for relational database management systems. Although all vendors comply with the ANSI (American National Standards

Institute) standard for SQL, is there much dissimilarity in the way they implement the standard? What are the ramifications of these dissimilarities?

207

The W3C also seems to update the code quite frequently. What advantages and disadvantages are there to this? Can this possibly benefit those who

write browser software? Please provide sources of all my questions

208

Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle are indeed big players in the database market. How does each of these vendors differentiate itself from the others? Do

they offer different database products? Do their database platforms have different features? Please add the source.

209

Clearly discuss the impacts/effects, if any, on national security due to government regulation required to be implemented by private industry. Clearly

discuss whether private industry now has a responsibility to protect national security through implementing good cyber security controls imposed by government
regulation. Describe real-world examples that help support your discussion.

210

Clearly discuss the impacts/effects, if any, on national security due to government regulation required to be implemented by private industry. Clearly

discuss effects on national security that might result from (a) failure to comply with cyber regulations or requirements, (b) meeting only the minimum requirements,
and (c) exceeding the minimum requirements.

211

When designing database tables, the difference between a good design and a bad design can be a few seconds in response time and several

minutes. You may think that this is not a huge difference, but imagine waiting several minutes on a web page for your results to load. How long would you wait

212

Description:

The cloud can facilitate users to have simple and easy maintenance, no capitalinvestment, provide infinite computing power and high volume of data storage for
their application needs. In spite of these advantages of cloud some sensitive applications havevarious specific challenges, during cloud implementation, such as
security, privacy, accountability, auditability, and transparency for their transferred/stored data in the cloud.

In this assignment you are required to select any one of the following application and present the challenges in implementing the application in cloud environment
based on the referred research papers.

Each member in a team is required to refer at least 1 journal paper or 2 conference papers. Therefore, a team will have to refer at least 2 journal papers or 4
conference papers.

My topic is Data Mining Application(Telecommunications Industry)

213

IN what way may the WBS be used as a key document to monitor and control a project? how are the work break down structure and change control

connected? what are some of the key environmental forces that have change the way project are managed? what has been the effect of these forces on the
management of project?

214

Give your general description of the kerberos authentication protocol

215

Choose one area of rapid technological change in IT or Computer Science, research and report on recent developments and the outlook for the future

in the area that you have chosen. You will need to provide both in text citations and bibliography entries according to Faculty of Business policy (APA format). Your
report should be around 500 words. [10 marks]

216

CSC2406 Assignment Two

Due: Midnight 21 October AEST, 2015

Main Menu
· StudyDesk
· Resource Home
· Introduction
· Contact
· Study Book
· Lectures
· Practicals
· Assignments
· Resources
InAssignment One, you set up the basic design of the site, now you must expand the functionality of the site by adding PHP scripts.
Design
All new pages created for this assignment must conform to the design criterion you established forAssignment One.
All the pages you created in Assignment One should also be present in Assignment Two not just the new pages or modified pages.
Required Tasks and Elements
Assignment 1 Concepts
Marks will be deducted for failure to adhere to the concepts already marked in Assignment One. E.g.,

·Pay attention to your PHP coding style, e.g., your code should:
Be simple and elegant,

Be documented, e.g., comments at top of each document and on major sections,

Use appropriate variable/types names,

Use an appropriate layout, e.g., consistent indentation and use of white space.

Appropriately structured, modular, reusable etc.
·Pay attention to the coding style of any new, modified or “PHP generated” XHTML or CSS files (as detailed in Assignment One).
·All new pages created for this assignment, and that includes dynamic pages created by PHP scripts must be in the same design style as all the pages
inAssignment One
·This assignment must work on a Debian GNU/Linux machine running Firefox or a Firefox clone.
·Your PHP scripts must work using the supplied version of PHP—the supplied version of PHP does not have any extra modules compiled in—it is the vanilla PHP
with the calendar module only.
·All URLs must work and be relative.
·Use CSS not XHTML attributes for presentation and style.
·All pages produced should be valid XHTML.
Conference Registration Page
Modify your Assignment One to add a new section: a registration section that allows a person to register for the conference.
·Create a directory called registration. All files for registration should be placed in this directory.
·Create a static XHTML page for conference registration and place the page in the registration directory.
·Add appropriate links to this page on your site.

·The registration page is a form that asks the participant for his or her registration details. Information required for conference registration will be:
Full Name

Contact Email Address

Name of the Person's Institution

Credit Card type

Credit Card Number

Expiry Date of Credit Card

·Use the appropriate XHTML INPUT types. The TEXT input type is not the most appropriate type in all cases.
·The POST method should be used to send the data to the script that will process the data.
·Input error checking must be done by the script. (But do not worry about validating the Credit Card number— to do that properly you would have to calculate the
checksum using the Luhn Algorithm)
·One script will be written that will take the information from the page and append it to a CSV (Comma Separated Values — seethe note at the end) text file. One
registered participant per line. The text file and the script should reside in the registration directory with the Forms page.
·The payment data file should be password protected from download. The username/password pair that should be used to protect the file should be
`payments/1234'. For this assignment place the password file in the registrationdirectory. This file should also be protected from accidental or malicious download
by anyone by the appropriate configuration directives.
·If the registration information is accepted a polite message should be returned to the client telling them they have successfully registered.
·If the registration is not accepted an informative error message must be supplied explaining why it has not been accepted.
Paper abstract submission and listing page.
A page to list all the papers to be presented or submit a title and abstract of a paper to be presented.
·Create a directory called papers. All files for this section are to be placed in this directory.
·Create one PHP script to dynamically display papers or accept papers.
·Add appropriate links to this script on your site.
·Everything following is to be dynamically created by one PHP script.
Script details

·Without input the script should display a default page that offers two choices:
A button or link to list all the titles and authors of all the currently submitted papers and

a form for paper title and abstract submission.

·Submission Option on the default page:

The title and abstract submission form on the default submission page should have three fields
§ A field to enter the names of all of the authors.
§ A field to enter the name of the principal author. This is the person who will be presenting the paper at the conference. The principal author's name should be one
of the names in the first field.
§ Field to enter the contact email address of the principal author.
§ Field to enter the title of the paper.
§ A text-area to enter the abstract of the paper.

§ The POST method should be used to send the data to the script.
The script will accept the form information and write the abstract of the paper to a text file. One file - one abstract. The name of the file
must be unique (See Notes at end). The remaining information will be appended to a CVS text file. Each line of the file will contain the principal author, contact

email-address, the authors, the title and the name of the file containing the abstract.
Only people who have been registered for the conference should be allowed to present a paper. If the principal author has not registered
for the conference the script should not accept the submission, return a polite message and a link to the registration page.

Use the email address of the principal author to check if the principal author exists in the registration file.

Input error checking must be done by the PHP script.

·List Option on the default submission page:
When this option is selected from the default page the script should list the authors and titles of all the accepted papers.

Each listed paper should have a link to the abstract of that paper.


If the abstract link is selected then the script will display ALL the information about that one paper. That is - the principal author, the
authors, the title and the abstract.
The GET method should be used to tell the script which paper to display.
Documentation
·Discuss the purpose of the PHP procedures that you have written.
·Include links in your site-map documentation to all (non-XHTML) source code files, e.g., PHP, CSS.
Note:
Error Checking
·Your scripts should check all input for validity.
·List your checks in the site-map documentation.
Marking Scheme
New sections conform to site's overall design

10

Conference Registration Page

10

Conference Registration Script

20

Paper Script—Paper submission

20

Paper Script—Registration validation

10

Paper Script—Listing of submitted papers

10

Paper Script—Display selected abstract

10

Documentation

10

Total

100

Notes:
·CGI scripts are to be written in PHP. No other language will be accepted— as learning PHP is part of the course.
·Study the example scripts supplied with the server and that can be found in the practicals.
·There are many repeated tasks. Try and use functions wherever possible so that coding can be minimised.
·CSV or “Comma Separated Values” files are an application independent way of organising data for spreadsheets. See the PHP functionsfgetcsv(),fputcsv()
andstr_getcsv().
·The following function is an example of a simple way to create a unique filename in a directory
·#
· # usage
· # $filename = uniquefn("abstract","ab");
· # will return filenames of the form:
· # ab/abstract001
· # ab/abstract002
· # ...
·#
· function uniquefn($prefix="tmpfile", $dir=".")
·{
· $max_files = 100;
·
· if( ! is_dir($dir) ) {
· return NULL;
·}
·
· $count = 1;
· do {
·
· $filename = sprintf("%s/%s_%03u","$dir","$prefix",$count);
· $count++;
· if( $count > $max_files ) {
· return NULL;
·}
· } while( file_exists("$filename") );
·
· return $filename;
·}
·
·Do Not use global server configuration directives as the directives will Not be submitted with the assignment. Directory configuration files should be used in the
directories that require them.
·Some of the server file configuration directives in directive configuration files must be absolute. For example, the path to a password or group file. This is the only
place where absolute pathnames should ever be used.

217

Attach 217

218

Convert the following decimal numbers to BCD code and the attach an odd parity.

219

Write a Java program (calledPractice_6_2) that uses nested loops to print out the following shape.

220

Operating System assignment

Document Preview:
1 CISC 640 Nova Southeastern University OS Problem Set Introduction The following machine description will provide the basis for this assignment. You will
create a virtual machine/operating system for the machine described below that will accept programs in the target machine language. The details for this
assignment are presented below following the machine description. MICROPROGRAMMING/MACHINE DISCRIPTION The following is a description of a
machine called SIMMAC that contains the following: 512 32-bit words of memory (memory is word addressable). Each Instruction consists of a 16-bit opcode and
a 16-bit operand. An ALU for performing mathematical operations. Registers ACC Accumulator; A 32-bit register involved in all arithmetic operations. One of the
operands in each arithmetic operation must be in the Accumulator; the other must be in primary storage. PSIAR Primary Storage Instruction Address Register;
This 16-bit register points to the location in primary storage of the next machine language instruction to be executed. SAR Storage Address Register; This 16-bit
register is involved in all references to primary storage. It holds the address of the location in primary storage being read from or written to. SDR Storage Data
Register; This 32-bit register is also involved in all references to primary storage. It holds the data being written to or receives the data being read from primary
storage at the location specified in the SAR. TMPR Temporary Register; This 32-bit register is used to extract the address portion (rightmost 16-bits) of the
machine instruction in the SDR so that it may be placed in the SAR. (No SDR to SAR 2 transfer.) CSIAR Control Storage Instruction Address Register; This
register points to the location of the next micro-instruction (in control storage) to be executed. IR Instruction Register; This register contains the current instruction
being executed. MIR Micro-instruction Register; This register contains the current micro-instruction...

Attach 220

221

1. Give some advantages and disadvantages of combining the session, presentation, and application layer in the OSI model into one single

application layer in the Internet model.

2. Dialog control and synchronization are two responsibilities of the session layer in the OSI model. Which layer do you think is responsible for these duties in the
Internet model? Explain your answer.

3. Translation, encryption, and compression are some of the duties of the presentation layer in the OSI model. Which layer do you think is responsible for these
duties in the Internet model? Explain your answer.

222

Using the Turtle introduced in Exercise 29, draw three nested rectangles.

223

Which of the following refers to the case that contains and protects the motherboard?

224

Most of the larger companies have ERDs and databases. What is the importance and advantage(s) of data modeling? 4 line or more

225

How do ERDs fit into physical design? Is it necessary to separate the conceptual process from the physical process?

226

Modify the columns in the table to be in first normal form. Employee Department DeptLocation Joe Smith 1234 3333 Mocking Bird Lane, London,

England Mary Miller 1234 3333 Mocking Bird Lane, London, England Tom Hanson 1072 1071 5th Avenue, New York, NY 10128 Sue Hass 0943 PO Box 1880,
Tombstone, AZ 85638

227

What challenges are posed by enterprise applications? Please respond with at least -100 words.

228

Search the Internet for good examples of cases that involve ethical issues and the abuse of privacy. Provide a review and analysis of your findings

and identify your sources (URLs).

229

In Assignment2, you are to create two ER diagrams. The two attached documents describe the requirements for each of the two ER

diagrams. You should complete the ER diagram for part 2a first, then complete the ER diagram for part 2b. Both ER diagams should be placed in a single pdf
file for submission to Blackboard. The third attached document titled "Supplemental Material" will be used in GoToTraining live sessions

Document Preview:
Assignment 2a A data model for training is needed for the following requirements. There are a minimum of two instructors and a maximum of 30 instructors in
each semester term. There are three semester terms per each academic year. There are up to five courses offered per semester term (each course is a unique
CRN). Each semester term has at least one course offered. Each semester term has a minimum enrollment of 15 students and a maximum enrollment of 100
students. Each course has at least one assigned instructor. Occasionally, a course will be assigned two instructors. An instructor cannot teach more than two
courses per semester term. An instructor may not be assigned any courses. An instructor will be expected to teach in many semesters. In addition to teaching
courses, each instructor may be assigned to do a research project. Any assigned research projects must be started and completed within a single semester term.
An instructor will be assigned no more than one research project per semester term. Each course has a minimum enrollment of five students and a maximum
enrollment of 30 students. Each student is required to take one course per term and may take up to three courses per term. Each student will enroll in many terms.
Required: Develop an Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram that represents the necessary entities and their relationships including entity names, relationship names,
relationship direction arrows, and multiplicity notation for each entity in each relationship. DO NOT assign primary keys (PKs), foreign keys (FKs), or attributes.

Attach 229

230

Write a program to find solutions to the n-queens puzzle for various valuesof n. To be specific, test your program for ?? = 4 and ?? = 8.

231

please read assignment.docx as the question and the concept.pptx as the hint for assignemnt

Document Preview:
DHCP Computers attached to a TCP/IP network must know the following information IP address subnet mask IP address of a router IP address of a name server
This information is usually stored on disk, however with diskless devices or devices that are booted for the first time, this information must be obtain from the
network BOOTP – Bootstrap Protocol a client/server protocol designed to provides the necessary information BOOTP Packet Format BOOTP Fields Operation
code 8-bit field defines the type of BOOTP packet: request(1) or reply (2) Hardware type 8-bit field defines the type of physical network (Ethernet is 1) Hardware
length 8-bit field defines the length of the physical address in bytes (Ethernet is 6) Hop count 8-bit field defines the maximum number of hops the packet can travel
BOOTP Fields (cont.) Transaction ID 4-byte field identifies the transaction so the server returns the same value in the reply Number of seconds 16-bit field
indicates the number of seconds elapsed since the time the client started to boot Client IP address 4-byte field contains client IP, 0 if client does not have it Your IP
address 4-byte field contains the client IP address, filled by the server (in reply message) BOOTP Fields (cont.) Server IP address 4-byte field contains the server
IP, filled by the server in reply message Gateway IP address 4-byte field contain the IP of a router, filled by the server in the reply message Client hardware
address 16-byte field; physical address of the client Server name 64-byte field; optional, filled by the server in a reply packet; domain name of server BOOTP
Fields (cont.) Boot filename 128-byte field; optional, filled by server in reply packet; full pathname of boot file Options 64-byte field; can carry either additional
information (such as network mask or default router address) or some specific vendor information; used only in the reply message BOOTP Operation UDP Ports
Client's use a...

Attach 231

232

Q. Write a C++ program to find the sum of digits of a number reducing it to one digit.

233

Q. Write a program to access a structure declared in other file using extern keyword in 'c' language

234

Q. Write a program to access a structure declared in other file using extern keyword in 'c' language

235

Q. State the difference between typedef struct and struct definition.

236

Q. Why does C need “struct” keyword and not C++?

237

Q. Explain the difference between structured programming language and object oriented programming language

238

Q. What is Self-Referential Structures? Explain the connecting nodes by Self-Referential Structures.

239

Q. How we can allocate structure dynamically? Also explain the bit field.

240

Q. Explain the structure pointer with suitable example.

241

Q. What is nested structure? Explain it with suitable example.

242

Q. Write a program in ‘c++’ by using the structure to wrap student information and manipulate it by reading information to an array of student structure

and print them on to console screen.

243

what is function of preorder traversal of binary tree using linked list

244

Do all of these major database vendors comply with the ANSI standard for SQL? Are there differences in the way they implement the standard?

245

With more and more project teams being formed in matrix format, what changes need to be made to your company's incentive, pay, and reward

processes?150

246

Managerial AIS Policy What about the embedding of RFID tags in products such as clothing?

247

With the exception of Subtype-supertype relationships, most of the different types of entities is use to determine how the Primary and foreign keys are

constructed.

248

One of the biggest risks that companies face is advanced persistent threats. Discuss the most effective way to implement policies that mitigate the

chance of an insider either taking part in or facilitating an advanced persistent threat. Integrate the concept of separation of duties into your discussion.

249

What were some of the key factors that led to the adoption of SDLC in software and information system development? When was it first introduced,

and when was it widely adopted?

250
question 1You are required in your new role as an Enterprise Architect (EA) to do aSWOT Analysis of a current ICT servicein an organization. The
default organization is Charles Sturt University, but you can substitute another known entity such as your current workplace
Summary and Recommendations:
[Summarise your SWOT results to review goals and objectives]
Short Term (Now)
What action would you take now? [For example comparison with competitors; alignment with the business model or strategic plan goals and objectives].
Mid Term (next 12 months)
How can you take advantage of strengths and use them to develop new opportunities such as new service delivery relationships with ICT vendors and products?
Long Term (next 3 to 5 years)
How would you map out an action plan for the longer term?
question 2
write a 5 page report on one of the following topics:

Possible topics
Your attention in this paper can be focused on any of the following topics covered in our text:
• Information Management / IT Architecture.
• Database, Data, Warehouse, and Data Mining.
• Networks, Collaboration, and Sustainability.
• CyberSecurity, Compliance, and Business Continuity.
• E-Business & E-Commerce Models and Strategies.
• Mobile Technologies and Commerce.
• Social Media.
• Enterprise Systems and Applications.
• Performance Management Using Data Visualization, Mashups, and Mobile Intelligence
</pstyle="font-size:>

251

Research information on external IT. what external IT is, how external IT is used, and the pros and cons of external IT. i mean database based n

internet. what is no good/good about keeping database on extranet. and problems of current system, can you write 3-4 pages about it. And please DO NOT copy
paste and its gonna be APA style.

252

Case study: Gem Infosys a small software company has decided to better secure their computer systems after a malware attack shut down their

network operations for two full days. The organization uses a firewall, three file servers, two web servers, one Windows 2008 Active Directory server for user
access and authentication, ten PCs and a broadband connection to the Internet. The management at Gem needs you to formulate an incident response policy to
reduce network down-time if future incidents occur. Develop an incident response policy that covers the development of incident response team, disaster recovery
process and business continuity planning. This assignment requires 2 to 3 pages in length (500 words minimum), based upon the APA style of writing. Use
transition words, thesis statement, Introduction, Body, Conclusion and Reference Page with at least two references. Double spaced Arial 12 Font.

253

Give the snippets through which we can understand which is constructor and which one is method?

254

Explain clearly about the constructor ?

255

Q. Differentiate between memory mapped I/O vs I/o mapped I/O.

256

Q. What do you mean by DMA data transfer? Draw the diagram for different components of computer interfacing with DMA.

257

Q. What are interrupts? Explain different types of interrupts.

258

Q. Write Short Notes on any three of the followings. (i) Cycle stealing DMA operation. (ii) Software and hardware interrupt. (iii) Locality of reference (iv)

Isolated Vs memory mapped I/O.

259

Q. Explain in detail the associative mappings used for cache memory.

260

Q. Consider a cache (M1) and memory (M2) hierarchy with the following characteristics: M1 : 16 K words, 50 ns access time M2 : 1 M words, 400 ns

access time Assume 8 words cache blocks and a set size of 256 words with set associative mapping. Show the mapping between M2 and M1 and calculate the
Effective Memory Access time with a cache hit ratio of h = .95.

261

Look into the API documentation of the Rectangle class and locate the method

voidadd(intnewx,intnewy)
Read through the method documentation. Then determine the result of the following statements:

Rectanglebox=newRectangle(5,10,20,30);box.add(0,0);

262

Q. A virtual memory system has an address space of 8k words, memory space of 4k words and Page & Block size of 1k words. The following page

reference changes occur during a given time interval. 4, 2, 0, 1, 2, 6, 1, 4, 0, 1, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7 Determine the four pages that are resident in main memory after each
Page reference change if the replacement algorithm used is FIFO and LRU.

263

Q. What do you mean by initialization of DMA controller? How DMA controller works? Explain with suitable block diagram.

264

Q. Design a Three-bit array multiplier. Use AND gates and binary address.

265

Q. With neat flow chart discuss the procedure for floating point multiplication. Explain with the help of an example.

266

Q. With the help of a neat sketch, explain the working of a 4-bit universal shift register.

267

Q. What is vector processing? Draw the detailed diagram of vector register architecture of n register in vector computing.

268

Q. What do you mean by arithmetic pipelining ? Write an example for arithmetic pipeline for floating point adder. Also, mention the problems and

solutions of instruction pipelining.

269

Q. Explain the Characteristics of CISC architecture. Write down the performance equation of the general type of architecture.

270

Q. Explain the RISC architecture. Also mention the characteristics of RISC.

271

Q. What is a micro program sequencer? With block diagram, explain the working of micro program sequencer.

272

Q. Formulate a four segment instruction pipeline for a computer. Specify the operation to be performed in each segment.

273

Q. What do you mean by Fetch cycle, instruction cycle, machine cycle, interrupt acknowledgement cycle?

274

Q. Convert the following arithmetic expression from infix notation to RPN. A*B + B* (B*D+C*E)

275

Q. Explain the significance of different fields of an instruction with an example.

276

Q. Convert the following arithmetic expression from reverse polish notation to infix notation: ABXYZ+*–/. Write a program using three address

instruction to evaluate the same

277

Thread

278

Q. Explain arithmetic types of micro-operation. Show the hardware realization of decrements micro-operation. i.e. T1:X ?X – 1.

279

Q. How can we minimize the problems occurring due to the branch instructions?

280

Q. Explain the concept of bus and memory transfer in detail. Also mention register assignment by bus.

281

Q. What do you mean by micro operation? Write down the different types of micro operations.

282

Q. What is three state table buffer? Show the construction of three state table buffer by diagram.

283

Q. Explain the Von Neumann architecture of single processor system. Also give architectural diagram.

284

If a T1 carrier system slips and loses track of where it is, it tries to resynchronize using the first bit in each frame. How many frames will have to be

inspected on average to resynchronize with a probability of 0.001 of being wrong?

285

class Demo { void Demo() { ------- ------- } } Is the above snippet is valid or not? And is it a constructor?

286

As you likely noticed throughout this course, most of the IT issues discussed are, or have been, affected by the continually changing landscape of

computing technology and the IT industry. Subsequently, IT professions have had to evolve as well, requiring IT professionals to focus on more than just
understanding and managing technology itself. Data security regulations, privacy, outsourcing and risk management mark some of these additional focuses. Even
over the last 8 weeks, computing technology has likely changed to some degree, consequently requiring IT professionals to compensate accordingly.

Regardless, changes to computing technology within a period of two months are typically not going to be drastic. As an IT professional though, you still need to be
privy to these changes and aware of potential effects on the IT profession. However, what about the future of the IT profession in 10, 25 or 50 years? Will it be
different than it is today? For this final Discussion of the module, address how IT professions will likely differ in the future and what specific jobs are likely to
change completely.

To complete this Discussion:

Post: Create an initial post in which you analyse how you think the IT profession will change in the future, based on your current understanding of IT as a
profession. In your analysis, explain where you think the IT profession (in general) will be in 10, 20 and 50 years from now. Also, explain how future IT professions
may differ from today and which IT jobs will likely change completely. Provide specific examples and resources that support your positions. Cite and reference all
sources using the Harvard Liverpool Referencing System.

287

Over the course of this module, you have explored a wide array of IT issues ranging from the effects of technology on society, to cybercrime, to project

risk management. Despite the stark differences in this variety of topics, each plays a crucial role in today’s global businesses. Furthermore, with the growing
reliance on IT, understanding of this module’s examined issues is becoming all the more important. With that said, in order to garner a greater appreciation of your
newly garnered skills and knowledge from this module, it is prudent to take a step back and objectively reflect on all that you have accomplished.

For this Discussion, reflect on all the material covered in this module. Share with your colleagues your thoughts on what you feel you learned and achieved over
these eight weeks. Moreover, how will you apply what you have experienced in this module toward other modules in the Information Technology programme and/or
your work?

To complete this Discussion:

Post: Create an initial post in which you reflect on all the material covered (e.g. readings, learning activities, etc.) throughout this module. Explain your thoughts on
which learning experiences influenced your perspectives on IT and why. Additionally, explain what achievements you accomplished in this module and explain
which learning experiences facilitated that/those accomplishment(s). Lastly, describe how you intend to apply your learning and experiences in this module to other
modules in the Information Technology programme and/or your professional work.

288

write a program that prompt the user to enter an equation in the form of 10+5, or 10-5 or 1*5 or 13/4. the program should then output the equation,

followed by an equal sign, followed by the answer.

289

What is the most significant nibble of ASCII code for the letter X?

290

I need this ilab done.

Attach 290

291

I need help with my homework assignment. Only questions 2and3 .Here is the homework link

http://condor.depaul.edu/ntomuro/courses/402/assign/hw2-new.html
the due date is tomorrow

292

C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey as an enhancement to the C language and originally

named C with Classes but later it was renamed C++ in 1983. C++ (pronounced as see plus plus, /'si? pl?s pl?s/) is a general-purpose programming language. It
has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing the facilities for low-level memory manipulation. C++ is a statically typed,
compiled, general-purpose, case -sensitive, free -form programming language that supports procedural, object -oriented, and generic programming. C++ is
regarded as a middle -level language, as it comprises a combination of both high -level and low-level language features. C++ is a super-set of C, and that virtually
any legal C program is a legal C++ program. Write a C++ code for Balloon shooting Game.

293

Question and Answers on C++ 1. What is C++? 2. How do you find out if a linked-list has an end? (i.e. the list is not a cycle) 3. What is a class? 4.

What is an object? 5. What is the difference between an object and a class? 6. What is the difference between class and structure?

294

Virtual Memory Background Demand Paging Copy-on-Write Page Replacement Allocation of Frames Thrashing Memory-Mapped Files Allocating

Kernel Memory Other Considerations Operating-System Examples

295

Q. What is an I/O buffer? What is the advantage of buffering? Is buffering always effective? Justify your answer with help of an example.

296

Q. Explain the differences between the following : (i) Logical and physical address space. (ii) Internal and external fragmentation.

297

Q. What are the differences between user level threads and kernel supported threads?

298

Q. What is a race condition? Explain how does a critical section avoid this condition. What are the properties which a data item should possess to

implement a critical section?

299

Q. Describe a solution to the Dining philosopher problem so that no races arise.

300

Q. Define process. Describe the contents of a Process Control Block (PCB).

301

C language is used to mimic text documents, mathematical and statistical operations and can also be used to create animation programs.With the

help of theC language, programs which create computer graphics can be made. In the script of the C language, you can input the logic of the code that can be
used for designing graphics programsfor various animation needs. C Graphics programming is very easy and interesting. You can use graphics programming for
developing your own games, in making projects, for animation etc. To initialize graphics mode we use initgraph function in our program. initgraph function is
present in "graphics.h" header file, so your every graphics program should include "graphics.h" header file. Write a program for Tetris game project

302

Q. What is meant by inter process communication? Explain the two fundamental models of inter process communication.

303

Q. What are the four necessary conditions of deadlock prevention?

304

Q. What is a semaphore? Explain busy waiting semaphores.

305

Q. What is mutual exclusion? Explain the Dekker’s Algorithm to solve the mutual exclusion problem in concurrent programming.

306

Q. Differentiate between kernel and shell of operating system.

307

Q. What do you mean by virtual machine? Explain advantage and disadvantage of virtual machine.

308

Q. Explain the layered structure of Unix operating system?

309

Q. List the four steps that are necessary to run a program on a completely dedicated machine.

310

Q. List five services provided by an operating system. Explain how each provides convenience to the users. Explain also in which cases it would be

impossible for user-level programs to provide these services.

311

Q. How does loop unrolling improve ILP for loops that use floating point pipelines that have multiple stall cycles between dependent instructions?

What is the cost of loop unrolling (demands / negative sideaffects)

312

Q. One clear advantage of VM is that the programmer need not worry about how and where the code and data for their programs will be stored in the

computer system. This abstraction indeed makes the programmers’ life is easy but on the other hand they have no control or flexibility to move data around in the
memory system since they have no access to the real memory. Why is it important for only the OS to have the power to manage and control memory and hide it
from the end user?

313

Q. is the price paid for the vast virtual address space provided to programmer for their applications? Or in other words what is the VM implementation

overhead?

314

Q. What is the purpose of process isolation? How does virtual memory help achieve that?

315

Q. What is a critical section? explain the concept of mutual exclusion by the help of critical section through pseudo code with two processes.

316

Q. What is user space for threading under operating system? explain the advantages of user space for threaded programming.

317

Q. What do you mean by user level and kernel level thread? Explain the operating system support for thread optimization.

318

Q. A system has 4 GB of RAM in which 512 MB is occupied by Operating system and all the processes occupy 256 MB of RAM. if the CPU utilization

goal is 99% then what is I/O wait time?

319

Describe in 1-2 paragraphs how natural language processing could be used in a college/university setting

320
hello
you will find assignment attach
thank for help
Document Preview:
Assignment 1 This assignment cover the topic from week 1 to week 7 Purpose To assess your ability to apply the course concepts and critical thinking skills Due
Date: Week 9 -Saturday 31 Oct. 2015 Action Items Q1. (2 Marks) Explain in details the activity life cycle of an android application with the help of diagrams. Q2. (1
Mark) What are Adapters in android, explain different adapter views Q3. (1 Mark) Explain the Android location services and the classes required for getting GPS
location. Q4. (2 Marks) The following figure shows a part of Android application manifest file. 1. Discuss in details what is meant by part number //1 and //2 2. In
the previous figure, what changes are required to do if you made a new version of your application “1.1”, also a new SDK version 18 is available. Q5. (4 Marks) In
the following activity, complete the following code in order that when a user press ADD button the sum of the two numbers in (txtnum1, txtnum2) will appear in
(tviewresult). Hint: to parse String to Float use “Float.parseFloat” protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
setContentView(R.layout.activity_main); //add your code here } Submission Instructions Complete and submit this assignment per your professor’s instructions.
Grading Criteria Accuracy and completion of assignment: 0 -5 points (10 Marks divided by 2)

Attach 320

321

Write a test program that prompts the user to enter three numbers and invoked the function to display them in increasing order.

322

How many bytes are empty in a RIP message that advertises N networks?

323

Q. What is z-buffer algorithm? Write the pseudo code of z-buffer algorithm. Also differentiate between back face removal and z-buffer algorithm.

324

Q. Explain the following terms. 1. Rendering 2. 3D Projection 3. Ray Tracing 4. Shading 5. Texture Mapping 6. Anti aliasing

325

Q. What is illumination model? Explain the term global illumination model. Give some examples of illumination models.

326

Q. Explain the followings in details. 1. Point clipping 2. Line clipping 3. Cohen- Sutherland Line clipping algorithm 4. Liang Bersky Line clipping 5.

Cyrus Beck Line clipping

327

Q. What do you mean by composite transformation? Explain this by taking a suitable example.

328

Q. Write a program in c or c++ to generate ellipse through the midpoint ellipse generation methods.

329

Q. Why image transformation is necessary in computer graphics? Explain any one image transformation method.

330

Q. What is a segment? explain the procedure to represent the segment in computer graphics. What is the advantages of procedures which is

presented by you?

331

Q. What do you mean by polygon and quadratic surface. Discuss about the polygon meshes and polygon tables.

332

Q. Explain the types of graphical logical devices. Mention the functional aspects of request mode and event mode.

333

Q. Explain the differences between DDA and Bresenham;s Algorithms. Mention the point wise differences between them.

334

Q. Explain the concept of raster graphics. Also, mention the process and functions of raster graphics.

335

Q. Explain the differences between macros and subroutines. Also, define these two terms with program examples.

336

Q. Give the difference between multi programming and multiprocessing. Also, explain the basic difference between them.

337

Q. Write down different system calls for performing different kinds of tasks. Explain some task management of operating system by system call

interfaces.

338

what is the need of deadlock in memory management

339

What is await and async?

340

What is Parallel Loop Available in Task Parallel Library?

341

What is TPL (Task Parallel Library)?

342

Explain about Reflection.Give a suitable example with .net codes.

343

Explain with an example about Implicit Typing or var Keyword?

344

Q. Differentiate between static hashing and dynamic hashing.

345

Q. What is indexed sequential file organization? What are the applications of this organization?

346

Q. What is the difference between serial and sequential files? How searching is applied on both?

347

Q. Write short notes on (i) hash file organization. (ii) physical and logical independence

348

Q. Explain recovery process after system failure using checkpoint.

349

Q. How does the system recover from a crash?

350

Q. Explain the ACID properties of a transaction.

351

Q. Differentiate between strict two-phase and rigorous two-phase with conversion protocol.

352

Q. Define two-phase locking protocol.

353

Q. What are wait-for-graphs? Give the algorithm to construct a wait-for-graph from a given schedule of transactions? How can deadlocks be detected

from wait-for-graphs?

354

Q. What are the various states through which a transaction passes through in its lifetime? Briefly discuss all the event that causes transition from one

state to another.

355

Q. How does the two phase protocol ensure serializability in database schedules?

356

Q. Define multivalued dependency and 4NF

357

Q. Differentiate between (i) Single value and multiple valued attribute. (ii) Derived and non-derived attributes. (iii) Candidate and super key.

358

Q. Consider the following relational schemas: EMPLOYEE (EMPLOYEE_NAME, STREET, CITY) WORKS (EMPLOYEE_NAME, COMPANYNAME,

SALARY) COMPANY (COMPANY_NAME, CITY) Specify the table definitions in SQL. Give an expression in SQL for each of queries below: (i) Find the names of
all employees who work for first Bank Corporation. (ii) Find the names and company names of all employees sorted in ascending order of company name and
descending order of employee names of that company. (iii) Change the city of First Bank Corporation to ‘New Delhi’

359

Q. Consider the following database with primary keys underlined Project(P_No, P_Name, P_Incharge) Employee(E_No, E_Name)

Assigned_To(P_No, E_No) Write the relational algebra for the following : (i) List details of the employees working on all the projects. (ii) List E_No of employees
who do not work on project number DB2003.

360

Q. Given R(A,B,C,D,E) with the set of FDs, F{AB?CD, ABC ? E, C ? A} (i) Find any two candidate keys of R (ii) What is the normal form of R? Justify.

361

Q. Given R(A,B,C,D, E) with the set of FDs, F{AB?CD,A ? E,C?D}. Is the decomposition of R into R1(A,B,C), R2 (B,C,D) and R 3(C,D,E) lossless?

Prove.

362

Q. What is a hashing function? What are the properties of a good hashing function? Describe the folding technique for hashing functions.

363

Q. Define the terms entity, attribute, role and relationship between the entities, giving examples for each of them.

364

Q. Describe the storage structure of indexed sequential files and their access method.

365

Q. What are the advantages of embedded query language? Give an example of a embedded SQL query.

366

Here’s a really simple match-making algorithm. Given a list of n men and m women – each described by his/her name and primary hobby – print all

the matches between a man and a woman who share the same hobby. Given: • Names of the men: M1, M2, … Mn • Hobbies of the men: MH1, MH2, …, MHn •
Names of the women: W1, W2, …, Wm • Hobbies of the women: WH1, WH2, …, WHm

367

If the present value of an account is $1000 and the interest rate is 5%, then after one year, the account will increase by $50 (5% of $1000). In the

second year, the interest applies to all $1050, so the account will increase by $52.50 (5% of $1050). Getting future interest on past interest is called compound
interest. A general formula for future value is: Future Value = P*(1 + R/100)Y Where P is the present value, R is the interest rate and Y is the number of years. You
need not write the algorithm to compute compound interest because a module for it is available online. It has three inputs – present value, interest rate and
number of years – and one output: future value. Using this module, write an algorithm to print the balance in a savings account at the end of every decade over a
100-year span. Your algorithm is given the initial balance and the interest rate. See the note below about how to draw a “black box” on your homework submission.

368

What is an iteration structure? What problem does a repetition structure solve? Provide an example of a process in which a repetition structure is

appropriately used.

369

Consider the following Case study:

http://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/risk-management/evolving-threat-environment/enisa-threat-landscape/enisa-threat-landscape-2014

And answer the following Questions: (2 marks each)

1) Provide a brief overview of the case study
2) Prepare a diagram for the ENISA security infrastructure
3) Identify strategies for combatting Insider Threats
4) Out of the ‘’Top threats’’ which threat you regard to be the most significant and why?
5) Identify and discuss the key Threat Agents. What could be done to minimize their impact on the system?
6) Provide a brief summary (literature review) of Social Hacking issues
7) Based on the data provided in Table 2, discuss the trends in threat probability
8) How could the ETL process be improved? Discuss.
9) Based on Table 10 and your own research, identify and discuss threats that (in your opinion) will be most challenging for ENISA to combat in the year 2016
onwards.
10) To sum up, should ENISA be satisfied with its current state of IT Security? Why? Or Why not?

370

Q. Write a program for Conversion from Basic to Class Type.

371

Q. What is the difference between a virtual function and a pure virtual function? Give example of each.

372

Q. Is it possible that a function is friend of two different classes? If yes, then how it is implemented in C++.

373

Q. What are generic classes? Why are they useful? Explain with an example how these are implemented in c++.

374

Q. What is run time polymorphism? How it is achieved? Explain with an example?

375

Q. Define Rules for operator Overloading. Write a program to overload the subscript operator ‘[ ]’.

376

Q. What are the advantages and disadvantages of inline functions?

377

Q. Write short notes on the following: (i) Nested class. (ii) Scope resolution operator. (iii) this pointer.

378

Q. What do you mean by operator overloading? How unary and binary operators are implemented using the member and friend functions?

379

Q. Explain the meaning of polymorphism. Describe how polymorphism is accomplished in C++ taking a suitable example?

380

Q. Discuss the role of inheritance in object-oriented programming. What is public, private and protected derivation?

381

Q. Define the following terms and give an example to show its realization in C++ (i) Encapsulation (ii) Class variables and class functions (iii)Repeated

inheritance (iv) Overloading

382

Q. The keyword ‘virtual’ can be used for functions as well as classes in C++. Explain the two different uses. Give an example each.

383

Q What is encapsulation? What are its advantages? How can encapsulation be enforced in C++?

384

Q. What are abstract classes? How do you define one and how is it useful in a typical library?

385

Comparison of4G network and 3G network

386

Q. Differentiate and give examples to bring out the difference between (i) private and public inheritance. (ii) substantiation and specialization of a

template class. (iii) static and dynamic binding. (iv) a class and a struct.

387

Q. Why is destructor function required in class? What are the special characteristics of destructors? Can a destructor accept arguments?

388

Q.20 Explain the following: (i) Non public constructors (ii) Inline function (iii) Virtual functions (iv) Types of Inheritance

389

Q. Write a program to overload the unary minus operator using friend function.

390

Q. Write short notes on any TWO :- (i) Procedure oriented vs object oriented programming. (ii) Object oriented design. (iii)User defined data types in

C++.

391

Q. What do you mean by static class members? Explain the characteristics of static class members with suitable examples.

392

Q. What is multiple inheritance? Discuss the syntax and rules of multiple inheritance in C++. How can you pass parameters to the constructors of

base classes in multiple inheritance? Explain with suitable example.

393

Q. Write a template function that swaps the values of two arguments passed to it. In main( ), use the function with integers and characters.

394

Q. What is dynamic initialization of objects? Why is it needed? How is it accomplished in C++? Illustrate.

395

Q. How do the properties of following two derived classes differ? (i)class X : public A{//..} (ii)class Y : private A{//..}

396

Q. Describe, in brief, the steps involved in object oriented analysis.

397

Q. What are the various ways of handling exceptions? Which one is the best? Explain.

398

Q. How are template functions overloaded? Explain witha suitable example.

399

Q. Write a global function which uses the above operator and prints the number and the number of times it appears (frequency) .

400

Q. In the following output, the following flag constants are used with the stream member function setf. What effect does each have (i)ios::fixed

(ii)ios::scientific (iii)ios::showpoint (iv)ios::showpos (v)ios:right (vi)ios::left

401

You have been assigned to set update the website for Windsor Institute. It is not required to have skills of developing websites however it is required

that you may do some research or discuss with your trainer to identify tasks involved in such projects or processes. You may also visit the current Windsor website
(www.windsor-ic.com.au) to identify organisational vision/strategy and needs for the update

Attach 401

402

Q. Write a program to open a file in C++ “Hello.dat” and write “This is only a test” “Nothing can go wrong” “All things are fine...” into the file. Read the

file and display the contents.

403

Q. write a program to overload the operator ‘+’ for complex numbers.

404

Q. What are friend functions? Explain there characteristics with a suitable example.

405

Q. Explain the following. (i) Conversion from Class to Basic Type. (ii) File Pointers. (iii) Function Prototyping. (iv) Overload resolution.

406

The Kernel mode is safety place of the operating system that hides important things from the users who wants to damage the system, operating

system seperate kernel programs and user programs in the different modes.For instance, when we install a hardware driver(software) use kernel mode. In
addition, Kernel mode crashes will be hard to solve it is not recoverable

407

need this assignment by 1st of oct

Document Preview:
COIT20256/COIT23001 Assignment 2 Assessment item 2 — OOP and Data Structure Due date: Thursday of Week 11 ASSESSMENT Weighting: 30% 2
Objectives • Demonstrate an understanding of Object-Oriented Programming concepts in Java. • Gain practical skills in Graphical User Interface (GUI)
programming by implementing an event-driven interface. • Develop and test stand alone Java applications. • Evaluate algorithm, data structure and program
designs used in developing Java applications. Assessment Task Specification for the Queensland Children Allergy Information System Introduction For the second
assignment, you will develop a windowed application to assist the research staff of a medical centre to maintain and manage a list of personal data related to
Queensland children with allergies. Overview of the application In a real-world software application, you would ideally use a database to store patient information.
In this application however, you will use a text file to store relevant information. For simplicity, only 5 attributes of a patient will be stored: patient name, telephone,
age, gender and allergy source. The system allows the data entry in such way that the patient can have the same name but different phone number. If this occurs,
they will be treated as different data entries. In a typical session of the application, the patient data file will be loaded from the disk and displayed. The research
staff then can view, sort, search, as well as add/delete data entry. The added information can be saved back to the data file. This application will provide a
comprehensive exercise in text file processing, sorting, searching, and using data structures. As well, you will create a new GUI with various components. The GUI
The GUI you will create should resemble the screen shown below. Figure 1 The GUI components on the screen as shown in Figure 1 include: • A label for the
application title – Queensland Children Allergy Information System • A panel which contains the rest...

Attach 407

408

An organization has several operational systems: Customer Relationship Management (CRM) for marketing and sales, Enterprise Resource Planning

(ERP), and Supply Chain Management (SCM). They also have external customer data. A wide variety of departments utilize this data: sales, marketing,
procurement, human resources, R&D, and senior management.

Design a high-level conceptual view of a data warehouse using Microsoft® Visio® that shows the following:
Integration layers

The data warehouse

Recommended data marts
Include arrows to show ETL (extract, transform, and load) locations and direction.

409
Please follow All the Tasks and Marking Guidelines
Just complete the ITECH3201 tasks for full marks please.
Do not need to do ITECH7201 tasks.
Document Preview:
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame.sln Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/App.config
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/bin/Debug/Mazegame.exe Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/bin/Debug/Mazegame.exe.config
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/bin/Debug/Mazegame.pdb Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/bin/Debug/Mazegame.vshost.exe
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/bin/Debug/Mazegame.vshost.exe.config
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/bin/Debug/Mazegame.vshost.exe.manifest
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/Boundary/IMazeClient.cs/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // IMazeClient.cs // Implementation of the Interface
IMazeClient // Generated by Enterprise Architect // Created on: 28-Apr-2014 10:13:37 PM // Original author: Gsimmons ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
using System; namespace Mazegame.Boundary { public interface IMazeClient { /// /// String GetReply(String question); /// /// void PlayerMessage(String
message); }//end IMazeClient }//end namespace Boundary
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/Boundary/IMazeData.cs/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // IMazeData.cs // Implementation of the Interface
IMazeData // Generated by Enterprise Architect // Created on: 28-Apr-2014 10:13:37 PM // Original author: Gsimmons /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// using
System; using Mazegame.Entity; namespace Mazegame.Boundary { public interface IMazeData { Location GetStartingLocation(); String
GetWelcomeMessage(); }//end IMazeData }//end namespace Boundary
Assignment2Codebase/Mazegame/Mazegame/Control/DungeonMaster.cs/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // DungeonMaster.cs // Implementation of the
Class DungeonMaster // Generated by Enterprise...

Attach 409

410

What are the 4G technology features and how it differs from 3G?

411

Research Paper Using Word 2010

Document Preview:
Research Paper Using Word 2010 This assignment has two goals: 1) have students increase their understanding of the concept of Protecting Personal
Information (PPI) and other ethical issues related to the use of information technology through research, and 2) learn to correctly use the tools and techniques
within Word to format a research paper including using Word 2010/2013's citation tools. These skills will be valuable throughout students’ academic career. The
paper will require a title page, NO abstract, three to four full pages of content with incorporation of a minimum of 3 external resources from credible sources, and a
Works Cited/Reference page. Three pages of content means 3 full pages, to the bottom of the third page with text on page 4. Two pages plus several lines on the
third page will not suffice. Note that submitting a paper that is less than three pages may affect your grade on several rubric items, including page length and
several content items. Given a short, underdeveloped paper’s impact on several items in the rubric, a student submitting a paper less than three full pages is
unlikely to score higher than a ‘C’ on this assignment. A list of topics from which students can choose is provided below. Wikipedia and similar websites are NOT
creditable sources. Blogs and discussion groups are not creditable sources. The course textbook cannot be used as a source for the research paper. No more

than 10% of the paper may be in the form of a direct citation from an external source. Topics for Research Paper Personally Identifiable Information (PII) Social
Engineering Employee Monitoring Information Privacy Electronic Medical Records Biometrics (in terms of ethical and privacy issues) Identity Theft Use of Cookies
Privacy Laws related to Information Technology use Intellectual Property Rights; Copyright Writing Quality for the Research Paper * All Grammar, Verb Tenses,
Pronouns, Spelling, Punctuation, and Writing Competency should...

Attach 411

412

Interview the network administrator of a large organization to determine the types of attacks they encounter most often. This can be someone you

know that is a Network administrator. Write a short report detailing the types and quantities of attacks seen, and the technologies used to detect and protect from
attackers. Be sure to annotate the title of the person and name. This report should be a minimum of one page in length.

413
Ques 1. What do you mean by hardwired and micro-programmed control unit? Explain with points. Ques 2. Design the parallel priority interrupt
hardware for a system with eight interrupt sources. Ques 3. Explain the difference Between isolated I/O and Memory mapped I/O. Also mention the advantages
and disadvantages of both i/o. Ques 4. Explain the different modes of data transfer. Also, develop a flowchart for CPU program to input data via programmed I/O.
Ques 5. What do you mean by write through and write back mechanisms?
Document Preview:
Ques 1. What do you mean by hardwired and micro-programmed control unit? Explain with points. Ques 2. Design the parallel priority interrupt hardware for a
system with eight interrupt sources. Ques 3. Explain the difference Between isolated I/O and Memory mapped I/O. Also mention the advantages and
disadvantages of both i/o. Ques 4. Explain the different modes of data transfer. Also, develop a flowchart for CPU program to input data via programmed I/O. Ques
5. What do you mean by write through and write back mechanisms?

Attach 413

414
Ques 1. Construct memory system having static 1k x 4 RAM. Ques 2. What do you mean by virtual memory? Explain the address space for virtual
memory. Ques 3. What do you mean by DMA? Explain the concept of DMA with CPU overhead. Ques 4. Write an assembly program to evaluate the Y = A+B*(C+
(D*E)-F)/G*H expression using accumulator based (one address ) CPU organization. Ques 5. Apply Shunting-Yard algorithm using stack to evaluate reverse polish
notation for expression (5*9)(6+(3*2)*10)
Document Preview:
Ques 1. Construct memory system having static 1k x 4 RAM. Ques 2. What do you mean by virtual memory? Explain the address space for virtual memory. Ques
3. What do you mean by DMA? Explain the concept of DMA with CPU overhead. Ques 4. Write an assembly program to evaluate the Y = A+B*(C+(D*E)-F)/G*H
expression using accumulator based (one address ) CPU organization. Ques 5. Apply Shunting-Yard algorithm using stack to evaluate reverse polish notation for
expression (5*9)(6+(3*2)*10)

Attach 414

415
1. What is SISD ?. Explain this with Details. Also define the architecture of SISD. 2. What is SIMD? Explain the Architecture of SIMD machine. 3. What
is MISD architecture? Explain the architecture of MISD. 4. What do you mean by MIMD Architecture? Explain in detail. 5. Design of an array multiplier to multiply
two 4-bit binary numbers?
Document Preview:
1. What is SISD ?. Explain this with Details. Also define the architecture of SISD. 2. What is SIMD? Explain the Architecture of SIMD machine. 3. What is MISD
architecture? Explain the architecture of MISD. 4. What do you mean by MIMD Architecture? Explain in detail. 5. Design of an array multiplier to multiply two 4-bit
binary numbers?

Attach 415

416

Assessment item 2—Case studyDue date:1:00pm AEST, Thursday, Week 11ASSESSMENTWeighting:30%2Length:2000-2500 words excluding

referencesObjectivesThis assessment item relates to the course learning outcome 1 to 9 as stated on page 1 of the course profile.Enabling objectives1. Apply the
digital forensics methodologies.2. Write an analysis of a case study.3. Prepare an outline of a professional digital forensic plan.InstructionsThe Case – A Digital
Forensic Investigation PlanSummary:One World Finance (OWF) is a specialist provider of high quality, consumer finance services to a global network of
customers. Trading in Australia and New Zealand since 1990, the company employs more than 750 employees and the company serves more than 5 million
customers. The company’s main office is situated in Brisbane with other branch offices located in Sydney and Melbourne.OWF has invested heavily in information
technology for supporting its global business operations and achieving competitive advantages over its competitors. Major investments were made by the
company in 2001 but management has lost focus in updating the networks and application infrastructure that supports the business operation in recent years. The
network environment between all of OWF offices is flat and relatively unrestricted. Users from one office can access systems and servers from another office.
Workstations and servers are typically Microsoft Windows-based. Firewalls and network segmentation are implemented poorly throughout the environment.
Intrusion detection and logging exist on systems but they are not effectively used.Last night, John Marsh at the Sydney office went in to work early and when he
got connected to his computer, he found that someone was already connected to his computer with several windows opened. As he stared at it, his computer
system got disconnected. He then tried to get connected again, but he was logged out. He called the IT manager, who followed a plan for such incidents. This
includes disabling John's account and examining the server security logs. The IT manager found that the IP address of the computer that was connected to John's
computer belongs to a computer used to run a data projector at the Melbourne office. He quickly rang the Melbourne office to check who has used the computer
and requested the logs of people who have swiped into the building. He found out that there were five people in the building at the time, but one employee, Andrew
Gale has since swiped out and called in sick. An urgent meeting with the management concludes that Andrew Gale has at least violated company policy by
accessing a colleague's account, but is unsure if he has violated any other policy or engaged in any criminal activity. As an information security officer, you are
asked by the management to investigate to find out the extent of Andrew's activities, if others are involved, who is affected and whether criminal charges need to
be laid.Requirements:Your task is to prepare digital forensics investigative plan to enable a systematic collection of evidence and subsequent forensic analysis of
the electronic and digital data. Assuming all systems are Windows based, this plan should detail following:? justify why use of the digital forensic methodology and
approach is warranted including appropriate procedures for corporate investigation.? describe the resources required to conduct a digital forensic investigation,
including skill sets and required tools of the team members.? outline an approach for data/evidence identification and acquisition that would occur in order to
prepare the auditors for review of the digital evidence.? outline an approach and steps to be taken during the analysis phase making the assumption the computer
system is a Microsoft Windows-based computer.? make a recommendation on the action that the company needs to take against the offender.Tips for preparing
your digital forensics investigative planIn writing the digital forensics investigative plan, students need to address following points. Do note that points listed below
are not exhaustive and need to be considered as helpful tips.? Justify a need for digital forensics methodology and consider scope of the case including nature of
alleged misconduct leading to consideration of how electronic and digital evidence may support the investigation. The plan should consider how digital forensics
differs from other techniques (such as network forensics, data recovery) and detail the overall steps for the systematic digital forensics approach.? Consider the
required resources and include details regarding preparation plan for evidence gathering (such as evidence forms, types, storage media and containers), forensics
workstation and peripherals needed, software/tools for analysis depending on the type of evidence to be gathered including rationale for selected tools, and
consideration of team member skills in digital analysis (such as OS knowledge, skills for interviewing, consultation, working as per the needs of the auditing team
and understanding of law and corporate policies).? Detail the approach for data acquisition including the different types of evidence that can be gathered and their
source depending upon the nature of the case and scope of investigation, develop a plan for data acquisition including rationale for selected plan and contingency
planning, detail type of data acquisition tools needed including rationale and an outline for the data validation & verification procedures.? Provide an outline of the
forensic analysis procedures/steps depending upon the nature of evidence to be collected, and detail the validation approach. This can include techniques to
counter data hiding, recovering deleted files, procedures for network and e-mail analysis.? Prepare a recommendation on the action that the company needs to
take against the offender? Table of contents for the investigative plan should consider what to include in report, structure of report, focus or scope of the report
including supporting material to be provided and references. This table of contents should include headings and sub-headings pertaining to the aspects addressed
in the above dot points.? Prepare a professional report with an Executive Summary, a Word generated table of contents, an Introduction, a body of report with
proper headings and sub-headings, and a Conclusion.Assessment criteriaCOIS23002 Assessment item 2 – Case studyCriteriaPerformance
levelsBeginning1Developing2Improving3Accomplished4Exemplary5ScoreJustification – Is the justification of “why use of the digital forensic methodology and

approach is warranted” sound?Resources – Are the resources required to conduct a digital forensic investigation completely listed?Approach – Is the approach for
evidence identification and acquisition reasonable?Steps – Are steps to be taken during the analysis phase reasonable?Recommendation – Is the
recommendation made appropriate?Formatting and readability – Is the paper consistently formatted with balanced structure? Are the references correctly cited?
TotalComments:Marker:Date:

417

Implement the disjoint-set data structure using disjoint-set forests (rooted trees). i. Without ranked union and without path compression ii. Without

ranked union and with path compression iii. With ranked union and without path compression CS2094 – Data Structures Laboratory Page 7/7 iv. With ranked union
and with path compression Your program must support the following functions: · makeset(x) – creates a set of one element whose data is specified by x. · find(x) –
finds the set (representative) to which the data specified by x belongs. · union(x, y) – merges the sets containing the data specified by x and y together, into a
single set. After this operation, x and y (as well as the other data that were also contained in the sets which contained x and y) will belong to the same set. Input Output Format The input consists of multiple lines, each one containing either one or two integers. The first integer in the line can be 0, 1, 2 or 3, and each one has
its own meaning: · The integer 0 means stop the program. · The integer 1 stands for the makeset operation. The data for makeset will be the next integer from the
input. · The integer 2 stands for the find operation. Output the representative of the set, which contains the next integer from the input. (You are guaranteed that
the input data will be contained in some set). · The integer 3 stands for the union operation. Merge the sets containing each of the next two input integers into a
single set. Sample Input Sample Output (with ranked union and path compression) 1 25 1 35 1 45 1 55 2 35 35 2 45 45 3 35 45 2 35 35 2 45 35 2 25 25 3 25 45 2
25 35 3 45 25 2 25 35 2 45 35

418

Implement a hash table. The hash function to be used is the “modulo operation”. Resolve collisions by using a) Chaining. b) Open Addressing i. Linear

Probing ii. Quadratic Probing iii. Double Hashing (Use the multiplication method as the secondary hash function) Your program must support the following
functions: CS2094 – Data Structures Laboratory Page 6/7 · insert(h, key) – insert the data specified by key into the hash table specified by h. · search(h, key) –
search for the data specified by key in the hash table specified by h. Input - Output Format The first line contains a single positive integer c, the capacity of the
hash table. All modulo operations have to be performed using c. The rest of the input consists of multiple lines, each one containing either one or two integers. The
first integer in the line can be 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, and each one has its own meaning: · The integer 0 means stop the program. · The integer 1 means insert the next
integer from the input into the hash table. Output the index at which the data is stored. If open addressing is used, in case of a collision, output the probe sequence
(here, the index at which the data will get stored must be printed only once, and at the end of the sequence). · The integer 2 means search for the next integer
from the input into the hash table. Output “FOUND”, if the search is successful. Otherwise, output “NOT FOUND”. If open addressing is used, output the probe
sequence, before the message. Sample Input Sample Output (for linear probing) 11 2 13 2 NOT FOUND 1 45 1 1 17 6 1 29 7 1 55 0 2 28 6 7 8 NOT FOUND 1 10
10 1 21 10 0 1 2 2 21 10 0 1 2 FOUND 2 32 10 0 1 2 3 NOT FOUND 0

419

Given a valid postfix expression, create the corresponding expression tree. Traverse this tree in inorder, preorder and postorder fashion (all three

methods, both recursively and iteratively). CS2094 – Data Structures Laboratory Page 5/7 The program must support (at least) the following in the postfix
expression: Binary operators: ^ – Exponentiation (Highest precedence) /, * – Division, Multiplication +, - – Addition, Subtraction (Lowest precedence) Operands:
The operands are all variables, which is represented by a single lowercase English character. (a – z) Input – Output Format The only line of the input contains a
valid postfix expression. (There will not be any space anywhere in the expression) Do the inorder, preorder and postorder ( recursively). Output the result of each
traversal on a fresh line. For the inorder traversals, use proper parentheses also (i.e., each operator, together with its operands must be enclosed in parentheses).
Sample Input/Output abc*+ Inorder: (a+(b*c)) Preorder: +a*bc Postorder: abc*+ m Inorder: m Preorder: m Postorder: m abcd^*+e- Inorder: ((a+(b*(c^d)))-e)
Preorder: -+a*b^cde Postorder: abcd^*+e-

420

Create a Binary Search Tree, which supports the following operations. · insert(tree, element) – adds the node specified by element (which contains the

data) into the BST specified by tree. · search(tree, key) – searches for the data specified by key in the BST specified by tree. · findMin(tree) – retrieves the smallest
data in the BST specified by tree. · findMax(tree) – retrieves the largest data in the BST specified by tree. · predecessor(tree, element) – retrieves the inorderpredecessor of the node specified by element in the BST specified by tree. · successor(tree, element) – retrieves the inorder-successor of the node specified by

element in the BST specified by tree. · delete(tree, element) – removes the node specified by element from the BST specified by tree. Input - Output Format The
input consists of multiple lines, each one containing either one or two integers. The first integer in the line can be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 and each one has its own
meaning: · The integer 0 means stop the program. · The integer 1 means, create a node which contains the next integer from the input as the data part, and then,
insert this node into the BST. In this case, the next integer (>= 0) is given on the same line as the 1, separated by a space. CS2094 – Data Structures Laboratory
Page 3/7 · The integer 2 means, search for the key specified by the next integer from the input, in the BST. In this case, the next integer (>= 0) is given on the
same line as the 2, separated by a space. If the search is successful, output “FOUND”. Otherwise, output “NOT FOUND”. · The integer 3 means find and output
the minimum number in the BST. Print “NIL” if the BST is empty. · The integer 4 means find and output the maximum number in the BST. Print “NIL” if the BST is
empty. · The integer 5 means find and output the inorder-predecessor of the data specified by the next integer from the input. In this case, the next integer (>= 0) is
given on the same line as the 5, separated by a space. Output “NIL”, if the data exists in the tree, but there is no inorder-predecessor for the data. Output “NOT
FOUND”, if the data is not present in the tree. · The integer 6 means find and output the inorder-successor of the data specified by the next integer from the input.
In this case, the next integer (>= 0) is given on the same line as the 6, separated by a space. Output “NIL”, if the data exists in the tree, but there is no inordersuccessor for the data. Output “NOT FOUND”, if the data is not present in the tree. · The integer 7 means delete the data specified by the next integer in the input
from the BST, if present. In this case, the next integer (>= 0) is given

421

Write a program that implements Kruskal’s algorithm. Output Format Output the cost of the minimum spanning tree on the first line. Below that, output

the adjacency matrix of the tree. Sample Output 4 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

422

Write a program that implements Dijkstra’s algorithm. Take an integer from the terminal as an extra input. This is the source vertex for Dijkstra’s

algorithm. Output Format The output must contain exactly N integers on a single line – the list of lengths of shortest paths from the source vertex. Sample Output
(src node = 0) 0 1 2 3 4

423

Write a program that performs Depth First Search in a graph. Take an integer from the terminal as an extra input. Do the DFS, starting from this

vertex. Output Format The output must contain exactly N integers on a single line – the sequence of vertex labels, in the order they are visited. Sample Output
(start at 0) 0 1 2 3 4

424

Write a program that performs Breadth First Search in a graph. Take an integer from the terminal as an extra input. Do the BFS, starting from this

vertex. Output Format The output must contain exactly N integers on a single line – the sequence of vertex labels, in the order they are visited. Sample Output
(start at 0) 0 1 2 3 4

425

Consider ethics in the information age, selecting one issue: Content control, free speech, intellectual property, privacy or security.

426

Explain,how task cancellation is done in .net programming. Also define it.

427

Explain Code-First Approach used in "entity framework".

428

Define Delegate, also give a suitable example.

429

Please tell me when to use an interface instead of an abstract class and vice versa?

430

Transform the following left recursive EBNF grammar into an equivalent non-left recursive grammer (S and A are nonterminal symbols; S is the start

symbol; a and b are terminal symbols):

S--> aSb|baS

A-->AaA|bAA|AAa|bATransform the following left recursive EBNF grammar into an equivalent non-left recursive grammer (S and A are nonterminal symbols; S is
the start symbol; a and b are terminal symbols): S--> aSb|baS

431

You have been given a file that contains the following fields relating to CD information. Using the steps of normalization, create a logical data model

that represents this file in third normal form. The fields include the following:

432

How would you describe the architecture Dr. Schadt uses to do his research

433

Which procedural language might be most appropriate for a program to do each of the following applications and why?

a. Compute trajectories for a satellite launcher

b. Monitor an input device feeding data from an experiment to the computer

Process the day’s transactions

434

Write a program that calculates and prints the take-home pay for a commissioned sales employee. Perform a compile-time initialization and store the

name Jessica Oakley in a variable called employeeName.Jessica received 7% of her total sale. Her federal tax rate 18%. She contributes 10% to a retirement
program and 6% to social security. Her sales this week was $28,000. produce a formatted report showing the amount for each of the computed items.

435

benefits of the developed inventory decision systems in use at procter and gamble

436

he Internet is roughly doubling in size every 18 months. Although no one really knows for sure, one estimate put the number of hosts on it at 600

million in 2009. Use these data to compute the expected number of Internet hosts in the year 2018. Do you believe this? Explain why or why not.

437

Here the question.

A company owned by First Avenue has a salary system based on position level. Employee salary is being paid on a weekly basis. The company has 30
employees, which comprises of a manager (fixed salary), cooks (salary on hourly basis), salesperson (fixed salary and sales commission). Below shows the
details of salary payment for each position level.
1) Position level : Manager
Salary paid per week : Fixed salary
2) Position level : Cooks
Salary paid per week : First 30 hours - fixed rate every hour. The next following hours, overtime rate at 1.5% of the fixed rate hourly
3) Position level : Salesperson
Salary paid per week : $300 plus commission 8.5% of the total sales per week.
Calculate the amount of salary received for each employee based on their position level in the company.
Given is the input, output, solution/formula, and constraint for the above problem :
Inputs:
*fixed input:
- fixed salary for a manager
- fixed rate for cooks
- basic salary for salesperson
- commission rate
*user’s input:
- position category
- total working hours for cooks
- total sales for salesperson
Outputs:
- position category
- total income
Solution/Formula:
1) Income for a manager is fixed
2) Income for cooks is calculated by multiply total working hours with fixed rate:
2.1 if total working hours less than or equal 30 hours,
Total income = total working hours * fixed rate
2.2 if total working hours more than 30 hours
Total income = 30 * fixed rate + total working hours – 30 * 1.5 * fixed rate

3) Total income for a salesperson = $300 + commission rate * total sales per
week
Constraints:
- total working hours can not exceed than 168 hours
- total working hours must be entered for cooks
- total sales must be entered for salesperson
so, have to write a C++ program to calculate.

438

Design the layout of users, domains, trusted domains, anonymous users, etc for a start-up open source software company ABC.

439

Write each of the following as a C++ expression.

a. 32 times a plus b

b. The character that represents 8

c. The string that represents the name Julie Nelson.

d. (b2 - 4ac) / 2a

e. (a + b)/c(ef)-gh

f. (-b + (b2 - 4ac)) / 2a

440

1. Write each of the following as a C++ expression. a. 32 times...

441

Please find my attached advanced network securoty question with extended deadline

Document Preview:
Question 1:
Snort Rules (10 Marks) Scenario A small company has a network set up behind a NAT router. The router is connected to the Internet via a single ISP provided
dynamic IP address. The ISP provided access address may change over short periods of time. The internal network is RFC 1918 Category 2 compliant, and uses
the private address space 192.168.2.0/24. The gateway router is configured to use DHCP allocated IP addresses to internal hosts as they connect. However, a
record is kept within the router of what IP addresses have previously been allocated to specific MAC addresses. Whenever those MAC addressed hosts
disconnect from and later reconnect to the network they are reallocated the same IP address. It is only if the router has a power off episode, or is manually reset,
that allocation of different IP addresses may occur (and even then, the same addresses may be allocated as before). The company operates an approved internal
web server at 192.168.2.21:80, to facilitate in-house development of web pages and web sites that will later be deployed to an external server for public access. It

is a company policy that only one approved internal web server is to be in operation on the network. You are the company IT Manager. It has come to your notice
that a company employee has set up a rogue web server on the internal network, using a personal laptop. The employee is using that web site to provide
undesirable material to a small clique of employees, to whom the web server address has been provided secretly. The company CEO has requested you to:
Obtain hard evidence that an employee is in fact using a personal laptop to set up a rogue web server. Find out what other employees are accessing the rogue
web site. Considerations The rogue web server may be on any internal IP address, and will be using any of the ephemeral ports. It will not be using a well-known
port. The clients accessing the rogue web server may come from any...

Attach 441

442

Please complete this assignment

443

what is unique key?

444

Consider the following recursive algorithm. ALGORITHM Riddle(A[0..n - 1]) INPUT An array A[0..n - 1] of real numbers if n = 1 return A[0] else temp?

Riddle(A[0..n - 2]) if temp = A[n - 1] return temp e

445

Why did Dr. Solomon say that novel ideas in science always challenge the current paradigms? Isn't science supposed to be about new ideas? Try to

justify what he meant by his statement.

446

Command to find all lines containing the string "dogs" in a file called pet-list.

447

1. Insert a new book into the database. The book code is 9700, the title is “Using Microsoft Access 2000”, the publisher is Best and Furrow, the book

type is computer science, the price is $19.97, and the book is available only in paperback. The author number is 07, and there are four (4) books on hand in
branch number 1. The sequence number is 2.

448

According to ISO 9001, inspection and testing comes under which management responsibility?

449

According to ISO 9001, inspection and testing comes under which management responsibility?

450

The bias of industry over the consumer was highlighted under digital rights management (DRM) solutions. The current DRM, as argued by some

researchers, favours companies over consumers. Working with examples from both academic and industrial literature, present and support your own analysis on
this issue.Evaluate the issue of whether or not the current DRM solutions are biased toward industry over the consumer. Support your evaluation with literature
from both academic and industry sources.

451

1. Insert a new book into the database. The book code is 9700, the title is “Using Microsoft Access 2000”, the publisher is Best and Furrow, the book

type is computer science, the price is $19.97, and the book is available only in paperback. The author number is 07, and there are four (4) books on hand in
branch number 1. The sequence number is 2.

452

According to ISO 9001, inspection and testing comes under which management responsibility?

453

The bias of industry over the consumer was highlighted under digital rights management (DRM) solutions. The current DRM, as argued by some

researchers, favours companies over consumers. Working with examples from both academic and industrial literature, present and support your own analysis on
this issue.Evaluate the issue of whether or not the current DRM solutions are biased toward industry over the consumer. Support your evaluation with literature
from both academic and industry sources.

454

W Mart, a new retail chain, has announced a discount on the total sale amount, in a single transaction, using the following scheme.

Table 1: Discount on Sale Amount
Total Sale Amount

Discount on this sale amount

Less than $100

0%

From $100 up to less than $500

10% for each dollar over $100

From $500 up to less than $1,000

$40 PLUS 20% of the total sale amount over $500

Total Sale Amount

Discount on this sale amount

From $1,000 up to less than $2,000

$140 PLUS 30% of the total sale amount over $1,000

$2,000 and above

$440 PLUS 40% of the total sale amount over $2,000

That is, if the total sale amount is $100 then the discount will be $0. However, if the total sale amount is $101 then the discount will be $0.10. If the total sale
amount is $500 then the discount will be $40, but if the total sale amount is $501 then the discount will be $40.20.
W Mart keeps track of a customer through a unique customer ID. W Mart gives one reward point for every $100 spent irrespective of the number of transactions.
The points accumulate over the time for a customer for his/her purchases. Finally, for each 100 reward points it gives an additional discount of $10 on a purchase
over $10 in a transaction.
Write a Python program that, for every transaction, takes input on the customer ID and the total sale amount in the transaction. It then reads a text file called
discount.txt that stores information on the discount on sales amount as shown in Table 1 above. The text file stores the information in a plain text format as follows.
Less than $100 --> 0%
From $100 up to less than $500 --> 10%
From $500 up to less than $1,000 --> $40 PLUS 20%
From $1,000 up to less than $2,000 --> $140 PLUS 30%
$2,000 and above --> $440 PLUS 40%
At the end of each transaction, the information related to the transaction would be displayed on the screen. Please see the example as follows.
Customer ID: 1Total sale amount: 110Discount amount: 1Discounted sale amount: 109Reward point: 1Additional discount: 0Additional discounted sale amount:
109Cumulative sale amount for the next reward point: 10Final sale amount: 109Moreover, at the end of each transaction, the information related to the transaction
needs to be written (appended) out in a file called sales.txt in the following way:1 110 1 109 1 0 109 10 109However, next time if the same customer spends $50
then the following lines should be displayed on the screen.Customer ID: 1Total sale amount: 50Discount amount: 0Discounted sale amount: 50Reward point:
1Additional discount: 0Additional discounted sale amount: 50Cumulative sale amount for the next reward point: 60Final sale amount: 50 and 1 50 0 50 1 0 50 60
50 would be written (appended) in the salex.txt file.Again, if the same customer spends $40 then the following lines should be displayed on the screen.Customer
ID: 1Total sale amount: 40Discount amount: 0Discounted sale amount: 40Reward point: 2Additional discount: 0Additional discounted sale amount: 40Cumulative
sale amount for the next reward point: 0Final sale amount: 40and 1 40 0 40 2 0 40 0 40 would be written (appended) in the salex.txt file.
Use appropriate data structure in writing your code.
All exceptions need to be handled. Invalid inputs need to be handled and asked for a valid input again.
Use functions to make your program well designed, instead of just using a single main function. For example, you could use a function to take inputs from a user, a
function to compute the discount, a function to compute the reward points, a function to display the output on the screen and so on. We expect you to use at least
four (4) functions other than the main function.
In order to compute the reward points of a customer your program will need to read the sales.txt file. A customer is identified by her/his unique Customer ID, and
may appear multiple times in the sales.txt file.
Write an algorithm in structured English (pseudocode) that describes the steps required to perform the task specified. Some examples of pseudocode can be
found at http://www.unf.edu/~broggio/cop2221/2221pseu.htm.
Implement your algorithm in Python.
Avoid duplicate code.
Comment your code as necessary to explain it clearly.
Select 3 sets of test data that will demonstrate the correct “normal” operation of your program.
Run your program using the test data you have selected and save the output it produces in a text file.
Submit:
1. Your algorithm.
2. The table recording your chosen test data.
3. Source code for your Python implementation.
4. Output listings demonstrating the results of using the test data.
It is important that the output listings are not edited in any way

455

A smaller version of an image is called

456

Task

W Mart, a new retail chain, has announced a discount on the total sale amount, in a single transaction, using the following scheme.
Table 1: Discount on Sale Amount

Total Sale Amount

Discount on this sale amount

Less than $100

0%

From $100 up to less than $500

10% for each dollar over $100

From $500 up to less than $1,000

$40 PLUS 20% of the total sale amount over $500

From $1,000 up to less than $2,000

$140 PLUS 30% of the total sale amount over $1,000

$2,000 and above

$440 PLUS 40% of the total sale amount over $2,000

That is, if the total sale amount is $100 then the discount will be $0. However, if the total sale amount is $101 then the discount will be $0.10. If the total sale
amount is $500 then the discount will be $40, but if the total sale amount is $501 then the discount will be $40.20.
W Mart keeps track of a customer through a unique customer ID. W Mart gives one reward point for every $100 spent irrespective of the number of transactions.
The points accumulate over the time for a customer for his/her purchases. Finally, for each 100 reward points it gives an additional discount of $10 on a purchase
over $10 in a transaction.
Write a Python program that, for every transaction, takes input on the customer ID and the total sale amount in the transaction. It then reads a text file called
discount.txt that stores information on the discount on sales amount as shown in Table 1 above. The text file stores the information in a plain text format as follows.
Less than $100 --> 0%
From $100 up to less than $500 --> 10%
From $500 up to less than $1,000 --> $40 PLUS 20%
From $1,000 up to less than $2,000 --> $140 PLUS 30%
$2,000 and above --> $440 PLUS 40%
At the end of each transaction, the information related to the transaction would be displayed on the screen. Please see the example as follows.
Customer ID: 1Total sale amount: 110Discount amount: 1Discounted sale amount: 109Reward point: 1Additional discount: 0Additional discounted sale amount:
109Cumulative sale amount for the next reward point: 10Final sale amount: 109Moreover, at the end of each transaction, the information related to the transaction
needs to be written (appended) out in a file called sales.txt in the following way:1 110 1 109 1 0 109 10 109However, next time if the same customer spends $50
then the following lines should be displayed on the screen.Customer ID: 1Total sale amount: 50Discount amount: 0Discounted sale amount: 50Reward point:
1Additional discount: 0Additional discounted sale amount: 50Cumulative sale amount for the next reward point: 60Final sale amount: 50 and 1 50 0 50 1 0 50 60
50 would be written (appended) in the salex.txt file.Again, if the same customer spends $40 then the following lines should be displayed on the screen.Customer
ID: 1Total sale amount: 40Discount amount: 0Discounted sale amount: 40Reward point: 2Additional discount: 0Additional discounted sale amount: 40Cumulative
sale amount for the next reward point: 0Final sale amount: 40and 1 40 0 40 2 0 40 0 40 would be written (appended) in the salex.txt file.
Use appropriate data structure in writing your code.
All exceptions need to be handled. Invalid inputs need to be handled and asked for a valid input again.
Use functions to make your program well designed, instead of just using a single main function. For example, you could use a function to take inputs from a user, a
function to compute the discount, a function to compute the reward points, a function to display the output on the screen and so on. We expect you to use at least
four (4) functions other than the main function.
In order to compute the reward points of a customer your program will need to read the sales.txt file. A customer is identified by her/his unique Customer ID, and
may appear multiple times in the sales.txt file.
Write an algorithm in structured English (pseudocode) that describes the steps required to perform the task specified. Some examples of pseudocode can be
found at http://www.unf.edu/~broggio/cop2221/2221pseu.htm.
Implement your algorithm in Python.
Avoid duplicate code.
Comment your code as necessary to explain it clearly.
Select 3 sets of test data that will demonstrate the correct “normal” operation of your program.
Run your program using the test data you have selected and save the output it produces in a text file.
Submit:
1. Your algorithm.
2. The table recording your chosen test data.
3. Source code for your Python implementation.
4. Output listings demonstrating the results of using the test data.
It is important that the output listings are not edited in any way.

Rationale

457

What is the need of multiple MOC in ios?

458

Please see the attached file for details of question

Document Preview:
Question 1:
Snort Rules (10 Marks) Scenario A small company has a network set up behind a NAT router. The router is connected to the Internet via a single ISP provided
dynamic IP address. The ISP provided access address may change over short periods of time. The internal network is RFC 1918 Category 2 compliant, and uses
the private address space 192.168.2.0/24. The gateway router is configured to use DHCP allocated IP addresses to internal hosts as they connect. However, a
record is kept within the router of what IP addresses have previously been allocated to specific MAC addresses. Whenever those MAC addressed hosts
disconnect from and later reconnect to the network they are reallocated the same IP address. It is only if the router has a power off episode, or is manually reset,
that allocation of different IP addresses may occur (and even then, the same addresses may be allocated as before). The company operates an approved internal
web server at 192.168.2.21:80, to facilitate in-house development of web pages and web sites that will later be deployed to an external server for public access. It
is a company policy that only one approved internal web server is to be in operation on the network. You are the company IT Manager. It has come to your notice
that a company employee has set up a rogue web server on the internal network, using a personal laptop. The employee is using that web site to provide
undesirable material to a small clique of employees, to whom the web server address has been provided secretly. The company CEO has requested you to:
Obtain hard evidence that an employee is in fact using a personal laptop to set up a rogue web server. Find out what other employees are accessing the rogue
web site. Considerations The rogue web server may be on any internal IP address, and will be using any of the ephemeral ports. It will not be using a well-known
port. The clients accessing the rogue web server may come from any...

Attach 458

459

Please answer the attached cryptology question for my Masters of Information Technology

Document Preview:
Information required to answer question: Student Name: Brooke Alcock CQU Mail: [emailprotected] Lecturer's Name: Ian Hayward Question 5 10
marks You are the Chief Information security Officer (CISO) of a small medium sized - accounting Services Company. In the last few weeks, senior staff have
been complaining that some confidential information has been disclosed via email without any authorisation. You are approached by the Chief Information Officer
(CIO) to discuss the issue and see the most appropriate way to tackle this problem. You suspect that some of the employees might be using their technical skills to
access sensitive information either from the mail servers or during transmission. To counteract this malpractice, you suggest the CIO the implementation of
encryption. Before you actually implement the system, you want to conduct a pilot using the GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) software. The pilot requires that you install
GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) software onto your own computer and complete the following activities. Note: The GNU Privacy Guard is available for free download
from http://www.gnupg.org/ and “A Practical Introduction to GNU Privacy Guard in Windows” by Brendan Kidwell is available at
http://www.glump.net/howto/gpg_intro After installing GPG software onto your own computer, complete the following tasks: Generate your own key-pair by using
GPG software and do not create a pass-phrase for your private key (in a real world this is not a good practice. Just for the sake of this assignment, do not create a
pass-phrase). You need to use screen-shots to show that you have successfully completed this task. A valid screen-shot is similar to the one shown in Figure 1.
Pay attention to the red circles, which demonstrate the success of key pair generation ( 2 marks). Figure 1 Key Pair Creation Export your public key and paste it
into your assignment document. You need to use two screen-shots to show that you have...

Attach 459

460

computer concept

461

. Assume that a student of assessment category A in our class have the following grades at the end of the semester. Compute the overall grade out of

100 and _nd the letter grade: Homeworks (out of 100

462

modulating signal of 2 cos5000t is amplitude modulated over a carrier signal of 5cos20000t . Derive expressions for the modulation index, LSB and

VSB frequencies, Bandwidth and the ratio of Side

463

mdeaning of NL3 DB 0AH,0DH

464

You are an IT consultant. Your client just got a large account and needs to upgrade their network from the ground up. With this large account, they

need to upgrade to a Fast Ethernet network. They need 10 client computers total for day to day business needs (nothing fancy), as well as a file and backup
server, printer, and networking hardware. Price out everything for this. You will need to list what client computers you will suggest including the details of these
machines, along with what networking hardware you decided they should use, and most importantly why you are suggesting it. Make sure you give the cost per
piece of hardware and include everything down to the networking cables. The client will plan on using Windows 7 for their clients as well as Windows Server 2012
for their server(s).

465

no plagarism

Attach 465

466

blog

Document Preview:
CRICOS Provider No. 00103D ass 3 itech 7401 leaderhsip blog 2015-17.docx Page 1 of 3 Assignment 3 ITECH 7401 Leadership for IT Project Management Task
Leadership Blog Due Date Week 11 – Leadership Blog – Fri, Oct 2, 2015 – by Fri, 5:00 pm Worth 20% (30 marks) Purpose The purpose of this task is to
encourage students to expand their thinking through reading and sharing of their ideas in a web 2.0 format used by many project managers. Learning Outcomes
The following learning outcomes are reinforced in the completion of this task: K5, S2, S3 and A1. Background A blog is a discussion or informational site published
on the web consisting of regular entries or posts in chronological order. A blog features diary-type commentary and links to articles on other websites. Many blogs
focus on a particular topic; team blogs will focus on an area of project management leadership. Blogs are useful for first time and experienced project managers,
and are widely used in the industry. The purpose of your project management leadership blog is to share the results of your research and investigations with other
members of your team, and gather their feedback regarding your thoughts and ideas. For some examples project management blogs see:
http://projectnewstoday.com/2013-top-25-project-management-blogs/Requirements Students are required to work in a team (three to 5 members). Each individual
student is required to select a journal article on some area of project management leadership related to the course, or extending the course ideas, and write a blog
reviewing the journal article, providing a critique of the ideas including conclusions and lessons learned (approximately 1000 words). The review should be
supported by references from literature, demonstrating wider reading and critical thinking. Each team member's blog will be reviewed by the other team members
(approximately 100 words per review). Each team member will be required to review two other team member’s blogs. Each team...

Attach 466

467

How could the farm’s day-to-day operations be improved of blackberry hill farm

468

For the following grammar and the right sentential form F * (id + id) draw a parse tree and show all phrases, simple phrases, and the handle (E, T, and

F are nonterminal symbols; id is a terminal symbol). Explain.

469

Write a program that reads a line of text, changes each uppercase letter to the lowercase, and places in a queue and onto a stack. The program

should then verify whether the line of text is a palindrom in C++

470

its a continuation of first assignment...

Attach 470

471

Project Design part 1.

Document Preview:
Introduction This assignment is the first of five assignments, in which you will gradually build up the web site for your term project. It is meant to give you practice
in creating templates for the pages on your site, based on facelets in JSF. It will also allow you to begin the process of implementing the pages on your site by
creating several prototype content pages that will use your templates, including: A home page for your site. A page that allows the user to create a new type of
item. A page listing the items the user can select (initially this will just be a stub). You will also begin implementing some of the underlying logic for your site.
Specifically, you will begin creating a managed bean for the site. Facelets/Master page for Formatting You should begin by designing and creating a template for
your site, using a facelet template page. I strongly suggest that you do this first, since it is much easier to add content pages to an existing template, rather than
creating the content pages first and then adapting them to your template. Your template is required to contain the following: The name of your (fictional)
organization. It should be in a larger font than the rest of the content, along with an image of some sort. A set of links to the major pages on your site. This is to
include: The “home page” of your site. The “new item” page. The “item selection” page. A content area where the specific page content will be displayed. You are
also required to put these things in different areas of your template. For example: I also encourage you to be creative about your design. If you are familiar with
CSS, I encourage you to add CSS to your site (or to manipulate the built-in CSS of the facelet template). Prototype Pages Most web sites (or other types of
software) are never implemented all at once. Instead, a few prototypes of the major pages are created first, in order to see how they would look in the context of
the web site as a...

Attach 471

472

Use these data to compute the expected number of Internet hosts in the year 2018.

473

1. How does the WiMAX privacy sublayer provide security for a WiMAX network? [5 marks]

2. How does CSMA/CA in DCF handle media contention? [5 marks]

3. Telestra is a company that is licensed to provide wired telecommunication services in Australia. The company has contracted Exetel to assist it with the selection
and implementation of a new field service system. The goal is to provide service technicians with wireless access to the corporate network and a vast electronic
library of technical manuals and schematic diagrams, which would reduce or eliminate the need for staff to carry a large number of books and drawings, especially
while servicing equipment underground or when climbing on transmission towers. In addition, this means that the technicians would be able to immediately read
and update the records for all the equipment, thereby avoiding massive amounts of paperwork as well as potential errors and omissions. However, the company is
having trouble deciding on which technology to adopt- handheld cellular, tables with 3G or 4G access, or notebooks equipped with cellular cards. Exetel has asked
you to help.

-Create a presentation outlining the advantages for Telestra of using digital cellular handsets or cellular wireless cards. Determine the ability of the smaller cellular
handsets (as opposed to notebook computers, which may be difficult to carry everywhere) to display standard PC documents such as Word, Excel, and PDF files,
and evaluate how this could help the company. Because the group you will be presenting to is composed of nontechnical manager, be sure your presentation is
understandable by both technical and non-technical personnel. Limit yourself to a maximum of 15 PowerPoint slides. [9 marks]

474

. Future Electronics makes CD players. Its research department found that the life of the laser beam device is normally distributed, with mean 5000

hours and standard deviation 450 hours.

475

ERP case study assignment expecting a good assignment answerdeadline is in australian timings

Attach 475

476

The address depletion of IPv4 and other shortcomings of this protocol prompted a new version of IP known as IPv6. Explain the advantages of this

new IPv6 when compared to IPv4?

477

Design a flowchart or pseudocode for the following a program that accepts salesperson data continuously until a sentinel value is entered and

displays a list of high performers

478

Let’s design a logic circuit that controls an elevator door in a three-story building. The circuit in Figure 4-19(a) has four inputs. M is a logic signal that

indicates when the elevator is moving (M = 1) or stopped (M = 0). F1, F2, and F3 are floor indicator signals that are normally LOW, and they go HIGH only when
the elevator is positioned at the level of that particular floor. For example, when the elevator is lined up level with the second floor, F2 = 1 and F1 = F3 = 0. The
circuit output is the OPEN signal, which is normally LOW and will go HIGH when the elevator door is to be opened.
View complete question »

479

deffind(word,letter,startat):try:returnword[startat:].index(letter)+startatexcept:return­1

480

fdsa

481

You are to prepare a brief paper, but a minimum of three single-spaced (six double-spaced) pages for the body of your text, based on the following:

Choose an organization that you work for, or one with which you are familiar. Using the information on organizations and teams in Marchewka, Chapter 4 and the

PMBOK Guide, Chapter 2 as a starting point, describe the following for the organization you have chosen:
the formal organization structure (functional, matrix, project-based, or a hybrid of these) that currently exists

informal structures and relationships and how they affect work

how teams are formed

how teams are managed
Discuss the positive or negative effects the existing formal and informal structures are having on projects within the organization (or might have if you do not have
information on current projects). Finally, discuss what changes might be made in the organization to improve team management and project performance.

482

For effective risk management, it is not enough to merely identify potential risks to a project. While this is better than nothing, in order to fully realise

the benefit of risk management processes, you need to also analyse (and document) how each risk identified may impact a project as well as the probability of
their occurrence. Moreover, you need to have a strategy already in mind for addressing said risks should they come to pass. With respect given to these points,
consider the following scenario:

‘You have been assigned as the manager on a project to develop a new application system for your business partner. You were given two weeks to develop a
project plan and high level cost estimates.

Unfortunately, this is a relatively new technology for the company, and although the technology has been tried and tested elsewhere, there are no previous internal
projects you can use to help make your estimates. Your initial estimate calls for a six-month development effort with a planned staff of 10.
The new system takes data feeds from three upstream applications, and sends information back to two of them. You have never worked with these three systems
in the past, although one of your developers used to work in the group that supports one of them. Note that an upstream application is one of which your own
program is not aware. Essentially, it is a program that feeds data to an ETL (extract, transform and load) process which in turn feeds the data to another process.
Your application knows about the ETL, but it does not know from where the data loader is getting its data (the upstream program)’.
For this Assignment, identify the top three risks associated with the given scenario. For each risk, document its risk event, impact and probability for occurrence.
Use this information to develop and recommend mitigation strategies for each risk.
To complete this Assignment:
Submit a paper in which you address the given scenario by identifying its top three risks and explaining the risk event for each. Furthermore, analyse each of your
risks in terms of how it will impact the scenario’s project as well as how likely the risk is to occur. Explain your reasoning and use your analyses to develop
strategies for minimising, or completely avoiding, your identified risks. Be sure to explain how and why your strategies will work.
For all Assignments:
Your document should have 700–1,000 words (not including the list of works cited), but it is the quality of the answer that matters, not the number of words. Cite
and reference all sources using the Harvard Liverpool Referencing System. By Day 7, upload your document using the Turnitin submission link for this
Assignment.

483

Consider all of the professional and/or academic projects you have worked on in the past. In any of those projects, were there any problems that could

have been avoided or perhaps an opportunity that was missed? Either way, the end results of the project were affected in a negative manner. Had there been
more effective risk management employed, the impact of the negative issue could have been minimised, while the opportunity’s benefit maximised. In both
scenarios, the end result of the project would have been affected more positively.

Unfortunately, failure to adequately implement risk management into a project is not uncommon. This is not always for a lack of trying, as there are several risk
management mistakes that are commonly made on projects. For example, sometimes the risk management process is done too late; disallowing sufficient time to
resolve or circumvent risks. Should risk management be effectively implemented, however, the end results of the project will be improved. With these thoughts in
mind, reflect on any current, or past, project teams with which you have worked. Did your team attempt to implement risk management? For this Discussion,
analyse the results of that implementation, or lack thereof should that be the case.

To complete this Discussion:

Post: Create an initial post in which you summarise a current or past project team with which you have worked. In your post, explain whether or not your team
attempted to implement risk management. If yes, explain whether or not the team was successful in implementing risk management and why. Analyse how the
project was affected by this successful risk management implementation. If your team was not successful in risk management implementation (or did not
implement it at all), explain why and analyse how the consequences impacted your project.

484

gasdgadsgasdgasdgasdgadsgasdgsdgasasdgasdgasdgadsgdsgadsgasdgasdgasdtqwetewatgsadgasdhgasdhgdg

Attach 484

485

HS2011 Systems Analysis and Design-Trimester 2 20151

UsingbelowtheSally’s Pet Store Case Study, you are to prepare UserRequirements Document. It is suggested that a framework for the document couldbe based
on the following structure
:1.Business Overview (Goals, Business Objectives,CurrentBusinessSituation,Problems, Gaps, Opportunities)[4marks
]2.Data Gathering( such as interview, etc.)and Data Analysis(such as DocumentAnalysis, etc) to determine system’s requirements[1.5+1.5 =3marks]
3.Logical Process Modelling,(suchas DFD0, DFD 1, etc.)[4 marks]
4.Data Modelling and Normalisation(such as ER diagram, etc.)[4marks]
The report should be less than 1000 words excluding references and front page

Attach 485

486

I need this paper 100% original.without default.

Attach 486

487

I have done the LA 8. remaining codes should be added to the program. its the program for maze game. I have attached the program file with the

assignment.

Attach 487

488

Prepare an essay that describes the access performance requirements for a network fileserver, application server, and/or Web server. Include the

pros and cons of the server you chose.

489

1. How does the WiMAX privacy sublayer provide security for a WiMAX network? [5 marks]

2. How does CSMA/CA in DCF handle media contention? [5 marks]
3. Telestra is a company that is licensed to provide wired telecommunication services in Australia. The company has contracted Exetel to assist it with the selection
and implementation of a new field service system. The goal is to provide service technicians with wireless access to the corporate network and a vast electronic
library of technical manuals and schematic diagrams, which would reduce or eliminate the need for staff to carry a large number of books and drawings, especially
while servicing equipment underground or when climbing on transmission towers. In addition, this means that the technicians would be able to immediately read
and update the records for all the equipment, thereby avoiding massive amounts of paperwork as well as potential errors and omissions. However, the company is
having trouble deciding on which technology to adopt- handheld cellular, tables with 3G or 4G access, or notebooks equipped with cellular cards. Exetel has asked
you to help.
-Create a presentation outlining the advantages for Telestra of using digital cellular handsets or cellular wireless cards. Determine the ability of the smaller cellular
handsets (as opposed to notebook computers, which may be difficult to carry everywhere) to display standard PC documents such as Word, Excel, and PDF files,
and evaluate how this could help the company. Because the group you will be presenting to is composed of nontechnical manager, be sure your presentation is
understandable by both technical and non-technical personnel. Limit yourself to a maximum of 15 PowerPoint slides. [9 marks]
RationaleTo demonstrate your understanding of:

wireless networks terminology and technology;

planning and performing wireless network site survey;

wireless network security;

emerging mobile network technologies;

research skills;

Provide citation and referencing based on CSU guidelines

Marking criteria

490

In this assignment, you are to design and implement the Best Deal business database that you have modelled in the assignment-1 and a series of

SQL queries to reflect the business logic of the Best Deal.

Document Preview:
Table of Contents 1. ER diagram 2 2. Normalization 4 2.1. Dependency diagram 4 2.2. Normalization level 4 3. Relation schema 5 References 8 ER diagram
Assumptions Official can speak one to many languages. An official will have one role at a time. A language can be spoken by one to many drivers. A vehicle can
be booked for zero to many bookings. A driver can be booked for zero to many bookings. An official can be booked for zero to many bookings. A vehicle can be
maintained zero to many times. Normalization Dependency diagram Normalization level Above mentioned relations should be in 3rd Normal form to have an
efficient database. In addition to this, relations are required not to possess partial dependency and transitive dependency to be in 3rd Normal Form. All relations
have single candidate key. This can be explained through Maintenance relation. The candidate key is ID. Attributes: mDate – It depicts the date on which vehicle is
done for maintenance and more than one vehicle can be maintained on same date. mfinalCost – More than two entries can have same final cost. mAction - Same
action can be done for more than one maintenance oReading - Same odometer reading can belong to more than one maintenance. This relation shows that there
is no partial dependency. Also apart from ID no other attribute can uniquely define records. Hence, it passes transitive dependency rule as well. Hence, the relation
is in 3rd Normal form. Same principle applies to all other relations. Relation schema Relation: Vehicle Attribute Data Type Primary Key Foreign Key vin
VARCHAR(20) Y - vRegNo VARCHAR(7) - - vMake CHAR(20) - - vModel VARCHAR(20) - - vStatus CHAR(5) - - cReading BIGINT - - Relation: Maintenance
Attribute Data Type Primary Key Foreign Key ID BIGINT Y - mDate DATETIME - - mFinalCost INT - - mDescription VARCHAR(30) - - mAction CHAR(1) - oReading INT - - vehicle VARCHAR(20) - - Relation:...

Attach 490

491

which installer we are using in windows operating system

492

a) What is the type of block of the abbreviated IPv6 address

2001:A100:FC1::A4B8:AE12:3217:FCBA?

493

Programming in C++

Document Preview:

78 85 67 94 83 90 57 78 48 90 73 87 56 85 79 78 85 83 84 88 85 89 82 81 90 89 90 94 76 78 92 93 73 98 95 94 85 78 90 81 72 63 90 85 87 74 83 84 82 69 76
85 67 72 93 89 95 95 83 79 86 86 81 83 92 86 78 96 93 83 76 70 89 72 84 98 87 88 57 83 74 83 69 86 93 90 93 91 94 90 96 94 87 85 89 78 88 93 77 81 85 74
94 87 84 99 89 93 83 87 61 69 75 77 90 83 84 73 80 75 92 94 86 97 86 90 77 83 68 84 87 74 82 88 72 98 87 90 94 85 82 67 84 77 84 60 73 93 91 87

Attach 493

494

Suppose that a 256M * 128 Memory built using 1024*32 RAM Chips and memory is word addressable. [5 marks]a. How many RAM Chips are

necessary?b. How many RAM Chips are there per memory word?c. How many address bits are needed for each RAM Chip?d. How many banks will this memory
have?e. How many address bits are needed for all memory?

495

The Internet is roughly doubling in size every 18 months. Although no one really knows for sure, one estimate put the number of hosts on it at 600

million in 2009. Use these data to compute the expected number of Internet hosts in the year 2018. Do you believe this? Explain why or why not

496

Define a character variable letterStart. Read the character from the user, print that letter and the next letter in the alphabet. Sample output assuming

the user enters 'a':

497

Jdjdhdd

498

What is the average access time of a system having three levels of memory, a cache memory, a semiconductor main memory, and a magnetic disk

second- ary memory, if the access times of the memories are 20 ns, 100 ns, and 1 ms, respectively. The cache hit ratio is 90% and the main memory hit ratio is
95%.

499

Transform the following left recursive EBNF grammar into an equivalent non-left recursive grammar (S and A are nonterminal symbols; S is the start

symbol; a and b are terminal symbols): S aSb | bAS A AaA | bAA | AAa | bAb

500
I have attched the doc with assignment i did and on top what missing. i need someone to rectify that asap. i really need in 13-14 hrs. its hard 10
minutes job
Document Preview:
This reader centered letter is Great! 8 This reader-centered letter includes all pieces, but doesn’t stand out. 6 Points This reader-centered letter needs
improvement in all areas. 3 Points Superstructure The following pieces are included in your instructions: Introduction, Description of the Equipment, List of
Materials and Equipment needed, Directions and Troubleshooting Three or Four of the pieces are included in the Instructions. One or Two of the pieces are listed
in your instructions. Organization of Directions The instructions procedure is in groups of steps rather than presenting all the steps in a single list. Headings are
used to label the groups of steps. The directions are organized hierarchically. The steps are listed as an organized list. Headings are used in the majority of the
sections. The directions are readable. The instructions are listed step by step but with some confusion. Some steps are missing. Headings are not consistently
used. Directions are unclear. Graphics The graphics have been carefully planned and help the reader understand the steps required. Illustrations for the majority
of steps are included. The graphics have been created for most steps, although it requires some effort by the reader to follow the steps and understand the
procedure. Graphics are minimal and do not help the reader understand the steps. Page Design Page design has three or more columns. There are large figures
and the title for the instructions fit very minimal white space. Page design has two columns. There are large figures and the title for the instructions fit, and contains
little white space. Page design does not include any columns. The figures and instructions are small and the page contains a large amount of white space. Rubric
for Writing Instructions ©2013 ed4online. All rights reserved. _____________/__32____Points

Attach 500

501

I need this lab

Attach 501

502

1.Write a program to find solutions to the n-queens puzzle for various valuesof n. To be specific, test your program for n =4 and n =8.1.Write a

program to find solutions to the n-queens puzzle for various valuesof n. To be specific, test your program for n =4 and n =8.

503

What is the difference between TCP/IP and OSI Model?

504

i want my assignment by 3 days is that possible for you

Document Preview:
Due date: Friday (5:00 p.m. AEST) - Week 12 ASSESSMENT Weighting: 50% 2 Submission Requirements You are required to submit: A single Microsoft Word
file (unzipped) via the Moodle course web site. Details about the online submission process required for this assessment item are available from the course
website. A copy of mydetails.txt.asc file from Question 5 Question 1: Snort Rules (10 Marks) Scenario A small company has a network set up behind a NAT router.
The router is connected to the Internet via a single ISP provided dynamic IP address. The ISP provided access address may change over short periods of time.
The internal network is RFC 1918 Category 2 compliant, and uses the private address space 192.168.3.0/24. The gateway router is configured to use DHCP
allocated IP addresses to internal hosts as they connect. However, a record is kept within the router of what IP addresses have previously been allocated to

specific MAC addresses. Whenever those MAC addressed hosts disconnect from and later reconnect to the network they are reallocated the same IP address. It
is only if the router has a power off episode, or is manually reset, that allocation of different IP addresses may occur (and even then, the same addresses may be
allocated as before). The company operates an approved internal web server at 192.168.3.21:80, to facilitate in-house development of web pages and web sites
that will later be deployed to an external server for public access. It is a company policy that only one approved internal web server is to be in operation on the
network. You are the company IT Manager. It has come to your notice that a company employee has set up a rogue web server on the internal network, using a
personal laptop. The employee is using that web site to provide undesirable material to a small clique of employees, to whom the web server address has been
provided secretly. The company CEO has requested you to: Obtain hard evidence that an employee...

Attach 504

505

You are doing this assignment for one of my friend, I need different work for this problem

Document Preview:
You will be designing a simple Sudoku Game. The rules of Sudoku can be found on web. The rules are explained: When the New Game button is selected, the
user selects a file with the FileChooser The file is then read and displayed When the user selects the Display Possible Values button, all valid values for Row 2,
Column 2 are displayed. When the user selects the Enter button, the value is displayed at the row 2, column 2 if the value is valid for row 2, column 2. Examples
of Error Messages ValueNotValidException InputOutOfRangeException

Attach 505

506

How to work with c programs

507

4-18 Hungry's Fine Fast Foods is interested in looking at their staffing for the lunch rush, running from 10 AM to 2 PM. People arrive as walk0ins, by

car, or on a (roughly) scheduled bus, as follows:* Walk-ins -----one at a time, interarrivals are exponential with mean 3 minutes; the first walk-in occurs EXPO(3)
minutes past 10 AM.*By car ----- with one, two, three, or four people to a car with respective probabilities 0.2, 0.3, 0.3, and 0.2; interarrivals distributed as
exponential with mean 5 minutes; the first car arrives EXPO(5) minutes past 10 AM.*A single bus arrves everyday sometime between 11 AM and 1 PM (arrival time
distributes uniformly over this period). The number of people on the bus varies from day to day, but it appears to follow a Poisson distribution with a mean of 30
people.Once people arrive, either alone or in a group from any source, they operate in-dependently regardless of their source. The first stop is with one of the
servers at the order/payment counter, where ordering takes TRIA(1, 2,4) minutes and payment then takes TRIA(1, 2, 3) minutes; these two operations are
sequential, first order-taking then payment, by the same server for a given customer. The next stop is to pick up the food ordered which takes an amount of time
distributed uniformly between 30 seconds and 2 minutes. Then each customer goes to the dining room. which has 30 seats (people are willing to sit anywhere. not
necessarily with their group), and partakes of the sublime victuals, taking an enjoyable TRIA(11,20,31) minutes. After that, the customer walks fulfilled to the door
and leaves. Queueing at each of the three "service" stations (order/pay, pickup food, and dining room) is allowed, with FIFO discipline. There is a travel time of
EXPO(30) seconds from each station to all but the exit door ----entry to orfer/pay, order/pay to pickup food, and pickup food to dining. After eating, people move
more slowly, so the travel time from the dining room to the exit is EXPO(1) minute.The servers at both order/pay and pickup food have a single break that they
"share" on a rotating basis. More specifically, at 10:50, 11:50, 12:50, and 1:50, one sever from each station goes on a 10-minute break; if the person due to go on
break at a station is busy at break time, he or she finishes serving the customer but still has to be back at the top of the hour (so the break could be alittle shorter
than 10 minutes)Staffing is the main issue facing Hungry's. Currently, there are six severs at the order/pay station and two at the pickup food station throughout the
4-hour period. Since they know that the bus arrives sometime during the middle 2 hours, they're considering a variable staffing plan that, for the first and last hour
would have three at orfer/pay and one at pickup food, and for the middle 2 hours would have nine at order/pay and three at pickup food (note that the total number
of person-hours on the payroll is the same, 32, under either the current staffing plan or the alternate plan, so the payroll cost is the same). What's your advice?In
terms of output, observe the average and maximum length of each queue, the average and maximum time in each queue, and the total number of customers
completely served and out the door. Make plots of the queues to get into order/pay, pickup food, and the dining room, Animate all queues, resources, and
movements between stations. Pick from a. plb picture library a humanoid picture for the entities (different for each arrival source), and make an appropriate change
to their appearance after they've finished eating and leave the dining room. Also, while you won't be able to animate the individual servers or seats in the dining
room, pick reasonable pictrures for them as well.

508

Basics of c language

509

to construct a loop that works correctly, you should initialize a loop control

510

I am an experienced tutor in SQL/PLSQL concepts , looking for opportunity to teach online

511

Plsql

512

a) What is the type of block of the abbreviated IPv6 address

2001:A100:FC1::A4B8:AE12:3217:FCBA?

What is the type of address of the abbreviated IPv6 address 0::FFFF:194.42.12.7?

513

Hello! Can someone help me with this aissignment. Thanks

Write a modular program that allows two players to play a game of tic-tac-toe. Use a twodimensional char array with 3 rows and 3 columns as the game board.
Each element of the array should be initialized with an asterisk (* ). The program should display the initial
board configuration and then start a loop that does the following:
• Allow player 1 to select a location on the board for an X by entering a row and column number. Then redisplay the board with an X replacing the *. in the chosen
location.
• If there is no winner yet and the board is not yet full, allow player 2 to select a location on the board for an 0 by entering a row and column number. Then
redisplay the board with an 0 replacing the * in the chosen location.
The loop should continue until a player has won or a tie has occurred, then display a message indicating who won, or reporting that a tie occurred.
• Player 1 wins when there are three Xs in a row, a column, or a diagonal on the game board.

• Player 2 wins when there are three Os in a row, a column, or a diagonal on the game board.
• A tie occurs when all of the locations on the board are full, but there is no winner.

You are required to use a class to accomplish the program. The class should have a two dimensional array of either the char type as a private variable. The class
could have some other private variables needed. A constructor must be a public member and it should be used to initialize private variables. Remember that a you
need two loops to access all rows and columns to initialize each array element.

There must be other public functions to do tasks such as XPlay, OPlay, DetermineAWinner, and others as needed. The main should have a loop to repeat tasks
until there is a winner or a tie.

514

Using javafx (Display three cards) Write a program that displays three cards randomly selected from a deck of 52, as shown in Figure 14.43c. The

card image files are named 1.png, 2.png, ..., 52.png and stored in teh image/card directory. All three cards are distinct and selected randomly. Hint: You can select
random cards by storing the numbers 1-52 to an array list, perform a random shuffle introduced in Section 11.12, and use the first three numbers in the array list as
the file names for the image.

515

I am not able to complete it can you guys help me

Document Preview:

GE 1111: Integrated Assignment Spring 2015 Professor Pfluger Lab Project Instructions:
Both C++ and MATLAB should be incorporated in to this project and this project is to be completed individually without collaboration with others. Please keep a
record of your time invested. A Time Log sheet is attached. A description of the Integrated Lab Project is on the pages to follow, requirements first, details to follow.
Please submit the following, clipped or stapled, in order, in a pocket folder with the standard Cover Page. All general requirements are underlined:
A submission to Blackboard Named Integrated project with the two programs (C++ and MATLAB plus function files) and input files in it, nothing else. ALSO, paste
your C++ and Matlab code to ONE WORD file and upload that to the Turnitin link on Blackboard names Integrated Project. Be sure to keep a backup copy of all
your work in case anything happens to your submissions. A Cover Sheet with course and assignment information, your name, class designation, date, and
contents of packet. A small professional image or logo is optional with the name that you have given your consulting company that uses programming to help
optimize operational decisions. A Preparatory Document which illustrates your plan and the relationship among the data, procedures and programs. This could be
diagram, a flow chart, algorithm, or pseudocode (not merely unpunctuated code) that helps a reader visualize your work. Presume that you would use this
document to explain your approach to a shipping supervisor, not a programmer or professor. A professional sectioned, organized Report, Memo, Summary, or
Letter (your choice) that is written to WHO ?the company that has hired you- describing: What data you have used and how it is organized, using variable and files
names you have chosen; How you have managed and computed the data in C++ and MATLAB; What you recommend for their optimal shipping decision and why;
Why they...

Attach 515

516

javascript:void(0);

517
Hi
how are doing , you will find assignment attach with all chapters may help for the answer ?
Document Preview:
Enterprise Systems (IT342) Assignment 1 Important Instructions: Read and understand the questions carefully. This is an individual work, so make sure it is your
own. Search the book or other resources to have a better understanding of the questions. When you are asked to provide examples, make sure it is your own
example and preferably from experience. Examples must not be identical to other students and have not been discussed in the classes. Use ‘Word Processor’ to
answer the questions. Submission must be through the submission folder set by your instructor on Blackboard, no email submissions will be accepted. Late
submission or plagiarism will result in ZERO mark. This assignment worth 5 marks of the total course mark. From Chapter 1 Q1) Explain the statement
“Stovepiped operations lead to stovepiped systems; stovepiped systems perpetuate stovepiped operations.” [2 Marks] From Chapter 2 Q2) Do you think activities
that could be re-engineered away should serve as foundational building blocks in an enterprise information system? Why or why not? [2 Marks] From Chapter 3
Q3) Do some events occur outside enterprise boundaries? Should information system designers focus on events that lie beyond an enterprise’s boundaries?
Support your answer with a suitable example. [6 Marks] From Chapter 4 Q4) Case Study of “Bowerkate Corporation” [10 Marks] “Bowerkate Corporation” sells
handcrafted surfboards to customers through its network of company salespeople. Each surfboard is given a unique identification number and a suggested selling
price when finished. Upon employment, each salesperson is immediately assigned to service a separate group of customers. When customer data is initially
entered into Bowerkate’s information system, the customer is immediately assigned to a salesperson. Each sale can include one or more surfboard and can be
paid for in any of three ways: (1) Immediately in cash (2) On the 15th of the following month (3) Over the...

Attach 517

518

It ethical issues

Document Preview:
Case Study Link http://gizmodo.com/google-attempts-to-fight-patent-trolls-by-buying-pat-1700413270 You are required to complete the following: Step
1. Construct a diagram to map the arguments about a moral claim that you have identified in the article/case study: Include all supporting and objecting claims.
These claims should include facts collated from your own research and classical ethical theories that support or object to the claim You are expected to 'finish off'

the case's arguments, turning it into a valid and properly structured argument. You should use information from the article/case study, other sources discovered
during your research, and your own reasoned arguments. A balanced and impartial argument is the objective. The main claim/conclusion must be an ethical
claim. Step 2. Write an essay, which maps closely to the diagram that you constructed in Step 1. The word limit for the essay is 1300 words ± 10%. Headings,
citations and references do not count towards the word limit, but quotations do. All the claims shown on the diagram must appear in the essay, and all claims
made in the essay must appear on the diagram. The essay must present all the detailed information that the diagram cannot. Remember to analyse the
article/case study from the perspective of at least two different classical ethical theories and present well reasoned arguments for your assessments and
recommendations. Step 3. Write an overall conclusion that justifies your recommendations made in your essay. Step 4. Reference list Include a Reference list at
the end of your work, in the correct APA referencing style, corresponding to in-text citations. You must include at least FIVE (5) quality academic references from
different sources. Please note that these five references are in addition to those provided to you through this subject (for example, you still must reference,
Tavani, the subject lecture notes etc BUT these references cannot be used as one of your five...

Attach 518

519

5 POSSIBLE POLICIES THAT AN ORGANIZATION COULD IMPLEMENT TO PREVENT CYBER CRIME, CYBER HACKERS AND ETC

520

Indicate the right option to search for anything not a letter or number

521

I need help with this assignment please:

Build a working sample of Huffman Trucking's fleet truck maintenance database.

Use the CREATE table statement to create a table for each entity for Huffman Trucking's fleet truck maintenance database.

Use the INSERT statement to populate the tables with realistic sample data, demonstrating each relationship in your entity relationship diagram. Include at least
two entries for each table.

Use the SELECT statement to create the following queries:

Create a simple query for each table that returns all of the columns and all of the rows for each table.

Write a query that displays each part that has been purchased by Huffman Trucking Company. For each part, also retrieve its parts catalog information from the
parts catalog table and vendor information from the vendor table.

Write a query that displays all of the rows in the vehicle maintenance table. For each vehicle maintenance row, join the corresponding information from the
maintenance descriptions table and vehicles table.

Write a query that displays each row in the maintenance work order table. For each row in the maintenance work order table, join the corresponding information
from the maintenance description table.

Write a query that counts the number of maintenance work orders for each vehicle in the maintenance work order table. Display the vehicle column and the
corresponding count of work orders for each vehicle.

Use Reporting Services to design and create a report on the parts purchasing history for Huffman Trucking Company. The report should display all parts
purchasing history including manufacturer and vendor information, parts catalog information, and associated parts inventory issues, and all parts inventory
purchases.

Format the report to present to senior management at Huffman Trucking.

Attach 521

522

Group Assignment 2015-17 Due date & weighting: refer to course description

Working in groups of 2-3 (strictly), your group is required to conduct, report and present the following investigation:

"Can validation and verification methods be found that tie in with the requirements definition process? They should not require that a complete specification (or
even a design) has to be provided before any conflicts can be discovered."1

1Endres, A & Rombach, D. (2003).A Handbook of Software and Systems Engineering: Empirical Observations, Laws and Theories.Pearson Education (p.286)
Your report - of approximately 2500 words, not including appendices, meeting minutes or references - will be evaluated on: Item

Marks

Requirements

20

Validation

15

Verification

15

Main task (above)

30

Report

10

Presentation (in tutorial)

10

ITECH3501 Total

100

Additional task for ITECH6501

20

ITECH6501 Total

120

</palign="left">
Document Preview:
CRICOS Provider No. 00103D ITECH3501-6501 Principles of Software Engineering Semester 2 2015-17 Page 1 of 2 ITECH3501-6501 Principles of Software
Engineering Group Assignment 2015-17 Due date & weighting: refer to course description Working in groups of 2-3 (strictly), your group is required to conduct,
report and present the following investigation: “Can validation and verification methods be found that tie in with the requirements definition process? They should
not require that a complete specification (or even a design) has to be provided before any conflicts can be discovered.”1 Your report -of approximately 2500 words,
not including appendices, meeting minutes or references -will be evaluated on: Item Marks Requirements 20 Validation 15 Verification 15 Main task (above) 30
Report 10 Presentation (in tutorial) 10 ITECH3501 Total 100 Additional task for ITECH6501 20 ITECH6501 Total 120 Your research should not rely solely on one
source but should be done in an academic manner which draws from independent sources. You are required to indicate, in the report, the breakdown of work
among team members and include any evidence of individual work and substantial contribution to team work (such as meeting minutes or notes). 1 Endres, A &
Rombach, D. (2003). A Handbook of Software and Systems Engineering: Empirical Observations, Laws and Theories. Pearson Education (p.286) CRICOS
Provider No. 00103D ITECH3501-6501 Principles of Software Engineering Semester 2 2015-17 Page 2 of 2 This assignment must have no issues with Turnitin
prior to a final submission – evidence of this must be attached or the assignment cannot be accepted. Referencing should be done according to:
http://federation.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/164121/FedUni-General-Guide-to-Referencing-2014.pdf The following might also be of benefit:
http://federation.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/190044/General-Guide-to-Writing-and-Study-Skills.pdf ITECH3501-6501 Assignment 2 (Group) Marking
Scheme Item...

Attach 522

523

Do you agree that we are in a post-PC stage in the evolution of information systems? Some people argue that we will always need the personal

computer, but that it will not be the primary device used for manipulating information. Others think that a whole new era of mobile and biological computing is
coming. Do some original research and make your prediction about what business computing will look like in the next generation.

524

What are some effective strategies game companies use to market to player communities? What are some distinctions between the roles associated

with marketing—such as promotion, adver- tising, public relations, and sales?

525

How do community management and customer support enhance a game’s credibility and extend the life of a game? What are some techniques used

by community managers to encour- age prosumerism in players?

526

Applying what you learned about geographics, demographics, and psychographics earlier in this book, create a player community profile for an

original game idea. How would you mar- ket to this community? Consider concepts such as viral marketing, generational marketing, prosumerism, and playerdeveloper interactivity.

527

What is the significance of the modding and Beta-testing communities with regard to the player-developer relationship?

528

Search for player communities centered around one of your favorite games—and participate in some forums. What sorts of topics are discussed?

How do players create a bond with one

another? Do players keep up with news related to the game that is provided through marketing?

529

Look through one of the news sites listed in the Appendix and find three examples of how devel- opers connect with players. How are the players able

to provide direct feedback to the developers? How do developers reveal “behind the scenes” information to the players?

530

Create a fan site for your favorite game and have it hosted on a low-cost (or free) hosting ser- vice. Produce content related to the game—such as a

short story, animated sequence, or char- acter art. Market your site online through player forums, and invite other players to contribute content to your site.

531

Search for a modding community site associated with one of your favorite games. Develop a mod using the editor shipped with the game, and post it

on this and other community sites.

532

Distinguish between the different phases of the game development process, and discuss the purpose and importance of each phase.

533

Leadership is a significant but often under-utilized skill in game development manage- ment. Why is this the case, and what strategies do producers

and other managers utilize when leading game development teams?

534

Choose three forms of game documentation and discuss the importance of each in the development process. Discuss three components of each form

of documentation. Why do you think these components are necessary to include in the documentation? Now choose one form of documentation and gear it toward
your original game idea. Make sure that your finished document serves its intended purpose.

535

What is the importance of iterative design? Discuss the three phases of iterative design and what occurs during each phase. How are these phases

connected with each other? How is the player market involved in the iterative design process?

536

Develop an analog (tabletop version) or digital prototype for your original game. What elements will you include in the prototype? Give reasons you

won’t include certain ele- ments at this time. Have a group of people playtest your game and provide comments on elements related to gameplay mechanics,
story/character, mood, functionality, and the “fun factor”!

537

How do game development studios, publishers, licensors, and manufacturers work together to bring a game to market? Compare and contrast

business models as part of your answer.

538

The roles of artist and designer are sometimes confused with one another. How do these roles differ? Using one electronic game as a reference,

discuss three examples of how art is used in the game, and three examples of how design is used in the game. Does the game utilize art and design successfully?

539

Put together a team for your original game. Analyze each sub-team (art, design, tech, audio, testing) to determine the number of people you will have

on each, along with their specialized roles. Consider the unique features of your game idea.

540

Experiment with some of the game engines, level editors, and development suites discussed in this chapter (e.g., Game Maker, Torque, CryENGINE,

Unity 3D, GameSalad Creator, Unreal), and list their features—comparing and contrasting them with each other. Which tool are you most comfortable with, and
why?

541

What are the benefits and disadvantages of running an independent game studio? How does this structure differ from third-party developers and

publishers? If you were running an independent studio and you could initially hire only two team members, what roles would you assign to them?

542

What are the many purposes audio serves in games? Why is audio an important (but often overlooked) element in game development? Can you think

of a purpose of game audio that was not discussed in this chapter?

543

What is the difference between looping and adaptive music in games? Discuss how two current games use these forms of music. Why can adaptive

music sometimes be more effective than looping music?

544

What are some essential tools utilized by audio professionals in the game industry? What do these tools help audio professionals accomplish?

545

How are voiceovers, sound effects, and music used effectively in a game? How would you inte- grate all three audio forms into your original game?

Consider the genre, subject matter, style of play, platform, and mood of your game in your answer.

546

Game and film scoring are very different from each other. Analyze the differences between these processes, and discuss the major distinctions

between these two media. Tie these differ- ences into what you have learned about gameplay, story, and character development.

547

How is voice acting in games different from other media? What are the benefits and disadvan- tages of working as a voice actor in this medium? If you

were producing a game dialogue ses- sion, how would you change the way the session was structured to get the best performances out of your actors?

548

If you were designing sound for a game, in what instances would you create your own sounds using foley (or by recording sounds from the

environment) versus utilizing pre-existing mate- rial from a library? Similarly, when would you create (or hire someone to create) original music versus licensing
pre-existing material from a library or label?

549

Experiment with foley and come up with new ways to create sound effects that were not listed in this chapter. Capture your foley creations with a

recorder. Take the recorder with you wher- ever you go and capture unique sounds from the environment. Catalog your recordings in a spreadsheet and consider
what types of game sounds could be reflected by your recordings. Apply some of what you have recorded to your own original game.

550

Using one of your favorite games as an example, discuss ways in which the game’s interfaces allow you to feel you have some control during

gameplay.

551

There are several unique physical interfaces—such as foot pads, maracas, a microphone, and a fishing pole—that are designed to enhance the

game-playing experience. Disregarding the obvi- ous (such as guns for first-person shooters), recommend a unique physical interface that could be used as an
alternative physical device for one of your favorite games. If you were asked to cre- ate an original physical interface for your own game, what would it be—and
how would it make the player’s experience of the game more enjoyable?

552

The area of accessibility is gradually being addressed by the game industry. Choose one of the five disabilities discussed in this chapter and come up

with a unique way to address the disabil- ity in a game interface.

553

Knowing that the save-game debate hasn’t been resolved, what type of save-game option would you incorporate into your game—and why? Can you

think of a new way of saving the game?

554

How do the components of a game interface work together to make a game usable and func- tional for the player? Choose a game and analyze its

usability features. Suggest at least three improvements to the interface, and create a rough sketch redesigning the interface based on your analysis.

555

Begin a task-and-needs analysis of a game by asking the following questions: What tasks does the visual interface allow the player to accomplish? Do

these tasks correspond to gameplay goals? Detail a task-and-needs analysis for your original game idea. Provide a list of five neces- sary tasks that players must
complete to advance in the game. Provide a list of the top five items or actions that players will need to accomplish these tasks during the game. How will your
inter- face address these needs and tasks?

556

Construct a draft interface template for your original game. Define the layout, content, and navigation components of your template.

557

Choose a genre and discuss specific interface design features that correspond to that genre. Add another interface component that has not been

discussed in this chapter to address a genre- specific need that might not be immediately obvious.

558

What is level design and how does it relate to gameplay, story, and character development?

559

What are some unique ways games have utilized time—both real-world and game-world—to make a game more compelling? Create an original game

concept around one of these methods. Can you think of another method that has not been used?

560

What are some spatial perspective tricks used in level design that sometimes overcome the limitations of the game environment? Which of these

tricks might you incorporate into your original game?

561

How can a game retain authenticity through environmental design? Discuss some features you might use in developing a game centered around real-

world rules.

562

Play a game in any genre and analyze how the game handles structure. Is the game split into levels? Does each subsequent level increase in

difficulty? Does the game follow a linear, flat, or s-curve progression?

563

How does a game’s style relate to its mood? Describe the mood of your original game. Then describe a particular scene in terms of setting and

environmental atmosphere—incorporating that mood in your description.

564

Design an environment for your original game idea, First, go location scouting and take pictures of some unusual objects, textures, and scenes. Then,

incorporate these textures into concept sketches of an original environment. What materials or terrain will you use in your design? What sorts of objects and
structures will you add to the environment?

565

How does a game’s cultural context affect its environment? Create a culture around your origi- nal game idea, and discuss how this culture might

determine the look of interiors, exteriors, objects, vehicles, and structures, and the rules of the game world.

566

What is the difference between gameplay and story? Choose one game and discuss its story and gameplay elements separately. How do these two

elements intersect?

567

Contrast the static and dynamic elements of an existing game. How do players modify the game to make it dynamic, and what does this have to do

with game balance?

568

What are the players’ goals in a non-zero sum game (NZS)? How can the prisoner’s dilemma and the tragedy of the commons be applied to

gameplay? Create a scenario around one of these theories and discuss how a game involving both cooperation and competition could be compel- ling and
interesting.

569

Play a card or board game (either a classic game like M onopol y or a modern tabletop game that can be found

at F unagain Games [ ht t p://funagain.com ]). Analyze the rules—including victory conditions, loss conditions, gameplay process, and game goals. What steps
would you take to create a digital version of this game? (Consider expanding on the game’s story as one strategy.)

570

How do game goals relate to challenges in a game—and what strategies can be utilized to over- come these challenges? Choose one game goal and

write a high concept (premise) that incorpo- rates that goal. List three plot points that incorporate challenges associated with the game goal you chose. Discuss
several strategies that a player might utilize to overcome each challenge. By doing this, how are you integrating gameplay with story?

571

You create an original game in which you and other players must escape from a deserted island. There are three objects that could be built that might

help players leave the island: boat, raft, and lifesaver. The boat is the most difficult to build, but it is the most stable escape object; the life- saver is the easiest to
build; and the less stable raft falls in the middle. The relationship between these objects is linear, or transitive. How would you revise this rela¬tionship (or alter the
objects) so that it becomes intransitive?

572

A game’s premise indicates “You are given immunity from a deadly disease that causes humans to age rapidly. It is up to you alone to find the cure.

Use your powers of deduction to uncover the mysterious origins of this disease and find an antidote—before it’s too late!” Discuss the spe- cific victory and loss
conditions for this game. Giving the game a genre of your choice, make up a set of rules for this game.

573

There are plenty of games that focus on the application of either in t r insic or e x t r insic knowledge, but it’s not as common to combine both in one

game. Create an original game idea that makes use of both forms of knowledge as strategy elements.

574

Unilateral player-to-player interactivity is not common in electronic games. Create an original idea for an electronic game that involves this form of

interactivity. How would you incorporate the idea of cooperation and competition into the game?

575

Create a premise, backstory, and synopsis for an original game idea that targets either Boomers, Xers, or Millennials. Describe your target market in

detail, and outline why you chose to create this sort of content for this group.

576

What role do cut-scenes play in a game, and how can they sometimes compromise immersion ? Choose a cut-scene from a pre-existing game and

identify three reasons you think it is being used. Is the cut-scene necessary? If you were on the game development team and were told that the scene had to be
removed, what would you do to ensure that the reasons for the cut-scene were still being fulfilled? Create a synopsis for an original cut-scene and discuss why it is
essen- tial to the game experience.

578

Choose a tabletop game with a distinct setting or premise. (If you want to see some cleverly designed tabletop games, go to Funagain Games

at http://www.funagain.com .) After familiar- izing yourself with the game, discuss how you would adapt it to electronic form. What story ele- ments would you
expand on to create a more enriching, immersive experience for the player?

579

If you were to create a customized character based on yourself, what would it be like? Describe yourself in terms of a game character. What are your

physical and personality characteristics, goals, strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes, general mood? Discuss other characters that might also appear in
the game. (Note : These characters might not necessarily be helpful but could represent obstacles that prevent you from reaching your goals.)

580

Write descriptions for three characters associated with an original game idea. At least one char- acter should be a player character. What elements will

you include in your character descrip- tions, and how will the player and non-player characters differ?

581

How do you distinguish the main player character from the game environment? Choose one of your original characters and discuss three specific

ways you could ensure that players can always easily detect where the player character is and what the character is doing.

582

How do the visual features of a game character reflect the character’s personality? Discuss how you would utilize profile, facial expressions, gestures,

poses, costume, character movement, color scheme, and even associated objects to reflect the personality of one of the original char- acters you created.

8.

583

Using the original game story you created, construct a five-page scene involving at least two of the characters you described in the

previous exercise. Make sure one of your characters is a player character and one is a non-player character. How will you distinguish between the dia-

logue written for the player characters and NPCs? ( Note : You are not writing a linear cut-scene, but one in which the player still has control of the avatar.)

584

What motivates people to play games? Discuss three different motivational factors and provide examples of games that address these factors.

Motivations such as exercise took game develop- ers by surprise, and they might lead to a new series of games that address this player motiva- tion. Come up
with a new motivation that game developers might have overlooked, and discuss which types of new games might address this player motivation.

585

Why do yo u play games? What elements in your favorite games make you want to continue playing? If you were to test one of your favorite games

for the “fun factor,” why would it pass the test?

586

How does the market for games in the United States differ from other countries such as South Korea, China, Japan, and Germany? What are the

most popular genres, platforms, and trends in these respective countries—and what are the associated driving factors?

587

What is the importance of psychographics such as values, attitudes, and lifestyles in player mar- kets? Discuss three games that incorporate a distinct

belief system. If you were to create a game based on your own psychographics, on what features would you focus?

588

How have age and gender demographics in the player market changed over time? How might these changes affect the way games continue to be

developed? Can you envision any particular trends in game content or structure that would help continue to broaden the player market?

589

Discuss the difference between Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials. If you were creating a game specifically targeted toward one of these groups,

what features would be present in the game? (How did you do on the Millennial Trends Quiz?)

590

Violence in our society continues to be blamed on the influence of entertainment content such as explicit films and song lyrics. Some games have

been blamed for violent outbreaks. Provide a real-world example of a violent incident for which an electronic game was held responsible. Do you agree with this
view, or do you believe that there is not a distinct correlation between real- world violence and the “fantasy” violence in games?

591

Which of Richard Bartle’s player suits best describes you as a player? What types of games natu- rally cater to your player suit? Take the

questionnaires associated with VALS ( ht t p://ww w .s t r ate- g icbusinessinsi ghts.com/vals/p r esu r v e y .sh t ml ) or MBTI
( ht t p://simila r minds.com/jung.h t ml ). Do your results correspond to your player suit self-evaluation?

592

In this chapter, you learned about several non-entertainment game goals. Choose five genres introduced in this chapter and discuss which particular

goal might be a good match for each. Can you think of a goal not mentioned in this chapter that might inspire you to create a game?

593

How do game platforms influence game goals and genres? Web-based Facebook games— accessed initially through the computer platform, but now

also through mobile devices—are often considered to be “social games.” Although multiplayer online console games have always had a social component, the
console platform did not give rise to the “social game” moniker. Why do you think this is the case? Choose two distinct platforms and discuss which game genres
would be particularly relevant for them—as opposed to other platforms.

594

The ESRB has used a “T” rating on some MMOs. This rating is not necessarily accurate. Why is this? What do you feel motivates people to play

MMOs? How does the structure of an MMO differ from LAN-based multiplayer and single-player games?

595

Choose one of your favorite games and change its genre. For example, what would Halo be like if it was a puzzle, simulation or RTS game instead of

an FPS? Now, create a brand new game genre that is distinct from those discussed in this chapter. Tie this genre to what you learned about platforms in Chapter
2. What type of platform would be most appropriate for this genre, and why?

596

Combine two genres discussed in this chapter to create a new hybrid (mixed) genre. What type of game would you create for this new genre? List five

unique features of the game.

597

Adventure games have declined in popularity in the last 15 years. Why do you think this is the case? What would you change about the content or

structure in adventure games to incite new interest in this genre?

598

Strategy games don’t always need a military backdrop. Discuss three settings or scenarios not

related to the military that could be incorporated successfully into a strategy game.

599

Do you feel that all games are educational by accident? Why or why not? The “edutainment” movement of the 1980s and early 1990s focused on the

early childhood market and players in the K-12 grades. What about games created specifically to educate beyond K-12 (post-secondary)? Create an idea for an
educational game geared toward adults who are taking a college course. Now choose another type of “serious” (non-entertainment) game goal—such as
corporate training, military recruitment, or health. How would you ensure that your game was still fun and engaging while retaining its purpose?

600

What is your favorite game platform, and why? Choose a game that you enjoy playing on that platform and discuss how the platform enhances the

playing experience. How would that expe- rience change if the game was only available on a completely different platform?

601

You’ve recently acquired the rights to port a computer game to the arcade, console, handheld, and tabletop platforms. Choose two of these other

platforms and discuss how you would modify the game so that it is optimal for your chosen platforms.

602

Play Scrabble or Words with Friends on a smartphone or tablet system. Both of these games are turn-based, but the time between turns can last for

days—allowing primarily nomadic players using portable systems all the time they need. This type of asynchronous play can be thought of as an extension of the
turn-based time interval. Another feature of these games is that there can be several games running simultaneously—allowing players to jump from game to game
at any point in time. Choose another game that might benefit from these features, and discuss why.

603

Local play is common on console systems, but it can be awkward on computer systems. Can you think of a situation in which it would be fairly

comfortable for two players to share a key- board and mouse? Your company has been asked to develop a local play game for the computer plat¬form. What type
of game would you develop for this player mode—and why?

604

How do platform, time interval, and player mode affect the playing experience? You learned in this chapter that the chess tabletop game isn’t always

merely a turn-based game – but it has a time-limited version. Imagine what chess would be like if it were played in real time. Now change the player mode to
multiplayer. How would the experience of playing chess change if it was a real-time, multiplayer game? Come up with a variation of one of your favorite electronic
games by tweaking the time interval and player mode.

605
phases?

What are the key phases and milestones in the history of electronic game development? How has convergence played a role in connecting these

606

Why have some game development companies succeeded while others have failed? How can you apply this knowledge to the current industry?

607

What electronic games helped attract a larger audience to the industry? Why did they succeed in doing so?

608

What traditions in early game development are still in existence? How are they appealing and useful to developers and players?

609

Several theories have been used to explain the decline of the arcade industry and associated video game slump of the early 1980s. Do you agree with

any of these theories in particular? Do you have a theory of your own? Is there anything that could have been done to prevent this slump?

610

What was the first electronic game you ever played? Did it capture your attention? Why? What are some non-electronic games that were popular

when you were a kid? Do you feel that the thrill of any of these games has been captured in digital form?

611

Choose a time in the history of electronic game development, and pretend you are a devel- oper working in the industry. Knowing the limitations of the

time, what type of game would you create?

612

You’ve read about the many eras and phases of the electronic game industry. Are we at the dawn of a new era? Can you predict the primary features

of the next phase in game industry history?

613 1. The number 13 is usually regarded as unlucky. However,

rand(’state’,13) randgui(@rand) produces a surprisingly lucky result. What is that result?

2. Modify randgui so that it computes π using a circle inside a square instead of a sphere inside a cube.

3.

614

In randgui, change the statement

x = 2*randfun(3,m)-1;

to

x = 2*randfun(m,3)’-1;

We’ve interchanged 3 and m, and inserted a matrix transpose operator. With this change,

randgui(@randssp)

no longer demonstrates the defect in randssp. Explain why.

5.615 The M-files randtx.m and randntx.m include an internal function randint

that employs a sequence of bit shifts to produce random integers.

1.

Write a Matlab function randjsr, in the style of randmcg, that uses the shift register integer generator to produce uniformly
distributed floating-point numbers.

2.

Compare the histogram of your randjsr with the histogram of randtx. You should find that the two histograms have the same
appearance.

3.

Verify that

randgui(@randjsr)

does a good job of computing π .

616

Write an M-file randnpolar.m that generates normally distributed random num- bers using the polar algorithm described in section 9.3, Normal

Distribution. Verify that your function produces the same kind of bell curve shaped histograms as randn and randntx.

617

The NCM M-file brownian plots the evolution of a cloud of particles that starts at the origin and diffuses in a two-dimensional random walk, modeling

the Brownian motion of gas molecules.

1.

Modify brownian.m to keep track of both the average and the maximum particle distance from the origin. Using loglog axes, plot both sets of distances
as functions of n , the number of steps. You should observe that, on the log-log scale, both plots are nearly linear. Fit both sets of distances with
functions of the form cn 1 / 2 . Plot the observed distances and the fits, using linear axes.

2.

618

Modify brownian.m to model a random walk in three dimensions. Do the distances behave like n 1 / 2 ?

The term Monte Carlo simulation refers to the use of pseudorandom numbers in computational models of stochastic or probabilistic phenomena. The
NCM M-file blackjack provides an example of such a simulation. The program simulates the card game, either one hand, or thousands of hands, at a
time, and collects payoff statistics.

In blackjack, face cards count 10 points, aces count 1 or 11 points, and all other cards count their face value. The objective is to reach, but not
exceed, 21 points. If you go over 21, or “bust,” before the dealer, you lose your bet on that hand. If you have 21 on the first two cards, and the dealer
does not, this is “blackjack” and is worth 1.5 times the bet. If your first two cards are a pair, you may “split” the pair by doubling the bet

and use the two cards to start two independent hands. You may “double down” after seeing the first two cards by doubling the bet and receiving just
one more card. “Hit” and “draw” mean take another card. “Stand” means stop drawing. “Push” means the two hands have the same total.

The first mathematical analysis of blackjack was published in 1956 by Baldwin, Cantey, Maisel, and McDermott [5]. Their basic strategy, which is also
described in many more recent books, makes blackjack very close to a fair game. With basic strategy, the expected win or loss per hand is less than
1% of the bet. The key idea is to avoid going bust before the dealer. The dealer must play a fixed strategy, hitting on 16 or less and standing on 17 or
more. Since almost one third of the cards are worth 10 points, you can compare your hand with the dealer’s under the assumption that the dealer’s
hole card is a 10. If the dealer’s up card is a 6 or less, she must draw. Consequently, the strategy has you stand on any total over 11 when the dealer
is showing a 6 or less. Split aces and split 8’s. Do not split anything else. Double down with 11, or with 10 if the dealer is showing a 6 or less. The
program displays the recommended basic strategy play for each situation in red. The complete basic strategy is defined by three arrays, HARD,
SOFT, and SPLIT, in the code.

A more elaborate strategy, called card counting , can provide a definite mathematical

advantage. Card-counting players keep track of the cards that have appeared in previous hands, and use that information to alter both the bet and the
play as the deck becomes depleted. Our simulation does not involve card counting.

Our blackjack program has two modes. The initial bet for each hand is $10. “Play” mode indicates the basic strategy with color, but allows you to make
other choices. “Simulate” mode plays a specified number of hands using the basic strategy and collects statistics. One graph shows the total stake
accumulated over the duration of the simulation. Another graph shows the observed probabilities of the ten possible payoffs for each hand. These
payoffs include zero for a push, win $15 for a blackjack, win or lose $10 on a hand that has not been split or doubled, win or lose $20 on hands that
have been split or doubled once, and win or lose $30 or $40 on hands that have been doubled after a split. The $30 and $40 payoffs occur rarely (and
may not be allowed at some casinos) but are important in determining the expected return

from the basic strategy. The second graph also displays with 0.xxxx ± 0.xxxx

the expected fraction of the bet that is won or lost each hand, together with its

confidence interval. Note that the expected return is usually negative, but within the confidence interval. The outcome in any session with less than a
few million hands is determined more by the luck of the cards than by the expected return.

1.

How many decks of cards are used in our blackjack program? How is the deck represented and how is it
shuffled? How are the cards dealt? What role does rand play?

2.

What is the theoretical probability of getting blackjack from a freshly shuffled deck? In other words, the player
has 21 on the first two cards and the dealer does not. How does this compare with the probability observed in
the simulation?

3.

Modify blackjack so that blackjack pays even money instead of 1 . 5 times the bet. How does this affect the
expected return?

4.

In some casinos, a “push” is regarded as a loss. Modify blackjack to use such a rule. How does this affect the
expected return?

1.

Modify blackjack to use four artificial 56-card decks that have twice as many aces as usual. How does this affect
the expected return?

Modify blackjack to use four artificial 48-card decks that do not have any kings. How does this affect the expected return?

619

1. What is the telephone number recorded in touchtone.mat and analyzed by

touchtone.m?

2.Modify touchtone.m so that it can dial a telephone number specified by an input argument, such as touchtone(’1-800-555-1212’).

620

Our version of touchtone.m breaks the recording into a fixed number of equally spaced segments, each corresponding to a single digit. Modify
touchtone so that it automatically determines the number and the possibly disparate lengths of the segments.

621

Investigate the use of the Matlab functions audiorecorder andaudioplayer, or some other system for making digital recordings. Make a recording of a
phone number and analyze it with your modified version of touchtone.m.

622

Recall that the Fourier matrix F is the n -by- n complex matrix with elements

f k,j = ω jk ,

where

ω=e

−2 πi/n .

Show that 1 F is unitary. In other words, show that F H , the complex conjugate transpose of F , satisfies

√n

F H F = nI.

The notation here is a little unusual for matrices because the subscripts j and k run from 0 to n − 1, instead of from 1 to n .

623

1

2

What relationship between n and j causes fftmatrix(n,j) to produce a five- point star? What relationship produces a regular pentagon?

El Niño. The climatological phenomenon el Niño results from changes in atmo- spheric pressure in the southern Pacific ocean. The ‘Southern

Oscillation Index’ is the difference in atmospheric pressure between Easter Island and Darwin, Australia, measured at sea level at the same moment. The
text file elnino.dat contains values of this index measured on a monthly basis over the 14-year period 1962 through 1975.

Your assignment is to carry out an analysis similar to the sunspot example on the el Niño data. The unit of time is one month instead of one year. You
should find there is a prominent cycle with a period of 12 months and a second, less prominent, cycle with a longer period. This second cycle shows up in
about three of the Fourier coefficients, so it is hard to measure its length, but see if you can make an estimate.

624

Train whistle. The Matlab demos directory contains several sound samples. One of them is a train whistle. The statement

load train

gives you a long vector y and a scalar Fs whose value is the number of samples per second. The time increment is 1/Fs seconds.

If your computer has sound capabilities, the statement

sound(y,Fs)

plays the signal, but you don’t need that for this problem.

The data do not have a significant linear trend. There are two pulses of the whistle, but the harmonic content of both pulses is the same.

1.

Plot the data with time in seconds as the independent variable.

2.

Produce a periodogram with frequency in cycles/second as the independent variable.

3.

Identify the frequencies of the six peaks in the periodogram. You should find that ratios between these six frequencies are
close to ratios between small integers. For example, one of the frequencies is 5/3 times another. The frequencies that are
integer multiples of other frequencies are overtones . How many of the peaks are fundamental frequencies and how many
are overtones?

625

Bird chirps. Analyze the chirp sound sample from the Matlab demos directory. By ignoring a short portion at the end, it is possible to segment the

signal into eight pieces of equal length, each containing one chirp. Plot the magnitude of the FFT of each segment. Use subplot(4,2,k) for k = 1:8 and the same
axis scaling for all subplots. Frequencies in the range from roughly 400 Hz to 800 Hz are appropriate. You should notice that one or two of the chirps have
distinctive plots. If you listen carefully, you should be able to hear the different sounds.

627

You invest $100 in a savings account paying 6% interest per year. Let y(t) be the amount in your account after tyears. If the interest is compounded

continuously, then y(t) solves the ODE initial value problem

y ˙ = r y , r = . 06 , y ( 0 ) = 100 .

Compounding interest at a discrete time interval, h , corresponds to using a finite

difference method to approximate the solution to the differential equation. The time interval h is expressed as a fraction of a year. For example, compounding
monthly has h = 1 / 12. The quantity y n , the balance after n time intervals, approximates

the continuously compounded balance y(nh) . The banking industry effectively uses Euler’s method to compute compound interest.

y 0 = y( 0 ),

y n + 1 = y n + hry n .

This exercise asks you to investigate the use of higher order difference methods to compute compound interest. What is the balance in your account after 10 years
with each of the following methods of compounding interest?

Euler’s method, yearly. Euler’s method, monthly. Midpoint rule, monthly. Trapezoid rule, monthly. BS23 algorithm, monthly. Continuous compounding.

628

(a) Write an M-file named myrk4.m, in the style of ode23tx.m, that implements the classical Runge–Kutta fixed step size algorithm. Instead of an

optional fourth argument rtol or opts, the required fourth argument should be the step size h . Here is the proposed preamble.

% function [tout,yout] = myrk4(F,tspan,y0,h,varargin)

% MYRK4 Classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

% Usage is the same as ODE23TX except the fourth

% argument is a fixed step size h.

% MYRK4(F,TSPAN,Y0,H) with TSPAN = [T0 TF] integrates

% the system of differential equations y’ = f(t,y)

% from t = T0 to t = TF. The initial condition

% is y(T0) = Y0.

% With no output arguments, MYRK4 plots the solution.

% With two output arguments, [T,Y] = MYRK4(..) returns

% T and Y so that Y(:,k) is the approximate solution at

% T(k). More than four input arguments,

% MYRK4(..,P1,P2,..), are passed on to F,

% F(T,Y,P1,P2,...).

2.

Roughly, how should the error behave if the step size h for classical Runge–Kutta is cut in half? (Hint: Why is there a “4” in
the name of myrk4?) Run an experiment to illustrate this behavior.

2.

If you integrate the simple harmonic oscillator y ¨

= − y over one full period,

0 ≤ t ≤ 2 π , you can compare the initial and final values of y to get a measure of the global accuracy. If you use your myrk4 with a step size h = π/ 50, you should
find that it takes 100 steps and computes a result with an error of about 10 − 6 .

Compare this with the number of steps required by ode23, ode45, and ode113 if the relative tolerance is set to 10

−6

and the refinement level is set to one. This is a

problem with a very smooth solution, so you should find that ode23 requires more steps, while ode45 and ode113 require fewer.

629

The ordinary differential equation problem

y ˙ = −1000 (y − sin t ) + cos t , y ( 0 ) = 1 , on the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 is mildly stiff.

1.

Find the exact solution, either by hand or using dsolve from the Symbolic

Toolbox.

2.

Compute the solution with ode23tx. How many steps are required?

2.

Compute the solution with the stiff solver ode23s. How many steps are required?

2.

Plot the two computed solutions on the same graph, with line style ’.’ for the

ode23tx solution and ’o’ for the ode23s solution.

5.

Zoom in, or change the axis settings, to show a portion of the graph where the solution is varying rapidly. You should see that both solvers are taking
small steps.

5.

630

Show a portion of the graph where the solution is varying slowly. You should see that ode23tx is taking much smaller steps than ode23s.

Verify that the matrix in the Lorenz equations

−β0η⎤

is singular if and only if

A=⎣

0−σσ⎦

− η ρ −1

j

η =±

β(ρ − 1 ).

Verify that the corresponding null vector is

ρ−1⎞

⎝ η⎠ .

η

631

10

The Jacobian matrix J for the Lorenz equations is not A , but is closely related to A . Find J , compute its eigenvalues at one of the fixed
points, and verify that the fixed point is unstable.

11

Find the largest value of ρ in the Lorenz equations for which the fixed point is stable.

632

All the values of ρ available with lorenzgui except ρ = 28 give trajectories that eventually settle down to stable periodic orbits. In his book on the

Lorenz equations, Sparrow classifies a periodic orbit by what we might call its signature , a sequence

of +’s and −’s specifying the order of the critical points that the trajectory circles during one period. A single + or − would be the signature of a trajectory that circles
just one critical point, except that no such orbits exist. The signature ‘+−’ indicates

that the trajectory circles each critical point once. The signature ‘+++−+− −−’ would indicate a very fancy orbit that circles the critical points a total of eight times
before repeating itself.

What are the signatures of the four different periodic orbits generated by lorenzgui? Be careful—each of the signatures is different, and ρ = 99 . 65 is particularly
delicate.

633

13. What are the periods of the periodic orbits generated for the different values of ρ

available with lorenzgui?

14 The Matlab demos directory contains an M-file, orbitode, that uses ode45 to solve an instance of the restrictedthree-body problem . This involves
the orbit of a light object around two heavier objects, such as an Apollo capsule around the earth and the moon. Run the demo and then locate its source code
with the statements

orbitode

which orbitode

Make your own copy of orbitode.m. Find these two statements:

tspan = [0 7];

y0 = [1.2; 0; 0; -1.04935750983031990726];

These statements set the time interval for the integration and the initial position and velocity of the light object. Our question is, Where do these values come from?
To answer this question, find the statement

[t,y,te,ye,ie] = ode45(@f,tspan,y0,options);

Remove the semicolon and insert three more statements after it:

te ye ie

Run the demo again. Explain how the values of te, ye, and ie are related to tspan

and y0.

634

An 80-kg paratrooper is dropped from an airplane at a height of 600 m. After 5 s the chute opens. The paratrooper’s height as a function of time, y(t) ,

is given by

y ¨ = − g + α(t)/m, y( 0 ) = 600 m ,

y ˙ ( 0 ) = 0 m/s ,

where g = 9 . 81 m/s 2 is the acceleration due to gravity and m = 80 kg is the paratrooper’s mass. The air resistanceα(t) is proportional to the square of the velocity,
with different proportionality constants before and after the chute opens.

r

K 1y ˙ ( t ) 2, t 5 s ,

α(t) =

K 2y ˙ ( t ) 2, t ≥ 5 s .

1.

Find the analytical solution for free-fall, K 1 = 0 , K 2 = 0. At what height does the chute open? How long does it take to reach the ground? What is the
impact velocity? Plot the height versus time and label the plot appropriately.

2.

Consider the case K 1 = 1 / 15 , K 2 = 4 / 15. At what height does the chute open? How long does it take to reach the ground? What is the impact
velocity? Make a

plot of the height versus time and label the plot appropriately.

635

Here are 25 observations, y k , taken at equally spaced values of t .

t

=

1:25

y

=

[ 5.0291

6.5099

5.3666

4.1272

4.2948

6.1261

12.5140

10.0502

9.1614

7.5677

7.2920

10.0357

11.0708

13.4045

12.8415

11.9666

11.0765

11.7774

14.5701

17.0440

17.0398

15.9069

15.4850

15.5112

17.6572]

y = y’; y = y(:)
1.

Fit the data with a straight line, y(t) = β 1 + β 2 t , and plot the residuals, y(t k ) − y k . You should observe that one of the data
points has a much larger residual than the others. This is probably an outlier .

2.

Discard the outlier, and fit the data again by a straight line. Plot the residuals again. Do you see any pattern in the residuals?

3.

Fit the data, with the outlier excluded, by a model of the form

y(t) = β 1 + β 2 t + β 3 sin t.
4.

Evaluate the third fit on a finer grid over the interval [0 , 26]. Plot the fitted curve, using line style ’-’, together with the data,
using line style ’o’. Include the outlier, using a different marker, ’*’.

636

Statistical Reference Datasets. NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Tech- nology, is the branch of the U.S. Department of Commerce

responsible for setting national and international standards. NIST maintains Statistical Reference Datasets, StRD, for use in testing and certifying statistical
software. The home page on the Web is [48]. Data sets for linear least squares are under “Linear Regression.” This exercise involves two of the NIST reference
data sets:

Norris: linear polynomial for calibration of ozone monitors;

Pontius: quadratic polynomial for calibration of load cells. For each of these data sets, follow the Web links labeled

Data File (ASCII Format),

Certified Values, and

Graphics.

Download each ASCII file. Extract the observations. Compute the polynomial coefficients. Compare the coefficients with the certified values. Make plots similar to
the NIST plots of both the fit and the residuals.

637

Longley data set. The Longley data set of labor statistics was one of the first used to test the accuracy of least squares computations. You don’t need

to go to the NIST Web site to do this problem, but if you are interested in the background, you should see the Longley page at [48]. The data set is available in
NCM in the file longley.dat.

You can bring the data into Matlab with

load longley.dat y = longley(:,1);

X = longley(:,2:7);

There are 16 observations of 7 variables, gathered over the years 1947 to 1962. The variable y and the 6 variables making up the columns of the data matrix X are

y = Total Derived Employment, x 1 = GNP Implicit Price Deflater, x 2 = Gross National Product,

x 3 = Unemployment,

x 4 = Size of Armed Forces,

x 5 = Noninstitutional Population Age 14 and Over,

x 6 = Year.

The objective is to predict y by a linear combination of a constant and the six x ’s:

6

y ≈ β 0+ β kx k.

1

1.

Use the Matlab backslash operator to compute β 0 , β 1 ,..., β 6 . This involves augmenting X with a column of all 1’s,
corresponding to the constant term.

2.

Compare your β ’s with the certified values [48].

3.

Use errorbar to plot y with error bars whose magnitude is the difference between y and the least squares fit.

4.

Use corrcoef to compute the correlation coefficients for X without the column of 1’s. Which variables are highly correlated?

5.

Normalize the vector y so that its mean is zero and its standard deviation is one.

You can do this with

y = y - mean(y); y = y/std(y)

Do the same thing to the columns of X. Now plot all seven normalized variables on the same axis. Include a legend.

638

Planetary orbit [30]. The expression z = ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f is known as a quadratic form . The set of points (x, y) , where z = 0, is

a conic section . It can

be an ellipse, a parabola, or a hyperbola, depending on the sign of the discriminant b 2 − 4 ac . Circles and lines are special cases. The equation z = 0 can be
normalized by dividing the quadratic form by any nonzero coefficient. For example, if f /= 0, we can divide all the other coefficients by f and obtain a quadratic form
with the constant term equal to one. You can use the Matlab meshgrid and contour functions to plot conic sections. Use meshgrid to create arrays X and Y.
Evaluate the quadratic form to produce Z. Then use contour to plot the set of points where Z is zero.

[X,Y] = meshgrid(xmin:deltax:xmax,ymin:deltay:ymax); Z = a*X.ˆ2 + b*X.*Y + c*Y.ˆ2 + d*X + e*Y + f; contour(X,Y,Z,[0 0])

A planet follows an elliptical orbit. Here are ten observations of its position in the

(x, y) plane:

x = [1.02 .95 .87 .77 .67 .56 .44 .30 .16 .01]’;

y = [0.39 .32 .27 .22 .18 .15 .13 .12 .13 .15]’;

1.

Determine the coefficients in the quadratic form that fits these data in the least squares sense by setting one of the
coefficients equal to one and solving a 10-by-5 overdetermined system of linear equations for the other five coefficients. Plot
the orbit with x on the x -axis and y on the y -axis. Superimpose the ten data points on the plot.

2.

This least squares problem is nearly rank deficient. To see what effect this has on the solution, perturb the data slightly by
adding to each coordinate of each data point a random number uniformly distributed in the interval [− . 0005 , . 0005].
Compute the new coefficients resulting from the perturbed data. Plot the new orbit on the same plot with the old orbit.
Comment on your comparison of the sets of coefficients and the orbits.

639

Let X be the n-by-n matrix generated by

[I,J] = ndgrid(1:n);

X = min(I,J) + 2*eye(n,n) - 2;

1.

How does the condition number of X grow with n?

2.

Which, if any, of the triangular factorizations chol(X), lu(X), and qr(X)

reveal the poor conditioning?

640

In censusgui, change the 1950 population from 150.697 million to 50.697 million. This produces an extremeoutlier in the data. Which models are the

most affected by this outlier? Which models are the least affected?

641

If censusgui is used to fit the U.S. Census data with a polynomial of degree eight and the fit is extrapolated beyond the year 2000, the predicted

population actually becomes zero before the year 2020. On what year, month, and day does that fateful event occur?

642

Here are some details that we skipped over in our discussion of Householder re- flections. At the same time, we extend the description to include

complex matrices. The notation u T for transpose is replaced with the Matlab notation u l for complex conjugate transpose. Let x be any nonzero m -by-1 vector and
let e k denote the k th unit vector, that is, the k th column of the m -by- m identity matrix. The sign of a complex number z =re iθ is

Define σ by Let

sign (z) = z/ | z |= e iθ . σ = sign( x k ) x .

u = x + σe k .

In other words, u is obtained from x by adding σ to its k th component.

1.The definition of ρ uses σ ¯ , the complex conjugate of σ :

ρ = 1 /( σ ¯ u k ).

Show that

ρ = 2 / u 2.

2.

The Householder reflection generated by the vector x is

H = I − ρuu l .

Show that and that

H l = H H l H = I.

3.

Show that all the components of Hx are zero, except for the k th. In other words, show that

4.

For any vector y , let Show that

643

Generate 11 data points, t k = (k − 1 )/ 10, y k = erf (t k ), k = 1 ,..., 11.

1.

Fit the data in a least squares sense with polynomials of degrees 1 through 10. Compare the fitted polynomial with erf( t ) for values of t between the data
points. How does the maximum error depend on the polynomial degree?

2.

Because erf( t ) is an odd function of t , that is, erf (x) = −erf ( − x) , it is reasonable to fit the data by a linear combination of odd powers of t :

erf (t) ≈ c 1 t + c 2 t 3 + ··· + c n t 2 n − 1 .

Again, see how the error between data points depends on n .

3.

Polynomials are not particularly good approximants for erf( t ) because they are unbounded for large t , whereas erf( t )
approaches 1 for large t . So, using the same data points, fit a model of the form

erf (t) ≈ c 1 + e − t (c 2 + c 3 z + c 4 z 2 + c 5 z 3 ),

2

where z = 1 /( 1 + t) . How does the error between the data points compare with the polynomial models?

644

Use fzerogui to try to find a zero of each of the following functions in the given interval. Do you see any interesting or unusual behavior?

x 3− 2 x − 5

[0 , 3]

sin x

[1 , 4]

3

[−1 ,1]

x − 0 . 001
log (x + 2 / 3 )

[0 , 1]

sign (x − 2 ) | x − 2|

[1 , 4]

atan (x) − π/ 3

[0 , 5]

1 /(x − π)

[0 , 5]

645

Here is a little footnote to the history of numerical methods. The polynomial

x 3− 2 x − 5

was used by Wallis when he first presented Newton’s method to the French Academy. It has one real root, betweenx = 2 and x = 3, and a pair of complex
conjugate roots.

1.

Use the Symbolic Toolbox to find symbolic expressions for the three roots.

Warning: The results are not pretty. Convert the expressions to numerical values.

2.

Use the roots function in Matlab to find numerical values for all three roots.

646

2.

Use fzerotx to find the real root.

2.

Use Newton’s method starting with a complex initial value to find a complex root.

2.

Can bisection be used to find the complex root? Why or why not?

Here is a cubic polynomial with three closely spaced real roots:

p(x) = 816 x 3 − 3835 x 2 + 6000 x − 3125 .

647

1.

What are the exact roots of p ?

2.

Plot p(x) for 1 . 43 ≤ x ≤ 1 . 71. Show the location of the three roots.

3.

Starting with x 0 = 1 . 5, what does Newton’s method do?

4.

Starting with x 0 = 1 and x 1 = 2, what does the secant method do?

5.

Starting with the interval [1, 2], what does bisection do?

6.

What is fzerotx(p,[1,2])? Why?

4. What causes fzerotx to terminate?

5. (a) How does fzerotx choose between the bisection point and the interpolant point for its next iterate?

(b) Why is the quantity tol involved in the choice?

648

6. Derive the formula that fzerotx uses for IQI.

7. Hoping to find the zero of J 0 (x) in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ π , we might try the statement

z = fzerotx(@besselj,[0 pi],0)

This is legal usage of a function handle, and of fzerotx, but it produces

z = 3.1416. Why?

649 1.

2.

(a) Compute the first ten zeros of J 0 (x) . You can use our graph of J 0 (x) to estimate their location.

Compute the first ten zeros of Y 0 (x) , the zeroth-order Bessel function of the second kind.

2.

Compute all the values of x between 0 and 10 π for which J 0 (x) = Y 0 (x) .

2.

Make a composite plot showing J 0 (x) and Y 0 (x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 π , the first ten zeros of both functions, and the points of intersection.

650

The gamma function is defined by an integral:

r∞

r(x + 1 ) =

t x e − t dt.

Integration by parts shows that, when evaluated at the integers, r(x) interpolates the factorial function

r(n + 1 ) = n ! .

r(x) and n ! grow so rapidly that they generate floating-point overflow for relatively small values of x and n . It is often more convenient to work with the logarithms
of these functions.

The Matlab functions gamma and gammaln compute r(x) and log r(x) , respectively. The quantity n ! is easily computed by the expression

prod(1:n)

but many people expect there to be a function named factorial, so Matlab has such a function.

1.

What is the largest value of n for which r(n +1 ) and n ! can be exactly represented by a double-precision floating-point
number?

2.

What is the largest value of n for which r(n + 1 ) and n ! can be approximately represented by a double-precision floatingpoint number that does not overflow?

651

The statements

y = 2:.01:10;

x = gammaln(y); plot(x,y)

produce a graph of the inverse of the log r function.

1.

Write a Matlab function gammalninv that evaluates this function for any x . That is, given x,

y = gammalninv(x)

computes y so that gammaln(y) is equal to x.

2.

What are the appropriate ranges of x and y for this function?

652

Here is a table of the distance, d , that a hypothetical vehicle requires to stop if the brakes are applied when it is traveling with velocity v .

v(m/s)

d(m)

10

5

20

20

30

46

40

70

50

102

60

153

What is the speed limit for this vehicle if it must be able to stop in at most 60 m? Compute the speed three different ways.
1.

piecewise linear interpolation,

2.

piecewise cubic interpolation with pchiptx,

3.

reverse piecewise cubic interpolation with pchiptx.

Because these are well-behaved data, the three values are close to each other, but not identical.

15.

653

Kepler’s model of planetary orbits includes a quantity E , the eccentricity anomaly, that satisfies the equation

M = E − e sin E,

where M is the mean anomaly and e is the eccentricity of the orbit. For this exercise, take M = 24 . 851090 and e = 0 .1.

1.

Use fzerotx to solve for E . You should use an anonymous function

M = 24.851090;

e = 0.1;

F = @(E) E - e*sin(E) - M

2.

An “exact” formula for E is known:

∞1

E = M + 2 ) J m (me) sin (mM),

m

m =1

where J m (x) is the Bessel function of the first kind of order m . Use this formula, and besselj(m,x) in Matlab , to compute E . How many terms are needed? How
does this value of E compare to the value obtained with fzerotx?

654

Utilities must avoid freezing water mains. If we assume uniform soil conditions, the temperature T (x, t) at a distance x below the surface and

time t after the beginning

of a cold snap is given approximately by

T(x, t ) − T s

T i− T s=

(

x\

erf .

2 αt

Here T s is the constant surface temperature during the cold period, T i is the initial soil temperature before the cold snap, and α is the thermal conductivity of the
soil. If x

is measured in meters and t in seconds, then α = 0 . 138 · 10 − 6 m 2 / s. Let T i = 20 ◦ C, and T s = −15 ◦ C, and recall that water freezes at 0 ◦ C. Use fzerotx to
determine how deep a water main should be buried so that it will not freeze until at least 60

days’ exposure under these conditions.

655

17.Modify fmintx to provide printed and graphical output similar to that at the end of section 4.10. Reproduce the results shown in Figure 4.8 for
-humps(x).

18.Let f (x) = 9 x 2 − 6 x + 2. What is the actual minimizer of f (x) ? How close to the actual minimizer can you get with fmintx? Why?

656

19. Theoretically, fmintx(@cos,2,4,eps) should return pi. How close does it get? Why? On the other hand, fmintx(@cos,0,2*pi) does return pi. Why?

20 If you use tol = 0 with fmintx(@F,a,b,tol), does the iteration run forever? Why or why not?

657

Derive the formulas for minimization by parabolic interpolation used in the following portion of fmintx:

r = (x - w)*(fx - fv);

q = (x - v)*(fx - fw);

p = (x - v)*q - (x - w)*r; s = 2.0*(q - r);

if s > 0.0, p = -p; end s = abs(s);

% Is the parabola acceptable? para = ( (abs(p)

& (p> s*(a- x))& (p

e= d;

d = p/s; newx=x+ d;

end

658

Let f (x) = sin ( tan x) − tan ( sin x), 0 ≤ x ≤ π.

1.

Plot f (x) .

2.

Why is it difficult to compute the minimum of f (x) ?

3.

What does fmintx compute as the minimum of f (x) ?

4.

What is the limit as x → π/ 2 of f (x) ?

5.

What is the glb or infimum of f (x) ?

659

Reproduce Figure 3.8, with four subplots showing the four interpolants discussed in this chapter.

1.

Tom and Ben are twin boys born on October 27, 2001. Here is a table of their weights, in pounds and ounces, over their first few months.
%

Date

Tom

W = [10

27 2001

5 10

Ben
4
4

8

11 19

2001

7

5

11

12 03

2001

8

12

6

4

12 20

2001

10

14

8

7

01 09

2002

12

13

10

3

01 23

2002

14

12

03 06

2002

16

13

10];

8
10

You can use datenum to convert the date in the first three columns to a serial date number measuring time in days.
t = datenum(W(:,[3 1 2]));
Make a plot of their weights versus time, with circles at the data points and the pchip interpolating curve in between. Use datetick to relabel the time axis. Include a
title and a legend. The result should look something like Figure 3.10.

660

1. (a) Interpolate these data by each of the four interpolants discussed in this chapter: piecelin, polyinterp, splinetx, and pchiptx. Plot the results for −1

≤ x ≤ 1.

x

y

-1.00

-1.0000

-0.96

-0.1512

-0.65

0.3860

0.10

0.4802

0.40

0.8838

1.00

1.0000

Figure 3.10. Twins’ weights.
2.

What are the values of each of the four interpolants at x = −0 . 3? Which of these values do you prefer? Why?
2.

661

The data were actually generated from a low-degree polynomial with integer coefficients. What is that polynomial?

4. Make a plot of your hand. Start with

figure(’position’,get(0,’screensize’)) axes(’position’,[0 0 1 1])

[x,y] = ginput;

Place your hand on the computer screen. Use the mouse to select a few dozen points outlining your hand. Terminate the ginput with a carriage return. You might
find it easier to trace your hand on a piece of paper and then put the paper on the computer screen. You should be able to see the ginput cursor through the paper.
(Save these data. We will refer to them in other exercises later in this book.)

Now think of x and y as two functions of an independent variable that goes from one to the number of points you collected. You can interpolate both functions on a
finer grid and plot the result with

n = length(x); s = (1:n)’;

t = (1:.05:n)’;

u = splinetx(s,x,t);

Figure 3.11. A hand.

v = splinetx(s,y,t); clf reset plot(x,y,’.’,u,v,’-’);

Do the same thing with pchiptx. Which do you prefer?

Figure 3.11 is the plot of my hand. Can you tell if it was done with splinetx or

pchiptx?

662

5. The previous exercise uses the data index number as the independent variable for two-dimensional parametric interpolation. This exercise uses,

instead, the angle θ from polar coordinates. In order to do this, the data must be centered so that they lie on a curve that is starlike with respect to the origin, that
is, every ray emanating from the origin meets the data only once. This means that you must be able to find values x 0and y 0 so that the Matlab statements

x = x - x0 y = y - y0

theta = atan2(y,x)

r = sqrt(x.ˆ2 + y.ˆ2) plot(theta,r)

produce a set of points that can be interpolated with a single-valued function, r = r(θ) . For the data obtained by sampling the outline of your hand, the
point (x 0 , y 0 ) is located near the base of your palm. See the small circle in Figure 3.11. Furthermore, in order to use splinetx and pchiptx, it is also necessary to
order the data so that theta is monotonically increasing.

Choose a subsampling increment, delta, and let

t = (theta(1):delta:theta(end))’; p = pchiptx(theta,r,t);

s = splinetx(theta,r,t);

Examine two plots:

plot(theta,r,’o’,t,[p s],’-’)

and

plot(x,y,’o’,p.*cos(t),p.*sin(t),’-’,... s.*cos(t),s.*sin(t),’-’)

Compare this approach with the one used in the previous exercise. Which do you prefer? Why?

663

664

1. This exercise requires the Symbolic Toolbox.

1.

What does vandal(n) compute and how does it compute it?

2.

Under what conditions on x is the matrix vander(x) nonsingular?

Prove that the interpolating polynomial is unique. That is, if P (x) and Q(x) are two polynomials with degree less than n that agree at n distinct points,

then they agree at all points.

665

10. We skipped from piecewise linear to piecewise cubic interpolation. How far can you get with the development of piecewise quadratic interpolation?

11. Modify splinetx and pchiptx so that, if called with two output arguments, they produce both the value of the interpolant and its first derivative. That
is,

[v,vprime] = pchiptx(x,y,u)

and

[v,vprime] = splinetx(x,y,u)

compute P (u) and P t (u) .

666

Modify splinetx and pchiptx so that, if called with only two input arguments, they produce PP, the piecewise polynomial structure produced by the

standard Matlab functions spline and pchip and used by ppval.

667

14. (a) Modify splinetx so that it forms the full tridiagonal matrix

A = diag(a,-1) + diag(b,0) + diag(c,1)

and uses backslash to compute the slopes.

(b) Monitor condest(A) as the spline knots are varied with interpgui. What happens if two of the knots approach each other? Find a data set that makes condest(A)
large.

678

15. Modify pchiptx so that it uses a weighted average of the slopes instead of the weighted harmonic mean.

16.(a) Consider

x = -1:1/3:1

interpgui(1-x.ˆ2)

Which, ifany, ofthefourinterpolantslinear, spline, pchip, andpolynomial are the same? Why?

(b) Same questions for

interpgui(1-x.ˆ4)

679

17.

Why does interpgui(4) show only three graphs, not four, no matter where you move the points?

(a) If you want to interpolate census data on the interval 1900 ≤ t ≤ 2000 with a polynomial,

P (t) = c 1 t 10 + c 2 t 9 + ··· + c 10 t + c 11 ,

you might be tempted to use the Vandermonde matrix generated by

t = 1900:10:2000

V = vander(t)

Why is this a really bad idea?

2.

Investigate centering and scaling the independent variable. Plot some data, pull down the Tools menu on the figure window, select Basic Fitting ,
and find the check box about centering and scaling. What does this check box do?

2.

s

Replace the variable t with

t − μ .σ

=

This leads to a modified polynomial P ˜ (s) . How are its coefficients related to those of P (t) ? What happens to the Vandermonde matrix? What values
of μ and σ lead to a reasonably well conditioned Vandermonde matrix? One possibility is

mu = mean(t) sigma = std(t)

but are there better values?

680

Which of these familiar rectangles is closest to a golden rectangle? Use Matlab to do the calculations with an element-by-element vector division, w./h.

3-by-5 inch index card,

8.5-by-11 inch U.S. letter paper,

8.5-by-14 inch U.S. legal paper,

9-by-12 foot rug,

9:16 “letterbox” TV picture,

768-by-1024 pixel computer monitor.

681

ISO standard A4 paper is commonly used throughout most of the world, except in the United States and Canada. Its dimensions are 210 by 297 mm.

This is not a golden rectangle, but the aspect ratio is close to another familiar irrational mathematical quantity. What is that quantity? If you fold a piece of A4 paper
in half, what is the aspect ratio of each of the halves? Modify the M-file goldrect.m to illustrate this property.

682

How many terms in the truncated continued fraction does it take to approximate φ with an error less than 10

− 10

? As the number of terms increases

beyond this roundoff, error eventually intervenes. What is the best accuracy you can hope to achieve with double-precision floating-point arithmetic and how many
terms does it take?

683

Use the Matlab backslash operator to solve the 2-by-2 system of simultaneous linear equations

c 1+ c 2= 1 ,

c 1 φ + c 2 ( 1 − φ) = 1

for c 1 and c 2 . You can find out about the backslash operator by taking a peek at the next chapter of this book, or with the commands

help \ help slash

684

The statement

semilogy(fibonacci(18),’-o’)

makes a logarithmic plot of Fibonacci numbers versus their index. The graph is close to a straight line. What is the slope of this line?

685

How does the execution time of fibnum(n) depend on the execution time for fibnum(n-1) and fibnum(n-2)? Use this relationship to obtain an approxi-

mate formula for the execution time of fibnum(n) as a function of n. Estimate how long it would take your computer to compute fibnum(50). Warning: You probably
do not want to actually run fibnum(50).

686

What is the index of the largest Fibonacci number that can be represented exactly as a Matlab double-precision quantity without roundoff error? What

is the index of the largest Fibonacci number that can be represented approximately as a Matlab double-precision quantity without overflowing?

687

8. Enter the statements

A = [1 1; 1 0]

X = [1 0; 0 1]

Then enter the statement

X = A*X

Now repeatedly press the up arrow key, followed by the Enter key. What happens? Do you recognize the matrix elements being generated? How many times
would you have to repeat this iteration before X overflows?

688

9. Change the fern color scheme to use pink on a black background. Don’t forget the stop button.

10.(a) What happens if you resize the figure window while the fern is being generated? Why?

(b) The M-file finitefern.m can be used to produce printed output of the fern. Explain why printing is possible with finitefern.m but not with fern.m.

689

11. Flip the fern by interchanging its x - and y -coordinates.

12. What happens to the fern if you change the only nonzero element in the matrix A4?

13.What are the coordinates of the lower end of the fern’s stem?

14.The coordinates of the point at the upper tip end of the fern can be computed by solving a certain 2-by-2 system of simultaneous linear equations.
What is that system and what are the coordinates of the tip?

690

The fern algorithm involves repeated random choices from four different formulas for advancing the point. If the k th formula is used repeatedly by

itself, without random choices, it defines a deterministic trajectory in the (x, y) plane. Modify finitefern.m so that plots of each of these four trajectories are
superimposed on the plot of the fern. Start each trajectory at the point ( −1 , 5 ) . Plot o’s connected with straight lines for the steps along each trajectory. Take as
many steps as are needed to show each trajectory’s limit point. You can superimpose several plots with

plot(...) hold on plot(...)

plot(...) hold off

691

Use the following code to make your own Portable Network Graphics file from the fern. Then compare your image with one obtained from

ncm/fern.png.

bg = [0 0 85]; % Dark blue background

fg = [255 255 255]; % White dots sz = get(0,’screensize’); rand(’state’,0)

X = finitefern(500000,sz(4),sz(3)); d = fg - bg;

R = uint8(bg(1) + d(1)*X);

G = uint8(bg(2) + d(2)*X);

B = uint8(bg(3) + d(3)*X);

F = cat(3,R,G,B);

imwrite(F,’myfern.png’,’png’,’bitdepth’,8)

692

Modify fern.m or finitefern.m so that it produces Sierpinski’s triangle . Start at

( 0\

x = 0.

At each iterative step, the current point x is replaced with Ax + b , where the matrix

A is always

(

1/20\

A=

01/2

and the vector b is chosen at random with equal probability from among the three vectors

( 0\

b=0

,b=

(

1/2\

, and b =

(

1/4\

√.

3/4

693

greetings(phi) generates a seasonal holiday fractal that depends upon the parameter phi. The default value of phi is the golden ratio. What happens

for other values of phi? Try both simple fractions and floating-point approximations to irrational values.

694

A = magic(4) is singular. Its columns are linearly dependent. What do null(A),

null(A,’r’), null(sym(A)), and rref(A) tell you about that dependence?

Let A = magic(n) for n = 3, 4, or 5. What does

p = randperm(n); q = randperm(n); A = A(p,q);

do to

sum(A) sum(A’)’

sum(diag(A)) sum(diag(flipud(A))) rank(A)

695

21.The character char(7) is a control character. What does it do?

What does char([169 174]) display on your computer?

22. What fundamental physical law is hidden in this string?

s = ’/b_t3{$H˜MO6JTQI>v˜#3GieW*l(p,nF’

24.

Find the two files encrypt.m and gettysburg.txt. Use encrypt to encrypt

gettysburg.txt. Then decrypt the result. Use encrypt to encrypt itself.

696

With the NCM directory on your path, you can read the text of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address with

fp = fopen(’gettysburg.txt’); G = char(fread(fp))’ fclose(fp);

1.

How many characters are in the text?

2.

Use the unique function to find the unique characters in the text.

3.

How many blanks are in the text? What punctuation characters, and how many of each, are there?

3.

697

Remove the blanks and the punctuation and convert the text to all upper- or lowercase. Use the histc function to count the

If x is the character string consisting of just two blanks,

x=’’

then crypto(x) is actually equal to x. Why does this happen? Are there any other two-character strings that crypto does not change?

698

Find another 2-by-2 integer matrix A for which

mod(A*A,97)

is the identity matrix. Replace the matrix in crypto.m with your matrix and verify that the function still works correctly.

699

The function crypto works with 97 characters instead of 95. It can produce output, and correctly handle input, that contains two characters with ASCII

values greater than 127. What are these characters? Why are they necessary? What happens to other characters with ASCII values greater than 127?

700

Create a new crypto function that works with just 29 characters: the 26 lowercase letters, plus blank, period, and comma. You will need to find a 2-by-2

integer matrix A for which mod(A*A,29) is the identity matrix.

701

The graph of the 3 n + 1 sequence has a particular characteristic shape if the starting n is 5 , 10 , 20 , 40 ,...,that is, n is five times a power of 2. What

is this shape and why does it happen?

702

31.The graphs of the 3 n +1 sequences starting at n = 108 , 109 , and 110 are very similar to each other. Why?

32.Let L(n) be the number of terms in the 3 n + 1 sequence that starts with n . Write a Matlab function that computes L(n) without using any vectors or
unpredictable amounts of storage. Plot L(n) for 1 ≤ n ≤ 1000. What is the maximum value of L(n) for n in this range, and for what value of n does it occur? Use
threenplus1 to plot the sequence that starts with this particular value of n .

703

Modify floatgui.m by changing its last line from a comment to an executable statement and changing the question mark to a simple expression that

counts the number of floating-point numbers in the model system.

704

34. Explain the output produced by

t = 0.1

n = 1:10

e = n/10 - n*t

705

35.What does each of these programs do? How many lines of output does each program produce? What are the last two values of x printed?

x = 1; while 1+x > 1, x = x/2, pause(.02), end x = 1; while x+x > x, x = 2*x, pause(.02), end x = 1; while x+x > x, x = x/2, pause(.02), end

706

36. Which familiar real numbers are approximated by floating-point numbers that display

the following values with format hex?

4059000000000000

3f847ae147ae147b 3fe921fb54442d18

707

Let F be the set of all IEEE double-precision floating-point numbers, except NaNs and Infs, which have biased exponent 7ff (hex), and denormals,

which have biased exponent 000 (hex).

1.

How many elements are there in F ?

2.

What fraction of the elements of F are in the interval 1 ≤ x 2?

3.

What fraction of the elements of F are in the interval 1 / 64 ≤ x 1 / 32?

4.

Determine by random sampling approximately what fraction of the elements x

of F satisfy the Matlab logical relation

x*(1/x) == 1

708

Steganography is the technique of hiding messages or other images in the low-order bits of the data for an image. The Matlab image function has a

hidden image that contains other hidden images. To see the top-level image, just execute the single command

image

Then, to improve its appearance,

colormap(gray(32)) truesize

axis ij axis image axis off

But that’s just the beginning. The NCM program stegano helps you continue the investigation.

1.

How many images are hidden in the cdata for the default image?

2.

What does this have to do with the structure of floating-point numbers?

709

Prime spirals . A Ulam prime spiral is a plot of the location of the prime numbers using a numbering scheme that spirals outward from the center of a

grid. Our NCM file primespiral(n,c) generates an n -by- n prime spiral starting with the number c in the center. The default is c = 1. Figure 1.10 is primespiral(7) and
Figure 1.11 is primespiral(250).

Figure 1.10. primespiral(7) .

The concentration of primes on some diagonal segments is remarkable, and not completely understood. The value of the element at position (i, j) is a piecewise
quadratic function of i and j , so each diagonal segment represents a mini-theorem about the distribution of primes. The phenomenon was discovered by Stanislaw
Ulam in 1963 and appeared on the cover of Scientific American in 1964. There are a number of interesting Web pages devoted to prime spirals. Start with [52] and
[66].

1.

The Matlab demos directory contains an M-file spiral.m. The integers from 1 to n 2 are arranged in a spiral pattern, starting in the center of the matrix.
The code in demos/spiral.m is not very elegant. Here is a better version.

function S = spiral(n)

%SPIRAL SPIRAL(n) is an n-by-n matrix with elements

% 1:nˆ2 arranged in a rectangular spiral pattern. S = [];

for m = 1:n

S = rot90(S,2);

S(m,m) = 0;

p = ???

v = (m-1:-1:0);

S(:,m) = p-v’;

S(m,:) = p+v;

Figure 1.11. primespiral(250) .

end

if mod(n,2)==1

S = rot90(S,2);

end

What value should be assigned to p each time through the loop so that this function generates the same matrices as spiral.m in the demos directory?

2.

Why do half of the diagonals of spiral(n) contain no primes?

2.

Let S = spiral(2*n) and let r1 and r2 be rows that go nearly halfway across the middle of the matrix:

r1 = S(n+1,1:n-2)

r2 = S(n-1,n+2:end)

Why do these rows contain no primes?

4.

There is something particularly remarkable about primespiral(17,17) primespiral(41,41)

What is it?

(Video) Dynamics SL Webinar - DocShare Integration with Microsoft SharePoint

5.

Find values of n and c, both less than 50, and not equal to 17 or 41, so that

[S,P] = primespiral(n,c)

contains a diagonal segment with 8 or more primes.

710

Triangular numbers are integers of the form n(n + 1 )/ 2. The term comes from the fact that a triangular grid with n points on a side has a total

of n(n +1 )/ 2 points. Write a function trinums(m) that generates all the triangular numbers less than or equal to m. Modify primespiral to use your trinums and
become trinumspiral.

711

Here is a puzzle that does not have much to do with this chapter, but you might find it interesting nevertheless. What familiar property of the integers is

represented by the following plot?

712

In the Gregorian calendar, a year y is a leap year if and only if

(mod(y,4) == 0) & (mod(y,100) ˜= 0) | (mod(y,400) == 0)

Thus 2000 was a leap year, but 2100 will not be a leap year. This rule implies that the Gregorian calendar repeats itself every 400 years. In that 400-year period,
there are 97 leap years, 4800 months, 20871 weeks, and 146097 days. The Matlab func- tions datenum, datevec, datestr, and weekday use these facts to
facilitate computations involving calendar dates. For example, either of the statements

and

[d,w] = weekday(’Aug. 17, 2003’)

[d,w] = weekday(datenum([2003 8 17]))

tells me that my birthday was on a Sunday in 2003. Use Matlab to answer the following questions.

713

1.

On which day of the week were you born?

2.

In a 400-year Gregorian calendar cycle, which weekday is the most likely for your birthday?

3.

What is the probability that the 13th of any month falls on a Friday? The answer is close to, but not exactly equal to, 1/7.

Biorhythms were very popular in the 1960s. You can still find many Web sites today that offer to prepare personalized biorhythms, or that sell software

to compute them. Biorhythms are based on the notion that three sinusoidal cycles influence our lives. The physical cycle has a period of 23 days, the emotional
cycle has a period of 28 days, and the intellectual cycle has a period of 33 days. For any individual, the cycles

714

Using Brooks&#39; figure of 1000 lines of code per programmer per year, make an esti mate of the amount of money it took to produce Windows

Vista. Assume that a pro grammer costs $100,000 per year (including overhead, such as computers, office space, secretarial support, and management
overhead). Do you believe this answer? If not, what might be wrong with it?

715

As memory gets cheaper and cheaper, one could imagine a computer with a big battery-backed up RAM instead of a hard disk. At current prices, how

much would a low-end RAM-only PC cost? Assume that a 1-GB RAM-disk is sufficient for a low end machine. Is this machine likely to be competitive?

716

Name some features of a conventional operating system that are not needed in an em

bedded system used inside an appliance.

717

Write a procedure in C to do a double-precision addition on two given parameters. Write the procedure using conditional compilation in such a way

that it works on 16- bit machines and also on 32-bit machines.

718

Write programs that enter randomly generated short strings into an array and then can search the array for a given string using (a) a simple linear

search (brute force), and

(b) a more sophisticated method of your choice. Recompile your programs for array sizes ranging from small to as large as you can handle on your system.
Evaluate the performance of both approaches. Where is the break-even point?

24.

719

Write a program to simulate an in-memory file system.

Moore&#39;s Law describes a phenomenon of exponential growth similar to the population growth of an animal species introduced into a new

environment with abundant food and no natural enemies. In nature, an exponential growth curve is likely eventually to

become a sigmoid curve with an asymptotic limit when food supplies become limiting or predators learn to take advantage of new prey. Discuss some factors that
may even tually limit the rate of improvement of computer hardware.

720

In Fig. 13-1, two paradigms are shown, algorithmic and event driven. For each of the following kinds of programs, which paradigm is likely to be

easiest to use:

721

1.

A compiler.

2.

A photo-editing program.

3.

A payroll program.

8. In Fig. 13-5, a flag,found, is used to tell whether the PID was located. Would it have been possible to forget aboutfound and just test p at the end of
the loop to see whether it got to the end or not?

9. In Fig. 13-6, the differences between the Pentium and the UltraSPARC are hidden by conditional compilation. Could the same approach be used to
hide the difference be tween Pentiums with an IDE disk as the only disk and Pentiums with a SCSI disk as the only disk? Would it be a good idea?

722

10.Indirection is a way of making an algorithm more flexible. Does it have any disadvan tages, and if so, what are they?

11.Can reentrant procedures have private static global variables? Discuss your answer.

723

12. The macro of Fig. 13-7(b) is clearly much more efficient than the procedure of Fig. 13-7(a). One disadvantage, however, is that it is hard to read.

Are there any other disadvantages? If so, what are they?

13. Suppose that we need a way of computing whether the number of bits in a 32-bit word is odd or even. Devise an algorithm for performing this
computation as fast as pos sible. You may use up to 256 KB of RAM for tables if need be. Write a macro to carry out your algorithm. Extra Credit: Write a
procedure to do the computation by looping over the 32 bits. Measure how many times faster your macro is than the proce dure.

724

In Fig. 13-8, we saw how GIF files use 8-bit values to index into a color palette. The same idea can be used with a 16-bit-wide color palette. Under

what circumstances, if any, might a 24-bit color palette be a good idea?

725

One disadvantage of GIF is that the image must include the color palette, which increases the file size. What is the minimum image size for which an

8-bit-wide color palette breaks even? Now repeat this question for a 16-bit-wide color palette.

726

In the text we showed how caching path names can result in a significant speedup when looking up path names. Another technique that is sometimes

used is having a daemon program that opens all the files in the root directory and keeps them open per manently, in order to force their i-nodes to be in memory all
the time. Does pinning the i-nodes like this improve the path lookup even more?

727

Even if a remote file has not been removed since a hint was recorded, it may have been changed since the last time it was referenced. What other

information might it be

useful to record?

728

Consider a system that hoards references to remote files as hints, for example as (name, remote-host, remote-name). It is possible that a remote file

will quietly be re moved and then replaced. The hint may then retrieve the wrong file. How can this problem be made less likely to occur?

729

In the text it is stated that locality can often be exploited to improve performance. But consider a case where a program reads input from one source

and continuously out puts to two or more files. Can an attempt to take advantage of locality in the file sys

tem lead to a decrease in efficiency here? Is there a way around this?

730

Fred Brooks claims that a programmer can write 1000 lines of debugged code per year, yet the first version of MINIX (13,000 lines of code) was

produced by one person in under three years. How do you explain this discrepancy?

731

Using Brooks&#39; figure of 1000 lines of code per programmer per year, make an esti mate of the amount of money it took to produce Windows

Vista. Assume that a pro grammer costs $100,000 per year (including overhead, such as computers, office space, secretarial support, and management
overhead). Do you believe this answer? If not, what might be wrong with it?

732

As memory gets cheaper and cheaper, one could imagine a computer with a big battery-backed up RAM instead of a hard disk. At current prices, how

much would a low-end RAM-only PC cost? Assume that a 1-GB RAM-disk is sufficient for a low end machine. Is this machine likely to be competitive?

733

Name some features of a conventional operating system that are not needed in an em

bedded system used inside an appliance.

734

Write a procedure in C to do a double-precision addition on two given parameters. Write the procedure using conditional compilation in such a way

that it works on 16- bit machines and also on 32-bit machines.

735

Write programs that enter randomly generated short strings into an array and then can search the array for a given string using (a) a simple linear
search (brute force), and

(b) a more sophisticated method of your choice. Recompile your programs for array sizes ranging from small to as large as you can handle on your
system. Evaluate the performance of both approaches. Where is the break-even point?

24.Write a program to simulate an in-memory file system.

736

1. The HAL keeps track of time starting in the year 1601. Give an example of an appli cation where this feature is useful.

2. In Sec. 11.3.2 we described the problems caused by multithreaded applications closing handles in one thread while still using them in another. One
possibility for fixing this would be to insert a sequence field. How could this help? What changes to the sys tem would be required?

737

2. Win32 does not have signals. If they were to be introduced, they could be per process, per thread, both, or neither. Make a proposal and explain
why it is a good idea.

3. An alternative to using DLLs is to statically link each program with precisely those li brary procedures it actually calls, no more and no less. If this
scheme were to be introduced, would it make more sense on client machines or on server machines?

738

2. What are some reasons why a thread has separate user-mode and kernel-mode stacks in Windows?

3. Windows uses 4-MB pages because it improves the effectiveness of the TLB, which can have a profound impact on performance. Why is this?

739

2. Is there any limit on the number of different operations that can be defined on an exec utive object? If so, where does this limit come from? If not,

why not?

3. The Win32 API call WaitForMultipleObjects allows a thread to block on a set of syn chronization objects whose handles are passed as parameters.
As soon as any one of them is signaled, the calling thread is released. Is it possible to have the set of syn chronization objects include two semaphores, one
mutex, and one critical section? Why or why not? Hint: This is not a trick question but it does require some careful thought.

740

2. Name three reasons why a process might be terminated.

10. As described in Sec. 11 .4, there is a special handle table used to allocate IDs for proc esses and threads. The algorithms for handle tables normally allocate
the first avail able handle (maintaining the free list in LIFO order). In recent releases of Windows this was changed so that the ID table always keeps the free list in
FIFO order. What is the problem that the LIFO ordering potentially causes for allocating process IDs, and why does not .UX have this problem?

741

Suppose that the quantum is set to 20 msec and the current thread, at priority 24, has just started a quantum. Suddenly an VO operation completes

and a priority 28 thread is made ready. About how long does it have to wait to get to run on the CPU?

742

In Windows Vista, the current priority is always greater than or equal to the base pri ority. Are there any circumstances in which it would make sense to

have the current priority be lower than the base priority? If so, give an example. If not, why not?

743

In Windows it was easy to implement a facility where threads running in the kernel can temporarily attach to the address space of a different process.

Why is this so much harder to implement in user mode? Why might it be interesting to do so?

744

11. Even when there is plenty of free memory available, and the memory manager does not need to trim working sets, the paging system can still
frequently be writing to disk. Why?

12. Why does the self-map used to access the physical pages of the page directory and page tables for a process always occupy the same 4 MB of
kernel virtual addresses (on the x86)?

745

11. If a region of virtual address space is reserved but not committed, do you think a VAD is created for it? Defend your answer.

12. Which of the transitions shown in Fig. 1 1-36 are policy decisions, as opposed to re quired moves forced by system events (e.g., a process exiting
and freeing its pages)?

746

Suppose that a page is shared and in two working sets at once. If it is evicted from one of the working sets, where does it go in Fig. 11 -36? What

happens when it is evicted from the second working set?

747

When a process unmaps a clean stack page, it makes the transition (5) in Fig. 1 1-36. Where does a dirty stack page go when unmapped? Why is

there no transition to the modified list when a dirty stack page is unmapped?

748

Suppose that a dispatcher object representing some type of exclusive lock (like a mutex) is marked to use a notification event instead of a

synchronization event to announce that the lock has been released. Why would this be bad? How much would the answer depend on lock hold times, the length of
quantum, and whether the system was a multiprocessor?

749

A file has the following mapping. Give the MFf run entries.

Offset

0123

45678

9 10

Disk address

50 51 52 22

24 25 26 53 54

- 60

750

Consider the MFT record of Fig. 11 -43. Suppose that the file grew and a lOth block was assigned to the end of the file. The number of this block is 66.

What would the MFT record look like now?

751

In Fig. 11 -46(b), the first two runs are each of length 8 blocks. Is it just an accident that they are equal, or does this have to do with the way

compression works? Explain your answer.

752

Suppose that you wanted to build Windows Vista Lite. Which of the fields of Fig. 1 1-47 could be removed without weakening the security of the

system?

753

An extension model used by many programs (Web browsers, Office, COM servers)

involves hostni

g DLLs to hook and extend their underlying functionality. Is this a reasonable model for an RPC-based service to use as long as it is careful to impersonate clients
before loading the DLL? Why not?

754

When running on a NUMA machine, whenever the Windows memory manager needs to allocate a physical page to handle a page fault it attempts to

use a page from the NUMA node for the current thread&#39;s ideal processor. Why? What if the thread is cur rently running on a different processor?

755

Give a couple of examples where an application might be able to recover easily from a backup based on a volume shadow copy rather the state of the

disk after a system crash.

756

In Sec. 11.9, providing new memory to the process heap was mentioned as one of the scenarios that require a supply of zeroed pages in order to

satisfy security re quirements. Give one or more other examples of virtual memory operations that re quire zeroed pages.

757

The regedit command can be used to export part or al of the registry to a text file

under all current versions of Windows. Save the registry several times during a work session and see what changes. If you have access to a Windows computer
on which you can install software or hardware, find out what changes when a program or device is added or removed.

758

Write a UNIX program that simulates writing an NTFS file with multiple streams. It should accept a list of one or more files as arguments and write an

output ftle that con tains one stream with the attributes of al arguments and additional streams with the contents of each of the arguments. Now write a second
program for reporting on the

attributes and streams and extracting all the components.

759

A directory contains the following files:

aardvark feret koala

bonefish grunion llama

capybara hyena marmot

dingo ibex nuthatch

emu jellyfish ostrich Which files will be listed by the command

Is [abc]*e*?

760

What does the following Linux shell pipeline do?grep nd xyz I we -1porpoise quacker rabbit seahorse tunaunicorn vicuna weasel yak zebu

Write a Linux pipeline that prints the eighth line of file z on standard output.

761

2. Why does Linux distinguish between standard output and standard error, when both default to the terminal?

3. A user at a terminal types the following commands:

a b c& dI e f&
I I

1

After the shell has processed them, how many new processes are running?

762

When the Linux shell starts up a process, it puts copies of its environment variables, such as HOME, on the process&#39; stack, so the process can

find out what its home direc tory is. If this process should later fork, will the child automatically get these vari ables too?

763

About how long does it take a traditional UNIX system to fork off a child process under the following conditions: text size= 100 KB, data size= 20 KB,

stack size= 10 KB, task structure= 1 KB, user structure= 5 KB. The kernel trap and return takes 1 msec, and the machine can copy one 32-bit word every 50 nsec.
Text segments are shared, but data and stack segments are not.

764

As multi-megabyte programs became more common, the time spent executing the fork system call and copying the data and stack segments of the

calling process grew pro portionally. When fork is executed in Linux, the parent&#39;s address space is not copied, as traditional fork semantics would dictate.
How does Linux prevent the child from doing something that would completely change the fork semantics?

765

Does it make sense to take away a process&#39; memory when it enters zombie state? Why or why not?

10. Why do you think the designers of Linux made it impossible for a process to send a signal to another process that is not in its process group?

766

A system call is usually implemented using a software interrupt (trap) instruction. Could an ordinary procedure call be used as well on the Pentium

hardware? If so, under what conditions and how? If not, why not?

767

11. In general, do you think daemons have higher priority or lower priority than interac tive processes? Why?

12. When a new process is forked off, it must be assigned a unique integer as its PID. Is it sufficient to have a counter in the kernel that is incremented
on each process creation, with the counter used as the new PID? Discuss your answer.

768

11. In every process&#39; entry in the task structure, the PID of the parent is stored. Why?

12. What combination of the sharing_jlags bits used by the Linux clone command corresponds to a conventional UNIX fork call? To creating a
conventional UNIX thread?

769

The Linux scheduler went through a major overhaul between the 2.4 and 2.6 kernel. The current scheduler can make scheduling decisions in 0(1)

time. Explain why is this so?

770

When booting Linux (or most other operating systems for that matter), the bootstrap loader in sector 0 of the disk first loads a boot program which then

loads the operating system. Why is this extra step necessary? Surely it would be simpler to have the bootstrap loader in sector 0 just load the operating system
directly.

771

A certain editor has 100 KB of program text, 30 KB of initialized data, and 50 KB of BSS. The initial stack is 10 KB. Suppose that three copies of this

editor are started si multaneously. How much physical memory is needed (a) if shared text is used, and (b) if it is not?

772

11. Why are open file descriptor tables necessary in Linux?

12. In Linux, the data and stack segments are paged and swapped to a scratch copy kept on a special paging disk or partition, but the text segment
uses the executable binary file instead. Why?

773

Describe a way to use mmap and signals to construct an interprocess communication mechanism.

11.

774

A file is mapped in using the following mmap system call: mmap(65536, 32768, READ, FLAGS, fd, 0)

Pages are 8 KB. Which byte in the file is accessed by reading a byte at memory ad dress 72,000?

775

After the system call of the previous problem has been executed, the call munmap(65536, 8192)

is carried out. Does it succeed? If so, which bytes of the file remain mapped? If not, why does it fail?

776

Can a page fault ever lead to the faulting process being terminated? If so, give an ex ample. If not, why not?

777

Is it possible that with the buddy system of memory management it ever occurs that two adjacent blocks of free memory of the same size co-exist

without being merged into one block? If so, explain how. If not, show that it is impossible.

778

25. It is stated in the text that a paging partition will perform better than a paging file. Why is this so?

27. Give two examples of the advantages of relative path names over absolute ones.

779

28. The following locking calls are made by a collection of processes. For each call, tell what happens. If a process fails to get a lock, it blocks.

1.

A wants a shared lock on bytes 0 through 10.

(b) B wants an exclusive lock on bytes 20 through 30.

3.

C wants a shared lock on bytes 8 through 40.

3.

A wants a shared lock on bytes 25 through 35.

3.

B wants an exclusive lock on byte 8.

780

Consider the locked file of Fig. 10-26(c). Suppose that a process tries to lock bytes 10 and 11 and blocks. Then, before C releases its lock, yet another

process tries to lock bytes 10 and 11, and also blocks. What kinds of problems are introduced into the semantics by this situation? Propose and defend two
solutions.

781

30. Suppose that an lseek system call seeks to a negative offset in a file. Given two pos sible ways of dealing with it

31. If a Linux file has protection mode 755 (octal), what can the owner, the owner&#39;s group, and everyone else do to the file?

782

Some tape drives have numbered blocks and the ability to overwrite a particular block in place without disturbing the blocks in front of or behind it.

Could such a device hold a mounted Linux file system?

783

In Fig. 10-24, both Fred and Lisa have access to the file x in their respective direc tories after linking. Is this access completely symmetrical in the

sense that anything one of them can do with it the other one can too?

784

As we have seen, absolute path names are looked up starting at the root directory and relative path names are looked up starting at the working

directory. Suggest an effi cient way to implement both kinds of searches.

785

When the file /usrlast!worklf is opened, several disk accesses are needed to read i node and directory blocks. Calculate the number of disk accesses

required under the assumption that the i-node for the root directory is always in memory, and all direc tories are one block long.

786

A Linux i-node has 12 disk addresses for data blocks, as well as the addresses of sin gle, double, and triple indirect blocks. If each of these holds 256

disk addresses, what is the size of the largest file that can be handled, assuming that a disk block is 1 KB?

787

When an i-node is read in from the disk during the process of opening a file, it is put into an i-node table in memory. This table has some fields that are

not present on the disk. One of them is a counter that keeps track of the number of times the i-node has been opened. Why is this field needed?

788

On multi-CPU platforms, Linux maintains a runqueue for each CPU. Is this a good idea? Explain your answer?

789

Pdflush threads can be awakened periodically to write back to disk very old pages older than 30 sec. Why is this necessary?

790

After a system crash and reboot, a recovery program is usually run. Suppose that this program discovers that the link count in a disk i-node is 2, but

only one directory entry references the i-node. Can it fix the problem, and if so, how?

791

39. Make an educated guess as to which Linux system call is the fastest

39. Is it possible to unlink a file that has never been linked? What happens?

792

39. Based on the information presented in this chapter, if a Linux ext2 file system were to be put on a 1.44 Mbyte floppy disk, what is the maximum
amount of user file data that could be stored on the disk? Assume that disk blocks are 1 KB.

40. In view of all the trouble that students can cause if they get to be superuser, why does this concept exist in the first place?

793

A professor shares files with his students by placing them in a publicly accessible di rectory on the Computer Science department&#39;s Linux

system. One day he realizes that a file placed there the previous day was left world-writable. He changes the permis sions and verifies that the file is identical to
his master copy. The next day he finds that the file has been changed. How could this have happened and how could it have been prevented?

794

Linux supports a system call fsuid. Unlike setuid, which grants the user al the rights of effective id associated with a program he is running, fsuid

grants the user who is running the program special rights only with respect to access to files. Why is this feature useful?

795

39. Write a minimal shell that allows simple commands to be started. It should also allow

them to be started in the background.

39. Using assembly language and BIOS caUs, write a program that boots itself from a floppy disk on a Pentium-class computer. The program should
use BIOS calls to read the keyboard and echo the characters typed, just to demonstrate that it is running.

796

39. Write a dumb terminal program to connect two Linux computers via the serial ports. Use the POSIX terminal management calls to configure the
ports.

40. Write a client-server application which, on request, transfers a large file via sockets. Reimplement the same application using shared memory.
Which version do you expect to perform better? Why? Conduct performance measurements with the code

you have written and using different file sizes. What are your observations? What do y

797

o u thin k happens insid e th e Linux kerne l whic h result ; i n this hehavior?

Implement a basic user-level threads library to run on top of Linux. The library API should contain function calls like mythreads_init, mythreads_create,

mythreads_join, mythreads_exit, mythreads_yield, mythreads_self, and perhaps a few others. Next, im plement these synchronization variables to enable safe
concurrent operations: mythreads_mutex_init, mythreads_mutex_lock, mythreads_mutex_unlock. Before start-ing, clearly define the API and specify the semantics
of each of the calls. Next imple ment the user-level library with a simple, round-robin preemptive scheduler. You will also need to write one or more multithreaded
applications, which use your library, in order to test it. Finally, replace the simple scheduling mechanism with another one
which behaves like the Linux 2.6 0(1) scheduler described in this chapter. Compare
the performance your application(s) receive when using each of the schedulers.

798

Break the following monoalphabetic cipher. The plaintext, consisting of letters only, is a well-known excerpt from a poem by Lewis Carroll.

kfd ktbd fzm eubd kfd pzyiom mztx ku kzyg ur bzha kfthcm

ur rnfudm zhx mftnm zhx mdzythc pzq ur ezsszcdm zhx gthcm zhx pfa kfd mdz tm sutythc fuk zhx pfdkfdi ntcm fzld pthcm sok pztk z stk kfd uamkdim
eitdx sdruid pd fzld uoi efzk

rui mubd ur om zid uok ur sidzkf zhx zyy υρ om zid rzk

hu foiia mztx kfd ezindhkdi kfda kfzhgdx ftb boef rui kfzk

799

Consider a secret- key cipher that ha s a 26 x 26 matrix with the columns headed by ABC ... Z and the row s αρε also ABC ... Z. Plaintext is encrypted

two characters at a time. The first character is the column; the second is the row. The cell formed by the intersection of the row and column contains two ciphertext
characters. What constraint must the matrix adhere to and how many keys are there?

800

Secret-key cryptography is more efficient than public-key cryptography, but requires the sender and receiver to agree on a key in advance. Suppose

that the sender and re ceiver have never met, but there exists a trusted third party that shares a secret key with the sender and also shares a (different) secret key
with the receiver. How can the sender and receiver establish a new shared secret key under these circumstances?

4. Give a simple example ofa mathematical function that to a frrst approximation will do as a one-way function.

801

Suppose that two strangers A and B want to communicate with each other using secret-key cryptography, but do not share a key. Suppose both of

them trust a third party C whose public key is well known. How can the two strangers establish a new shared secret key under these circumstances?

802

Suppose that a system has 1000 objects and I00 domains at some time. 1% of the ob jects are accessible (some combination of r, w and x) in all

domains, 10% are ac cessible in two domains, and the remaining 89% are accessible in only one domain. Suppose one unit of space is required to store an
access right (some combination of r, w, x), object ID, or a domain ID. How much space is needed to store the full protec tion matrix, protection matrix as ACL, and
protection matrix as capability list?

803

Two different protection mechanisms that we have discussed are capabilities and ac cess control lists. For each of the following protection problems,

tell which of these mechanisms can be used.

1.

Ken wants his files readable by everyone except his office mate.

2.

Mitch and Steve want to share some secret ftles.

3.

Linda wants some of her files to be public.

804

Represent the ownerships and permissions shown in this UNIX directory listing as a protection matrix. Note:asw is a member of two

groups: users and devel; gmw is a member only of users. Treat each of the two users and two groups as a domain, so that the matrix has four rows (one per
domain) and four columns (one per file).

- rw - r -- r --

2

gmw

users

908

May 26 16:45

PPP - Notes

-

1

asw

devel

432

May 13 12:35

prog1

- rw - rw ----

1

asw

users

50094

May 30 17:51

project.t

- rw - r -----

1

asw

devel

131 24

May 31 14:30

splash.gif

rwx r - x r - x

805

5. Express the permissions shown in the directory listing of the previous problem as ac cess control lists.

6. In the Amoeba scheme for protecting capabilities, a user can ask the server to produce a new capability with fewer rights, which can then be given
to a friend. What happens if the friend asks the server to remove even more rights so that the friend can give it to someone else?

806

5. In Fig. 9-13, there is no arrow from process B to object I. Would such an arrow be al lowed? If not, what rule would it violate?

6. If process to process messages were allowed in Fig. 9-13, what rules would apply to them? For process B in particular, to which processes could it
send messages and which not?

807

Consider the steganographic system of Fig. 9-16. Each pixel can be represented in a color space by a point in the 3-dimensional system with axes for

the R, G, and B values. Using this space, explain what happens to the color resolution when steganog raphy is employed as it is in this figure.

808

Natural-language text in ASCIT can be compressed by at least 50% using various com pression algorithms. Using this knowledge, what is the

steganographic carrying capa city for ASCIT text (in bytes) of a 1600 x 1200 image stored using the low-order bits of each pixel? How much is the image size
increased by the use of this technique (as suming no encryption or no expansion due to encryption)? What is the efficiency of the scheme, that is, its payload/
(bytes transmitted)?

809

Suppose that a tightly knit group of political dissidents living in a repressive country are using steganography to send out messages to the world about

conditions in their country. The government is aware of this and is fighting them by sending out bogus images containing false steganographic messages. How can
the dissidents try to help people tell the real messages from the false ones?

810

Go to www.cs . vu.n l l as t and click on covere d writin g link. Follow the instructions to extract the plays. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the sizes of the original-zebras and zebras files?

2. What plays are secretly stored in the zebras file?

3 How many bytes are secretly stored in the zebras file?

811

Not having the computer echo the password is safer than having it echo an asterisk for each character typed, since the latter discloses the password

length to anyone nearby who can see the screen. Assuming that passwords consist of upper and lower case letters and digits only, and that passwords must be a
minimum of five characters and a maximum of eight characters, how much safer is not displaying anything?

812

After getting your degree, you apply for a job as director of a large university com puter center that has just put its ancient mainframe system out to

pasture and switched over to a large LAN server running UNIX. You get the job. Fifteen minutes after start ing work, your assistant bursts into your office
screaming: "Some students have discovered the algorithm we use for encrypting passwords and posted it on the Inter net." What should you do?

813

The Morris-Thompson protection scheme with the n-bit random numbers (salt) was designed to make it difficult for an intruder to discover a large

number of passwords by encrypting common strings in advance. Does the scheme also offer protection against a student user who is trying to guess the
superuser password on his machine? Assume the password file is available for reading.

814

13. Explain how the UNIX password mechanism different from encryption.

14. Suppose the password file of a system is available to a cracker. How much extra time does the cracker need to crack all passwords if the system
is using the Morris Thompson protection scheme with n-bit salt versus if the system is not using this scheme?

815

13. Name three characteristics that a good biometric indicator must have for it to be useful as a login authenticator.

23. A computer science department has a large collection of UNIX machines on its local network. Users on any machine can issue a command of the
form

rexec machine4 who

and have the command executed on machine4, without having the user log in on the remote machine. This feature is implemented by having the
user&#39;s kernel send the command and his UID to the remote machine. Is this scheme secure if the kernels are all trustworthy? What if some of the
machines are students&#39; personal computers, with no protection?

816

23.What property does the implementation of passwords in UNIX have in common with Lamport &#39;s scheme for logging in over an insecure
network?

24. Lamport &#39;s one-time password scheme uses the passwords in reverse order. Would it not be simpler to use f(s) the first time, f (f{s)) the
second time, and so on?

817

23. Is there any feasible way to use the MMU hardware to prevent the kind of overflow attack shown in Fig. 9-24? Explain why or why not.

24. Name a C compiler feat ure that could eliminate a large number of security holes. Why is it not more widely implemented?

818

Can the USENET newsgroup system or the [emailprotected] project be considered dis tributed systems? ([emailprotected] uses several million idle personal

computers to analyze radio telescope data to search for extraterrestrial intelligence.) If so, how do they relate to the categories described in Fig. 8-1?

819

What happens if two CPUs in a multiprocessor attempt to access exactly the same word of memory at exactly the same instant?

820

If a CPU issues one memory request every instruction and the computer runs at 200 MIPS, abuul how many CPUs will il Lakt: lo salural c: a 400-MHz

bus? Assumt: Lhal a memory reference requires one bus cycle. Now repeat this problem for a system in which caching is used and the caches have a 90% hit
rate. Finally, what cache hit rate would be needed to allow 32 CPUs to share the bus without overloading it?

821

4. Suppose that the wire between switch 2A and switch 3B in the omega network of Fig. 8-5 breaks . Who is cut off from whom?

5. How is signal handling done in the model of Fig. 8-7?

822

5. Rewrite the enter_region code of Fig. 2-22 using the pure read to reduce thrashing induced by the TSL instruction.

7. Multicore CPUs are beginning to appear in conventional Desktop machines and laptop computers . Desktops with tens or hundreds of cores are not
far off. One possible way to harness this power is to parallelize standard desktop applications such as the word processor or the web browser.
Another possible way to harness the power is to paral lelize the services offered by the operating system -- e.g., TCP processing -- and com monlyused library services -- e.g., secure http library functions). Which approach appears the most promising? Why?

823

Write a pair of programs, in C or as shell scripts, to send and receive a message by a covert channel on a UNIX system. Hint: A permission bit can be

seen even when a file is otherwise inaccessible, and the sleep command or system call is guaranteed to delay for a fixed time, set by its argument. Measure the
data rate on an idle system. Then create an artificially heavy load by starting up numerous different background proc esses and measure the data rate again.

824

Several UNIX systems use the DES algorithm for encrypting passwords. These sys tems typically apply DES 25 times in a row to obtain the encrypted

password. Down load an implementation of DES from the Internet and write a program that encrypts a password and checks if a password is valid for such a
system. Generate a list of 10 encrypted passwords using the Morris-Thomson protection scheme. Use 16-bit salt.

825

Suppose a system uses ACLs to maintain its protection matrix. Write a set of man agement functions to manage the ACLs when (1) a new object is

created; (2) an object is deleted; (3) a new domain is created; (4) a domain is deleted; (5) new access rights (a combination of r, w, x) are granted to a domain to
access an object; (6) existing ac cess rights of a domain to access an object are revoked; (7) new access rights are granted to all domains to access an object; (8)
access rights to access an object are revoked from aU domains.

826

One of the simplest ways to implement a publish/subscribe system is via a centralized broker that receives published articles and distributes those

articles to the appropriate subscribers. Write a multithreaded application that emulates a broker-based pub/sub system. Publisher and subscriber threads may
communicate with the broker via (shar ed) memory. Each message should start with a length field followed by that many characters. Publishers send messages to
the broker where the frrst line of the message contains a hierarchical subject line separated by dots followed by one or more lines that comprise the published
article. Subscribers send a message to the broker with a single line containing a hierarchical interest line separated by dots expressing the arti cles they are
interested in. The interest line may contain the wildcard symbol "*." The broker must respond by sending all (past) articles that match the subscriber&#39;s
interest. Articles in the message are separated by the line "BEGIN NEW ARTICLE." The subscriber should print each message it receives along with its subscriber
identity (i.e., its interest line). The subscriber should continue to receive any new articles that are posted and match its interests. Publisher and subscriber threads
can be created dy namically from the terminal by typing "P" or "S" (for publisher or subscriber) fol

lowed by the hierarchical subject/interest line. Publishers will then prompt for the

article. Typing a single line containing "." will signal the end of the article. (This project can also be implemented using processes communicating via TCP).

827

Write a program that implements the sender-initiated and receiver-initiated load balancing algorithms described in section 8.2. The algorithms should

take as input a list of newly created jobs specified as (creating_processor, start_time, re quired_CPU_time) where the creating_processor is the number of the
CPU that creat ed the job, the start_time is the time at which the job was created, and the re quired_CPU_time is the amount of CPU time the job needs to
complete (specified inseconds). Assume anode is overloaded when it has one job and a second job is creat ed. Assume a node is underloaded when it has no
jobs. Print the number of probe messages sent by both algorithms under heavy and light workloads. Also print the

maximum and minimum number of probes sent by any host and received by any host.

To create the workloads, write two workload generators. The first should simulate a heavy workload, generating, on average, N jobs every AlL seconds, where AlL
is the average job length and N is the number of processors. Job lengths can be a mix of long and short jobs, but the average job length must be AlL. The jobs
should be ran domly created (placed) across al processors. The second generator should simulate a light load, randomly generating (N/3) jobs every AlL seconds.
Play with other param eter settings for the workload generators and see how it affects the number of probe messages.

828

Write two programs to simulate load balancing on a multicomputer. The first program should set up m processes distributed across n machines

according to an initialization file. Each process should have running time chosen at random from a Gaussian distri bution whose mean and standard deviation are
parameters of the simulation . At the end of each run, the process creates some number of new processes, chosen from a Poisson distribution. When a process
exits, the CPU must decide whether to give away processes or try to find new processes. The first program should use the sender initiated algorithm to give away
work if it has more thank processes total on its ma chine. The second program should use the receiver-initiated algorithm to fetch work when needed. Make any
other reasonable assumptions you need, but state them clear ly.

829

Write C functions that could be used as client and server stub s to make an RPC call to the standard printf function, and a main program to test the

functions. The client and server should communicate by means of a data structure that could be transmitted over a network. You may impose reasonable limits on
the length of the format string and the number, types, and sizes of the variables your client stub will accept.

830

Copying buffers takes time. Write a C program to find out how much time it takes on a system to which you have access. Use the clock or times

functions to determine how long it takes to copy a large array. Test with different array sizes to separate copying time from overhead time.

831

37. When multiple processes need access to data, in what way is object-based access bet ter than shared memory?

38. When a Linda in operation is done to locate a tuple, searching the entire tuple space linearly is very inefficient. Design a way to organize the tuple
space that will speed up searches on all in operations.

832

37. When multiple processes need access to data, in what way is object-based access bet ter than shared memory?

38. When a Linda in operation is done to locate a tuple, searching the entire tuple space linearly is very inefficient. Design a way to organize the tuple
space that will speed up searches on all in operations.

833

When a browser fetches a Web page, it first makes a TCP connection to get the text on the

(in h e HTMLlanguage). Then it closes the connection and examines the
t

page

page. If there are figures or icons, it then makes a separate TCP connection to

fetch each one. Suggest two alternative designs to improve performance here.

834

37. Migrating virtual machines may be easier than migrating processes, but migration can still be clifficult. What problems can arise when migrating a
virtual machine?

38. Can the URLs used in the Web exhibit location transparency? Explain your answer.

835

23. DNS names have a hierarchical structure, such as cs.uni.edu or sales.general widget.co.m. One way to maintain the DNS database would be as
one centralized data base, but that is not done because it would get too many requests/sec. Propose a way that the DNS database could be
maintained in practice.

24. In the discussion of how URLs are processed by a browser, it was stated that connec tions are made to port 80. Why?

836

23. In Fig. 8-30, the third and fourth layers are labeled Middleware and Application on all four machines. In what sense are they all the same across
platforms, and in what sense are they different?

24. Fig. 8-33 lists six different types of service. For each of the following applications, which service type is most appropriate?

837

1.

Video on demand over the Internet.

2.

Downloading a Web page.

23. Why is there a limit to cable length on an Ethernet network?

24. Running multiple virtual machine on a PC is known to require large amounts of mem ory. Why? Can you think of any ways to reduce the memory
usage? Explain.

838

PCs differ in minor ways at the very lowest level, things like how timers are managed, how interrupts are handled, and some of the details of DMA. Do

these differences mean that virtual appliances are not actually going to work well in practice? Explain your answer.

839

23. VMware does binary translation one basic block at a time, then it executes the block and starts translating the next one. Could it translate the
entire program in advance and then execute it? If so, what are the advantages and disadvantages of each techni que?

24. Does it make sense to paravirtualize an operating system if the source code is avail able? What if it is not?

840

23. Consider a type 1 hypervisor that can support up to n virtual machines at the same time. PCs can have a maximum of four disk primary partitions.
Can n be larger than 4? If so, where can the data be stored?

24. One way to handle guest operating systems that change their page tables using ordi nary (nonprivileged) instructions is to mark the page tables as
read only and take a trap when they are modified. How else could the shadow page tables be maintained? Discuss the efficiency of your approach vs.
the read-only page tables.

841

23. DNS names have a hierarchical structure, such as cs.uni.edu or sales.general widget.co.m. One way to maintain the DNS database would be as
one centralized data base, but that is not done because it would get too many requests/sec. Propose a way that the DNS database could be
maintained in practice.

24. In the discussion of how URLs are processed by a browser, it was stated that connec tions are made to port 80. Why?

842

37. Migrating virtual machines may be easier than migrating processes, but migration can still be clifficult. What problems can arise when migrating a
virtual machine?

38. Can the URLs used in the Web exhibit location transparency? Explain your answer.

843

When session semantics are used, it is always true t hat changes to a file are im mediately visible to the process making the change and never visible

to processes on other machines. However, it is an open question as to whether or not they should be immediately visible to other processes on the same machine.
Give an argument each way.

844

37. When multiple processes need access to data, in what way is object-based access bet ter than shared memory?

38. When a Linda in operation is done to locate a tuple, searching the entire tuple space linearly is very inefficient. Design a way to organize the tuple
space that will speed up searches on all in operations.

845

Copying buffers takes time. Write a C program to find out how much time it takes on a system to which you have access. Use the clock or times

functions to determine how long it takes to copy a large array. Test with different array sizes to separate copying time from overhead time.

846

Write C functions that could be used as client and server stub s to make an RPC call to the standard printf function, and a main program to test the

functions. The client and server should communicate by means of a data structure that could be transmitted over a network. You may impose reasonable limits on
the length of the format string and the number, types, and sizes of the variables your client stub will accept.

847

HDTV has twice the horizontal resolution of regular TV (1280 versus 640 pixels). Using information provided in the text, how much more bandwidth

does it require than standard TV?

848

In Fig. 7-3, there are separate files for fast forward and fast reverse. If a video server is intended to support slow motion as well, is another file

required for slow motion in the forward direction? What about in the backward direction?

849

A sound signal is sampled using a signed 16-bit number (l sign bit, 15 magnitude bits). What is the maximum quantization noise in percent? Is this a

bigger problem for flute concertos or for rock and roll, or is it the same for both? Explain your answer.

850

A recording studio is able to make a master digital recording using 20-bit sampling. The final distribution to listeners will use 16 bits. Suggest a way to

reduce the effect of quantization noise, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of your scheme.

851

6. The OCT transformation uses an 8 x 8 block, yet the algorithm used for motion com pensation uses 16 x 16. Does this difference cause problems,
and if so, how are they solved in MPEG?

7. In Fig. 7-10 we saw how MPEG works with a stationary background and a moving actor. Suppose that an MPEG video is made from a scene in
which the camera is mounted on a tripod and pans slowing from left to right at a speed such that no two consecutive frames are the same. Do all the
frames have to be I-frames now? Why or why not?

852

Suppose that each of the three processes in Fig. 7-13 is accompanied by a process that supports an audio stream running with the same period as its

video process, so audio buffers can be updated between video frames. All three of these audio processes are identical. How much CPU time is available for each
burst of an audio process?

853

9. Two real-time processes are running on a computer. The first one runs every 25 msec for 10 msec. The second one runs every 40 msec for 15
msec. Will RMS always work for them?

10.The CPU of a video server has a utilization of 65%. How many movies can it show using RMS scheduling?

854

In Fig. 7-15, EDF keeps the CPU busy 100% of the time up to t = 150. It cannot keep the CPU busy indefmitely because there is only 975-msec work

per second for it to do so. Extend the figure beyond 150 msec and determine when the CPU first goes idle with EDF.

855

A DVD can hold enough data for a full-length movie and the transfer rate is adequate to display a television-quality program. Why not just use a "farm"
of many DVD drives as the data source for a video server?

856

The operators of a near video-on-demand system have discovered that people in a cer tain city are not willing to wait more than 6 minutes for a movie

to start. How many parallel streams do they need for a 3-hour movie?

857

Consider a system using the scheme of Abram-Profeta and Shin in which the video server operator wishes customers to be able to search forward or

backward for 1 min entirely locally. Assuming the video stream is MPEG-2 at 4 Mbps, how much buffer space must each customer have locally?

858

Consider the Abram-Profeta and Shin method. If the user has a RAM of size 50 MB that can be used for buffering, what is the value of b.T, given a 2

Mbps video stream?

859

A video-on-demand system for HDTV uses the small block model of Fig. 7-20(a) with a 1-KB disk block. If the video resolution is 1280 x 720 and the
data stream is 12 Mbps, how much disk space is wasted on internal fragmentation in a 2-hour movie

using NTSC?

860

Consider the storage allocation scheme of Fig. 7-20(a) for NTSC and PAL. For a given disk block and movie size, does one of them suffer more
internal fragmentation than the other? If so, which one is better and why?

861

11.Consider the two alternatives shown in Fig. 7-20. Does the shift toward HDTV favor either of these systems over the other? Discuss.

12. Consider a system with a 2-KB disk block storing a 2-hour PAL movie, with an a

862

In the above example, if each frame entry requires 8 bytes, out of which 1 byte is used

to indicate the number of disk blocks per frame, what is the longest possible movie size that can be stored?

863

The near video-on-demand scheme of Chen and Thapar works best when each frame set is the same size. Suppose that a movie is being shown in

24 simultaneous streams and that one frame in 10 is an !-frame. Also assume that !-frames are 10 times larger than P-frames. B-frames are the same size as Pframes. What is the probability that a buffer equal to 4 !-frames and 20 P-frames will not be big enough? Do you think that such a buffe.r size is acceptable? To
make the problem tractable, assume that frame types are randomly and independently distributed over the streams.

864

For the Chen and Thapar method, given that 5 of the tracks require 8 !-Frames, 35 of the tracks require 5 !-frames, and 45 of the tracks requires 3 !frames, and 15 of theframes require from 1 to 2 frames, what should be the size of the buffer, if we want to ensure that 95 of the frames can fit in the
buffer?

865

For the Chen and Thapar method, assume that a 3-hour movie encoded in PAL format needs to be streamed every 15 minutes. How many concurrent
streams are needed?

866

The end result of Fig. 7-18 is that the play point is not in the middle of the buffer any

more. Devise a scheme to have at least 5 min behind the play point and 5 min ahead

of it. Make any reasonable assumptions you have to, but state them explicitly.

867

The design of Fig. 7-19 requires that al language tracks be read on each frame. Sup pose that the designers of a video server have to support a large

number of languages, but do not want to devote so much RAM to buffers to hold each frame. What other al ternatives are available, and what are the advantages
and disadvantages of each one?

868

23. A small video server has eight movies. What does Zipf&#39;s law predict as the probabili ties for the most popular movie, second most popular
movie, and so on down to the least popular movie?

24. A 14-GB disk with 1000 cylinders is used to hold 1000 30-sec MPEG-2 video clips running at 4 Mbps. They are stored according to the organ-pipe
algorithm Assuming Zipf&#39;s law, what fraction of the time will the disk arm spend in the middle 10 cylin ders?

869

23. Assuming that the relative demand for films A, B, C, and D is described by Zipf&#39;s law, what is the expected relative utilization of the four disks
in Fig. 7-24 for the four strip ing methods shown?

24. Two video-on-demand customers started watching the same PAL movie 6 sec apart. If the system speeds up one stream and slows down the
other to get them to merge, what percent speed up/down is needed to merge them in 3 min?

870

23. An MPEG-2 video server uses the round scheme of Fig. 7-26 for NTSC video. All the videos come off a single 10,800 rpm UltraWide SCSI disk
with an average seek time of3 msec. How many streams can be supported?

24. Repeat the previous problem, but now assume that scan-EDF reduces the average seek time by 20%. How many streams can now be supported?

871

Consider the following set of requests to the disk. Each request is represented by a tuple (Deadline in msec, Cylinder). The scan-EDF algorithm is
used, where four upcoming deadlines are clustered together and served. If the average time to service each request is 6 msec, is there a missed
deadline?

(32, 300); (36, 500); (40, 210); (34, 310)

Assume that the current time is 15 msec.

872

Repeat the previous problem once more, but now assume that each frame is striped a cross four disks, with scan-EDF giving the 20% on each disk.

How many streams can now be supported.

873

The text describes using a batch of five data requests to schedule the situation de scribed in Fig. 7-27(a). If all requests take an equal amount of time,

what is the maxi mum time per request allowable in this example?

874

Many of the bitmap images that are supplied for generating computer "wallpaper" use few colors and are easily compressed. A simple compression

scheme is the following: choose a data value that does not appear in the input file, and use it as a flag. Read the file, byte by byte, looking for repeated byte
values. Copy single values and bytes re peated up to three times directly to the output file. When a repeated string of 4 or more bytes is found, write to the output
ftle a string of three bytes consisting of the flag byte, a byte indicating a count from 4 to 255, and the actual value found in the input file. Write a compression
program using this algorithm, and a decompression program that can restore the original file. Extra credit: How can you deal with ftles that contain the flag byte in
their data?

875

Computer animation is accomplished by displaying a sequence of slightly different images. Write a program to calculate the byte by byte difference

between two uncompressed bitmap images of the same dimensions. The output will be the same size as the input files, of course. Use this difference file as input
to the compression program of the previous problem, and compare the effectiveness of this approach with compression of individual images.

876

Implement the basic RMS and EDF algorithms as described in the text. The main input to the program will be a ftle with several lines, where each line

denotes a proc ess&#39; CPU request and has the following parameters: Period (seconds), Computation Time (seconds), Start time (seconds), and End time
(seconds). Compare the two algo rithms in terms of: (a) average number of CPU requests that are blocked due to CPU unschedulability, (b) average CPU
utilization, (c) average waiting time for each CPU request, (d) average number of missed deadlines.

877

Implement the constant time length and constant data length techniques for storing multimedia files. The main input to the program is a set of ftles,

where each file con tains the metadata about every frame of a MPEG-2 compressed multimedia ftle (e.g.

,movie). This metadata includes the frame type the length of the frame, the as sociated audio frames, etc. For different file block sizes, compare the two
techniques in terms of total storage required, disk storage wasted, and average RAM required.

878

To the above system, add a "reader" program that randomly selects files from the above input list to play them in video on demand mode and near

video on demand mode with VCR function. Implement the scan-EDF algorithm to order the disk read requests. Compare the constant time length and constant
data length schemes in terms of average number of disk seeks per file.

879

1. Give an example of a deadlock taken from politics.

2. Students working at individual PCs in a computer laboratory send their files to be printed by a server which spools the files on its hard disk. Under what
conditions may a deadlock occur if the disk space for the print spool is limited? How may the dead lock be avoided?
Q3
3.

In Fig. 6-1 the resources are returned in the reverse order of their acquisition. Would giving them back in the other order be just as good?

3.

The four conditions (mutual exclusion, hold and wait, no preemption and circular wait) are necessary for a resource deadlock to occur. Give an

Q4
example to show that these conditions are not sufficient for a resource deadlock to occur. When are these conditions sufficient for a resource deadlock
to occur?
Q5
3.

Fig. 6-3 shows the concept of a resource graph. Do illegal graphs exist, that is, graphs that structurally violate the model we have used of resource
usage? If so, give an ex ample of one.

Q6
3.

Suppose that there is a resource deadlock in a system. Give an example to show that the set of processes deadlocked can include processes that are
not in the circular chain in the corresponding resource allocation graph.

Q7
3.

The discussion of the ostrich algorithm mentions the possibility of process table slots or other system tables filling up. Can you suggest a way to
enable a system adminis trator to recover from such a situation?

Q8
3.

Explain how the system can recover from the deadlock in previous problem using (a) Recovery through preemption; (b) Recovery through rollback;
and (c) Recovery through killing processes.

Q9
3.

Suppose that in Fig. 6-6 C;j + R;j > Ej for some i. What implications does this have for the system?

10.

What is the key difference between the model shown in Figure 6-8, and the safe and unsafe states described in Section 6.5.2. What is the
consequence of this difference?

Q10
10.

Can the resource trajectory scheme of Fig. 6-8 also be used to illustrate the problem of deadlocks with three processes and three resources? If so,
how can this be done? If not, why not?

Q11
10.

In theory, resource trajectory graphs could be used to avoid deadlocks. By clever scheduling, the operating system could avoid unsafe regions.
Suggest a practical problem with actually doing this.

Q12
13.

Can a system be in a state that is neither deadlocked nor safe? If so, give an example. If not, prove that all states are either deadlocked or safe.

13.

Consider a system that uses the banker&#39;s algorithm to avoid deadlocks. At some time a process P requests a resource R, but is denied even

Q13
though R is currently available. Does it mean that if the system allocated R toP, the system would deadlock?
Q14
13.

A key limitation of the banker&#39;s algorithm is that it requires knowledge of maximum resource needs of al processes. Is it possible to design a
deadlock avoidance algorithm that does not require this information? Explain your answer.

Q15
Take a careful look at Fig. 6-l l(b). If D asks for one more unit, does this lead to a safe state or an unsafe one? What if the request came from C instead of D?
17.

A system has two processes and three identical resources. Each process needs a maxi mum of two resources. Is deadlock possible? Explain your
answer.

Q16
17.

Consider the previous problem again, but now with p processes each needing a maxi mum of m resources and a total of r resources available. What
condition must hold to make the system deadlock free?

Q17
17.

Suppose that process A in Fig. 6-12 requests the last tape drive. Does this action lead to a deadlock?

17.

A computer has six tape drives, with n processes competing for them. Each process may need two drives. For which values of n is the system
deadlock free?

Q18
17.

The banker&#39; s algorithm is being run in a system with m resource classes and n proc esses. In the limit of large m and n, the number of
operations that must be performed to check a state for safety is proportional to man b. What are the values of a and b?

Q19
17.

A system has four processes and five allocatable resources. The current allocation and maximum needs are as follows:

Allocated Maximum Available
Process A 1

0 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 OOx l l

Process B

20110

22210

Process C

11010

21310

Process D

11110

11221

What is the smallest value of x for which this is a safe state?

880

17.

One way to eliminate circular wait is to have rule saying that a process is entitled only to a single resource at any moment. Give an example to show
that this restriction is unacceptable in many cases.

Q21

17.

Two processes, A and B, each need three records, 1, 2, and 3, in a database. If A asks for them in the order 1, 2, 3, and B asks for them in the same
order, deadlock is not possible. However, if B asks for them in the order 3, 2, 1, then deadlock is possible. With three resources, there are 3! or six
possible combinations each process can re quest the resources. What fraction of all the combinations is guaranteed to be dead lock free?

Q22

17.

A distributed system using mailboxes has two IPC primitives, send and receive. The latter primitive specifies a process to receive from and blocks if no
message from that

process is available, even though messages may be waiting from other processes. There are no shared resources, but processes need to communicate frequently
about other matters. Is deadlock possible? Discuss.

Q23

In an electronic funds transfer system, there are hundreds of identical processes that work as follows. Each process reads an input line specifying an amount of
money, the account to be credited, and the account to be debited. Then it locks both accounts and transfers the money, releasing the locks when done. With many
processes running in parallel, there is a very real danger that having locked account x it will be unable to lock y because y has been locked by a process now
waiting for x. Devise a scheme that avoids deadlocks. Do not release an account record until you have completed the transactions. (In other words, solutions that
lock one account and then release it im mediately if the other is locked are not allowed.)

Q24

27.

One way to prevent deadlocks is to eliminate the hold-and-wait condition. In the text it was proposed that before asking for a new resource, a process
must first release whatever resources it already holds (assuming that is possible). However, doing so introduces the danger that it may get the new
resource but lose some of the existing ones to competing processes. Propose an improvement to this scheme.

Q25

27.

A computer science student assigned to work on deadlocks thinks of the following brilliant way to eliminate deadlocks. When a process requests a
resource, it specifies a time limit. If the process blocks because the resource is not available, a timer is started. If the time limit is exceeded, the
process is released and allowed to run again. If you were the professor, what grade would you give this proposal and why.

Q26

27.

Explain the differences between deadlock, livelock and starvation.

30.

Cinderella and the Prince are getting divorced. To divide their property, they have agreed on the following algorithm. Every morning, each one may
send a letter to the other&#39;s lawyer requesting one item of property. Since it takes a day for letters to be delivered, they have agreed that if both
discover that they have requested the same item on the same day, the next day they will send a letter canceling the request. Among their property is
their dog, Woofer, Woofer&#39;s doghouse, their canary, Tweeter, and Tweeter&#39;s cage. The animals love their houses, so it has been agreed that
any divi sion of property separating an animal from its house is invalid, requiring the whole division to start over from scratch. Both Cinderella and the
Prince desperately want Woofer. So they can go on (separate) vacations, each spouse has programed a per sonal computer to handle the
negotiation. When they come back from vacation, the computers are still negotiating. Why? Is deadlock possible? Is starvation possible? Discuss.

Q27

A student majoring in anthropology and minoring in computer science has embarked on a research project to see if African baboons can be taught about
deadlocks. He locates a deep canyon and fastens a rope across it, so the baboons can cross hand over-hand. Several baboons can cross at the same time,
provided that they are all going in the same direction. If eastward-moving and westward-moving baboons ever get onto the rope at the same time, a deadlock will
result (the baboons will get stuck in the middle) because it is impossible for one baboon to climb over another one while suspended over the canyon. If a baboon
wants to cross the canyon, he must check to see that no other baboon is currently crossing in the opposite direction. Write a
program using semaphores that avoids deadlock. Do not worry about a series of eastward-moving baboons holding up the westward-moving baboons indefinitely.

Q28

32.

Repeat the previous problem, but now avoid starvation. When a baboon that wants to cross to the east arrives at the rope and finds baboons crossing
to the west, he waits until the rope is empty, but no more westward-moving baboons are allowed to start until at least one baboon has crossed the
other way.

Q29

32.

Program a simulation of the banker&#39;s algorithm. Your program should cycle through each of the bank clients asking for a request and evaluating
whether it is safe or unsafe. Output a log of requests and decisions to a file.

30.

881

32.

Write a program to implement the deadlock detection algorithm with multiple re sources of each type. Your program should read from a file the
following inputs: the number of processes, the number of resource types, the number of resources of each type in existence (vector E), the current
allocation matrix C (first row, followed by the second row, and so on) the request matrix R (first row, followed by the second row, and so on). The
output of your program should indicate if there is a deadlock in the system or not. In case there is a deadlock in the system, the program should print
out the identities of all processes that are deadlocked.

Q31

32.

Write a program that detects if there is a deadlock in the system by using a resource allocation graph. Your program should read from a file the
following inputs: the num ber of processes and the number of resources. For each process if should read four numbers: the number of resources it is
currently holding, the IDs of resources it is holding, the number of resources it is currently requesting, the IDs of resources it is requesting. The output
of program should indicate if there is a deadlock in the system or not. In case there is a deadlock in the system, the program should print out the iden
tities of all processes that are deadlocked.

882

Write a program to implement the deadlock detection algorithm with multiple re sources of each type. Your program should read from a file the

following inputs: the number of processes, the number of resource types, the number of resources of each type in existence (vector E), the current allocation
matrix C (first row, followed by the second row, and so on) the request matrix R (first row, followed by the second row, and so on). The output of your program
should indicate if there is a deadlock in the system or not. In case there is a deadlock in the system, the program should print out the identities of all processes that
are deadlocked.

883

Write a program that detects if there is a deadlock in the system by using a resource allocation graph. Your program should read from a file the

following inputs: the num ber of processes and the number of resources. For each process if should read four numbers: the number of resources it is currently
holding, the IDs of resources it is holding, the number of resources it is currently requesting, the IDs of resources it is requesting. The output of program should
indicate if there is a deadlock in the system or not. In case there is a deadlock in the system, the program should print out the iden tities of all processes that are
deadlocked.

884

Advances in chip technology have made it possible to put an entire controller, includ ing all the bus access logic, on an inexpensive chip. How does

that affect the model of Fig. 1-5?

885

2. Given the speeds listed in Fig. 5-1, is it possible to scan documents from a scanner and transmit them over an 802. l lg network at full speed?
Defend your answer.

3. Figure 5-3(b) shows one way of having memory-mapped I/0 even in the presence of separate buses for memory and VO devices, namely, to first try
the memory bus and if that fails try the VO bus. A clever computer science student has thought of an improvement on this idea: try both in parallel, to
speed up the process of accessing VO devices. What do you think of this idea?

886

Suppose that a system uses DMA for data transfer from disk controller to main memo ry. Further assume that it takes t 1 nsec on average to acquire

the bus and t2 nsec to transfer one word over the bus (t 1 » t2). After the CPU has programmed the DMA controller, how long will it take to transfer 1000 words

from the disk controller to main memory, if (a) word-at-a-time mode is used, (b) burst mode is used? Assume that commanding the disk controller requires
acquiring the bus to send one word and acknowledging a transfer also requires acquiring the bus to send one word.

887

Suppose that a computer can read or write a memory word in 10 nsec. Also suppose that when an interrupt occurs, all 32 CPU registers, plus the

program counter and PSW are pushed onto the stack. What is the maximum number of interrupts per sec ond this machine can process?

888

CPU architects know that operating system writers hate imprecise interrupts. One way to please the OS folks is for the CPU to stop issuing new

instructions when an in terrupt is signaled, but allow all the instructions currently being executed to finis.h, then force the interrupt. Does this approach have any
disadvantages? Explain your answer.

889

In Fig. 5-9(b), the interrupt is not acknowledged until after the next character has been output to the printer. Could it have equally well been

acknowledged right at the start of the interrupt service procedure? If so, give one reason for doing it at the end, as in the text. If not, why not?

890

A computer has a three-stage pipeline as shown in Fig. l-6(a). On each clock cycle, one new instruction is fetched from memory at the address

pointed to by the PC and put into the pipeline and the PC advanced. Each instruction occupies exactly one memory word The instructions already in the pipeline
are each advanced one stage. When an interrupt occurs, the current PC is pushed onto the stack, and the PC is set to the address of the interrupt handler. Then
the pipeline is shifted right one stage and the first instruction of the interrupt handler is fetched into the pipeline. Does this machine have precise interrupts?
Defend your answer.

891

A typical printed page of text contains 50 lines of 80 characters each. Imagine that a certain printer can print 6 pages per minute and that the time to

write a character to the printer&#39;s output register is so short it can be ignored Does it make sense to run this printer using interrupt-driven VO if each character
printed requires an interrupt that takes 50 J.lsec ali-in to service?

892

3.Explain how an OS can facilitate installation of a new device without any need for recompiling the OS.

4. In which of the four l/0 software layers is each of the following done.

1. Computing the track, sector, and head for a disk read.


Checking to see if the user is permitted to use the device.
2. Writing commands to the device registers.

 Converting binary integers to ASCII for printing.

893

A local area network is used as follows. The user issues a system call to write data packets to the network. The operating system then copies the data

to a kernel buffer. Then it copies the data to the network controller board. When all the bytes are safely inside the controller, they are sent over the network at a
rate of 10 megabits/sec. The receiving network controller stores each bit a microsecond after it is sent. When the last bit arrives, the destination CPU is interrupted,
and the kernel copies the newly arrived packet to a kernel buffer to inspect it. Once it has figured out which user the packet is for, the kernel copies the data to the
user space. If we assume that each in terrupt and its associated processing takes 1 msec, that packets are 1024 bytes (ignore the headers), and that copying a
byte takes 1 J..lsec, what is the maximum rate at which one process can pump data to another? Assume that the sender is blocked until the work is finished at the
receiving side and an acknowledgement comes back. For sim plicity, assume that the time to get the acknowledgement back is so small it can be ignored.

894

12. Why are output files for the printer normally spooled on disk before being printed?

13. RAID level 3 is able to correct single-bit errors using only one parity drive. What is the point of RAID level 2? After all, it also can only correct one
error and takes more drives to do so.

895

A RAID can fail if two or more of its drives crash within a short time interval. Sup pose that the probability of one drive crashing in a given hour is p.

What is the probability of a k-drive RAID failing in a given hour?

896

Compare RAID level 0 through 5 with respect to read performance, write per formance, space overhead, and reliability.

897

12. Why are optical storage devices inherently capable of higher data density than mag netic storage devices? Note: This problem requires some
knowledge of high-school physics and how magnetic fields are generated.

13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of optical disks versus magnetic disks?

898

12. If a disk controller writes the bytes it receives from the disk to memory as fast as it receives them, with no internal buffering, is interleaving
conceivably useful? Discuss.

13. If a disk has double interleaving, does it also need cylinder skew in order to avoid missing data when making a track-to-track seek? Discuss your
answer.

899

Consider a magnetic disk consisting of 16 heads and 400 cylinders. This disk is divid ed into four 100-cylinder zones with the cylinders in different

zones containing 160, 200, 240. and 280 sectors, respectively. Assume that each sector contains 512 bytes, average seek time between adjacent cylinders is 1
msec, and the disk rotates at 7200 RPM. Calculate the (a) disk capacity, (b) optimal track skew, and (c) maximum data transfer rate.

900

A disk manufacturer has two 5.25-inch disks that each have 10,000 cylinders. The newer one has double the linear recording density of the older one.

Which disk prop erties are better on the newer drive and which are the same?

901

23. A computer manufacturer decides to redesign the partition table of a Pentium hard disk to provide more than four partitions. What are some
consequences of this change?

24. Disk requests come in to the disk driver for cylinders 10, 22, 20, 2, 40, 6, and 38, in that order. A seek takes 6 msec per cylinder moved. How
much seek time is needed for

902

1.

First-come, first served.

2.

Closest cylinder next.

3.

Elevator algorithm (initially moving upward). In al cases, the arm is initially at cylinder 20.

A slight modification of the elevator algorithm for scheduling disk requests is to al ways scan in the same direction. In what respect is this modified

algorithm better than the elevator algorithm?

903

In the discussion of stable storage using nonvolatile RAM, the following point was glossed over. What happens if the stable write completes but a

crash occurs before the operating system can write an invalid block number in the nonvolatile RAM? Does this race condition ruin the abstraction of stable
storage? Explain your answer.

904

In the discussion on stable storage, it was shown that the disk can be recovered to a consistent state (a write either completes or does not take place

at all) if a CPU crash occurs during a write. Does this property hold if the CPU crashes again during a recovery procedure. Explain your answer.

905

The clock interrupt handler on a certain computer requires 2 msec (including process switching overhead) per clock tick. The clock runs at 60 Hz.

What fraction of the CPU is devoted to the clock?

906

A computer uses a programmable clock in square-wave mode. If a 500 MHz crystal is used, what should be the value of the holding register to

achieve a clock resolution of

907

1.

a millisecond (a clock tick once every millisecond)?

2.

100 microseconds?

A system simulates multiple clocks by chaining all pending clock requests together as shown in Fig. 5-34. Suppose the current time is 5000 and there

are pending clock re quests for time 5008, 5012, 5015, 5029, and 5037. Show the values of Clock header, Current time, and Next signal at times 5000, 5005, and
5013. Suppose a new (pend ing) signal arrives at time 5017 for 5033. Show the values of Clock header, Current time and Next signal at time 5023.

908

Many versions of UNIX use an unsigned 32-bit integer to keep track of the time as the number of seconds since the origin of time. When will these

systems wrap around (year and month)? Do you expect this to actually happen?

909

A bitmap terminal contains 1280 by 960 pixels. To scroll a window, the CPU (or con troller) must move all the lines of text upward by copying their bits

from one part of the video RAM to another. If a particular window is 60 lines high by 80 characters wide (5280 characters, total), and a character&#39;s box is 8
pixels wide by 16 pixels high, how long does it take to scroll the whole window at a copying rate of 50 nsec per byte? If al lines are 80 characters long, what is the
equivalent baud rate of the termi-nal? Putting a character on the screen takes 5 j.lsec. How many lines per second can be displayed?

910

After receiving a DEL (SIGINT) character, the display driver discards all output cur rently queued for that display. Why?

911

On the original IDM PC&#39;s color display, writing to the video RAM at any time other than during the CRT beam&#39;s vertical retrace caused ugly

spots to appear all over the screen. A screen image is 25 by 80 characters, each of which fits in a box 8 pixels by 8 pixels. Each row of 640 pixels is drawn on a
single horizontal scan of the beam, which takes 63.6 j.lSec, including the horizontal retrace. The screen is redrawn 60 times a second, each of which requires a
vertical retrace period to get the beam back to the top. What fraction of the time is the video RAM available for writing in?

912

The designers of a computer system expected that the mouse could be moved at a maximum rate of 20 em/sec. If a mickey is 0.1 mm and each

mouse message is 3 bytes, what is the maximum data rate of the mouse assuming that each mickey is re ported separately?

913

The primary additive colors are red, green, and blue, which means that any color can be constructed from a linear superposition of these colors. Is it

possible that someone could have a color photograph that cannot be represented using full 24-bit color?

914

33. One way to place a character on a bitmapped screen is to use bitblt from a font table. Assume that a particular font uses characters that are 16 x
24 pixels in true RGB color.

1.

How much font table space does each character take?

(b) If copying a byte takes I00 nsec, including overhead, what is the output rate to the screen in characters/sec?

915

Assuming that it takes 10 nsec to copy a byte, how much time does it take to com pletely rewrite the screen of an 80 character x 25 line text mode

memory-mapped screen? What about a 1024 x 768 pixel graphics screen with 24-bit color?

916

In Fig. 5-40 there is a class to RegisterClass. In the corresponding X Window code, in Fig. 5-38, there is no such call or anything like it. Why not?

917

In the text we gave an example of how to draw a rectangle on the screen using the Windows GDI:

Rectangle(hdc, xleft, ytop, xright, ybottom);Is there any real need for the first parameter (hdc), and if so, what? After all, the coor dinates of the rectangle are
explicitly specified as parameters.

918

A THINC terminal is used to display a Web page containing an animated cartoon of size 400 pixels x 160 pixels running at 10 frames/sec. What

fraction of a 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet is consumed by displaying the cartoon?

919

It has been observed that the THINC system works well with a 1-Mbps network in a test. Are any problems likely in a multiuser situation? Hint:

Consider a large number of users watching a scheduled TV show and the same number of users browsing the World Wide Web.

920

If a CPU&#39;s maximum voltage, V, is cut to VIn, its power consumption drops to 1In2 of its original value and its clock speed drops to lin of its

original value. Suppose that a user is typing at 1 char/sec, but the CPU time required to process each character is 100 msec. What is the optimal value of n and
what is the corresponding energy saving in percent compared to not cutting the voltage? Assume that an idle CPU consumes no energy at al.

921

A notebook computer is set up to take maximum advantage of power saving features including shutting down the display and the hard disk after

periods of inactivity. A user sometimes runs UNIX programs in text mode, and at other times uses the X
is significantly better when she uses text-only programs. Why?

W

in dow System. She is surprised to find that battery life

922

Write a program that simulates stable storage. Use two large fixed-length files on your disk to simulate the two disks.

923

Write a program to implement the three disk-arm scheduling algorithms. Write a driv er program that generates a sequence of cylinder numbers (0999) at random, runs the three algorithms for this sequence and prints out the total distance (number of cylin ders) the arm needs to traverse in the
three algorithms.

924

Write a program to implement multiple timers using a single clock. Input for this pro gram consists of a sequence of four types of commands (S , T, E ,
P): Ssets the current time to ; T is a clock tick; and E schedules a signal to occur at time ; P prints out the values of Current time, Next signal, and
Clock header. Your program should also print out a statement whenever it is time to raise a signal.

925

In early UNIX systems, executable files (a. out files) began with a very specific magic number, not one chosen at random. These files began with a

header, followed by the text and data segments. Why do you think a very specific number was chosen for ex ecutable files, whereas other file types had a more-orless random magic number as the first word?

926

2. In Fig. 4-4, one of the attributes is the record length. Why does the operating system ever care about this?

3. Is the open system call in UNIX absolutely essential? What would the consequences be of not having it?

927

2. Systems that support sequential files always have an operation to rewind files. Do systems that support random access files need this too?

3. Some operating systems provide a system call rename to give a file a new name. Is there any difference at all between using this call to rename a
file and just copying the file to a new file with the new name, followed by deleting the old one?

928

2. In some systems it is possible to map part of a file into memory. What restrictions must such systems impose? How is this partial mapping
implemented?

3. A simple operating system only supports a single directory but allows that directory to have arbitrarily many files with arbitrarily long file names. Can
something approxi mating a hierarchical file system be simulated? How?

929

2. In UNIX and Windows, random access is done by having a special system call that moves the "current position" pointer associated with a file to a
given byte in the file. Propose an alternative way to do random access without having this system call.

3. Consider the directory tree of Fig. 4-8. If /usrljim is the working directory, what is the absolute path name for the file whose relative path name is
../ast/x?

930

Contiguous allocation of files leads to disk fragmentation, as mentioned in the text, because some space in the last disk block will be wasted in files

whose length is not an integral number of blocks. Is this internal fragmentation or external fragmentation? Make an analogy with something discussed in the
previous chapter.

10.

931

One way to use contiguous allocation of the disk and not suffer from holes is to com pact the disk every time a file is removed. Since all

files are contiguous, copying a file requires a seek and rotational delay to read the file, followed by the transfer at full

speed. Writing the file back requires the same work. Assuming a seek time of 5 msec, a rotational delay of 4 msec, a transfer rate of 8 MB/sec, and an average file
size of 8 KB, how long does it take to read a file into main memory and then write it back to the disk at a new location? Using these numbers, how long would it
take to compact half of a 16-GB disk?

932

12. In light of the answer to the previous question, does compacting the disk ever make any sense?

13. Some digital consumer devices need to store data, for example as files. Name a mod em device that requires file storage and for which
contiguous allocation would be a fine idea.

933

12. How does MS-DOS implement random access to files?

13. Consider the i-node shown in Fig. 4-13. If it contains 10 direct addresses of 4 bytes each and all disk blocks are 1024 KB, what is the largest
possible file?

934

12. It has been suggested that effciiency could be improved and disk space saved by storing the data of a short file within the i-node. For the i-node of
Fig. 4-13, how many bytes of data could be stored inside the i-node?

935

Two computer science students, Carolyn and Elinor, are having a discussion about i nodes. Carolyn maintains that memories have gotten so large

and so cheap that when a file is opened, it is simpler and faster just to fetch a new copy of the i-node into the i node table, rather than search the entire table to
see if it is already there. Elinor disagrees. Who is right?

936

Name one advantage of hard links over symbolic links and one advantage of symbolic links over hard links.

937

Free disk space can be kept track of using a free list or a bitmap. Disk addresses re quire D bits. For a disk with B blocks, F of which are free, state

the condition under which the free list uses less space than the bitmap. For D having the value 16 bits, express your answer as a percentage of the disk space that
must be free.

938

The beginning of a free space bitmap looks like this after the disk partition is fri st for matted: 1000 0000 0000 0000 (the first block is used by the root

directory). The sys tem always searches for free blocks starting at the lowest-numbered block, so after writing file A, which uses six blocks, the bitmap looks like
this: 1111 11 10 0000 0000. Show the bitmap after each of the following additional actions:

1.

File B is written, using five blocks

2.

File A is deleted

3.

File Cis written, using eight blocks

4.

File B is deleted.

939

What would happen if the bitmap or free list containing the information about free disk blocks was completely lost due to a crash? Is there any way to

recover from this disaster, or is it bye-bye disk? Discuss your answers for UNIX and the FAT-16 file system separately.

940

12. Oliver Owl&#39;s night job at the university computing center is to change the tapes used for overnight data backups. While waiting for each tape
to complete, he works on

writing his thesis that proves Shakespeare&#39;s plays were written by extraterrestrial visi tors. His text processor runs on the system being backed
up since that is the only one they have. Is there a problem with this arrangement?

941

We discussed making incremental dumps in some detail in the text. In Windows it is easy to tell when to dump a file because every file has an archive

bit This bit is miss ing in UNIX. How do UNIX backup programs know which files to dump?

942

Suppose that file 21 in Fig. 4-25 was not modified since the last dump. In what way would the four bitmaps of Fig. 4-26 be different?

943

23. It has been suggested that the first part of each UNIX file be kept in the same disk block as its i-node. What good would this do?

24. Consider Fig. 4-27. Is it possible that for some particular block number the counters in both lists have the value 2? How should this problem be
corrected?

944

The performance of a file system depends upon the cache hit rate (fraction of blocks found in the cache). If it takes 1 msec to satisfy a request from

the cache, but 40 msec to satisfy a request if a disk read is needed, give a formula for the mean time required to satisfy a request if the hit rate is h. Plot this
function for values of h varying from 0 to 1.0.

945

Consider the idea behind Fig. 4-21, but now for a disk with a mean seek time of 8 msec, a rotational rate of 15,000 rpm, and 262,144 bytes per track.

What are the data rates for block sizes of 1 KB, 2 KB, and 4 KB, respectively?

946

A certain file system uses 2-K.B disk blocks. The median file size is 1 KB. If all files were exactly 1 KB, what fraction of the disk space would be

wasted? Do you think the wastage for a real file system will be higher than this number or lower than it? Explain your answer.

947

The MS-DOS FAT-16 table contains 64Kentries. Suppose that one of the bits had been needed for some other purpose and that the table contained

exactly 32,768 entries in stead. With no other changes, what would the largest MS-DOS file have been under this condition?

948

Files in MS-DOS have to compete for space in the FAT-16 table in memory. If one file uses k entries, that is k entries that are not available to any other

file, what con straint does this place on the total length of all files combined?

949

23. A UNIX file system has 1-K.B blocks and 4-byte disk addresses. What is the maximum file size if i-nodes contain 10 direct entries, and one single,
double, and triple indirect entry each?

24. How many disk operations are needed to fetch the i-node for the file

/usrlast/courses/os/handout.t? Assume that the i-node for the root directory is in memory, but nothing else along the path is in memory. Also assume
that all directories fit in one disk block.

950

In many UNIX systems, the i-nodes are kept at the start of the disk. An alternative de sign is to allocate an i-node when a file is created and put the i-

node at the start of the first block of the file. Discuss the pros and cons of this alternative.

951

Write a program that reverses the bytes of a file, so that the last byte is now first and the fust byte is now last. It must work with an arbitrarily long file,

but try to make it reasonably efficient.

952

Write a program that starts at a given directory and descends the file tree from that point recording the sizes of all the files it finds. When it is all done,

it should print a histogram of the ftle sizes using a bin width specified as a parameter (e.g., with 1024, file sizes of 0 to 1023 go in one bin, 1024 to 2047 go in the
next bin, etc.).

953

Write a program that scans all directories in a UNIX file system and finds and locates all i-nodes with a hard link count of two or more. For each such

file, it lists together al file names that point to the ftle.

954

Write a new version of the UNIX Is program. This version takes as an argument one or more directory names and for each directory lists all the files in

that directory, one line per ftle. Each field should be formatted in a reasonable way given its type. List only the fust disk address, if any.

955

In Fig. 3-3 the base and limit registers contain the same value, 16,384. Is this just an accident, or are they always the same? If this is just an accident,

why are they the same in this example?

956

A swapping system eliminates holes by compaction. Assuming a random distribution of many holes and many data segments and a time to read or

write a 32-bit memory word of 10 nsec, about how long does it take to compact 128 MB? For simplicity, as sume that word 0 is part of a hole and that the highest
word in memory contains valid data.

957

In this problem you are to compare the storage needed to keep track of free memory using a bitmap versus using a linked list. The 128-MB memory is

allocated in units of n bytes. For the linked list, assume that memory consists of an alternating sequence of segments and holes, each 64 KB. Also assume that
each node in the linked list needs a 32-bit memory address, a 16-bit length, and a 16-bit next-node field. How many bytes of storage is required for each method?
Which one is better?

958

Consider a swapping system in which memory consists of the following hole sizes in memory order: 10 KB, 4 KB, 20 KB, 18 KB, 7 KB, 9 KB, 12 KB,
and 15 KB. Which hole is taken for successive segment requests of

1.

12 KB

2.

10 KB

3.

9 KB

for first fit? Now repeat the question for best fit, worst fit, and next fit.

959

4. For each of the following decimal virtual addresses, compute the virtual page number and offset for a 4-KB page and for an 8 KB page: 20000,
32768, 60000.

5. The Intel 8086 processor does not support virtual memory. Nevertheless, some com panies previously sold systems that contained an unmodified
8086 CPU and did pag ing. Make an educated guess as to how they did it. Hint: Think about the logical loca tion of the MMU.

960

Consider the following C program:

int X[N];

int step = M; II M is some predefined constant for (int i = 0; i

1.

If this program is run on a machine with a 4-KB page size and 64-entry TLB, what values of M and N will cause a TLB miss
for every execution of the inner loop?

2.

961

Would your answer in part (a) be different if the loop were repeated many times? Explain.

The amount of disk space that must be available for page storage is related to the max imum number of processes, n, the number of bytes in the

virtual address space, v, and the number of bytes of RAM, r. Give an expression for the worst-case disk space re quirements. How realistic is this amount?

962

A machine has a 32-bit address space and an 8-KB page. The page table is entirely in hardware, with one 32-bit word per entry. When a process

starts, the page table is copied to the hardware from memory, at one word every 100 nsec. If each process runs for 100 msec (including the time to load the page
table), what fraction of the CPU time is devoted to loading the page tables?

963

9. Suppose that a machine bas 48-bit virtual addresses and 32-bit physical addresses.

1.

If pages are 4 KB, how many entries. are in the page table if it has only a single level? Explain.

2.

Suppose this same system has a TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) with 32 en tries. Furthermore, suppose that a program contains
instructions that fit into one page and it sequentially reads long integer elements from an array that spans thousands of pages. How
effective will the TLB be for this case?

964

Suppose that a machine bas 38-bit virtual addresses and 32-bit physical addresses.

1.

What is the main advantage of a multilevel page table over a single-level one?

(b) With a two-level page table, 16-KB pages, and 4-byte entries, how many bits should be allocated for the top-level page table field and how many
for the next level page table field? Explain.

965

A computer with a 32-bit address uses a two-level page table. Virtual addresses are split into a 9-bit top-level page table field, an 11 -bit second-level

page table field, and an offset. How large are the pages and how many are there in the address space?

966

Suppose that a 32-bit virtual address is broken up into four fields, a, b, c, and d. The first three are used for a three-level page table system. The

fourth field, d, is the offset. Does the number of pages depend on the sizes of all four fields? If not, which ones matter and which ones do not?

967

A computer has 32-bit virtual addresses and 4-K.B pages. The program and data toget her fit in the lowest page (0-4095) The stack fits in the highest

page. How many en tries are needed in the page table if traditional (one-level) paging is used? How many page table entries are needed for two-level paging, with
10 bits in each part?

968

A computer whose processes have 1024 pages in their address spaces keeps its page tables in memory. The overhead required for reading a word

from the page table is 5 nsec. To reduce this overhead, the computer has a TLB, which holds 32 (virtual page, physical page frame) pairs, and can do a look up in
1 nsec. What hit rate is needed to reduce the mean overhead to 2 nsec?

969

12. The TLB on the VAX does not contain an R bit. Why?

12. How can the associative memory device needed for a TLB be implemented in hard ware, and what are the implications of such a design for
expandability?

970

A machine has 48-bit virtual addresses and 32-bit physical addresses. Pages are 8 KB. How many entries are needed for the page table?

971

A computer with an 8-K.B page, a 256-KB main memory, and a 64-GB virtual address space uses an inverted page table to implement its virtual

memory. How big should the hash table be to ensure a mean hash chain length of less than 1? Assume that the hash table size is a power of two.

972

A student in a compiler design course proposes to the professor a project of writing a compiler that will produce a list of page references that can be

used to implement the optimal page replacement algorithm. Is this possible? Why or why not? Is there any thing that could be done to improve paging efficiency at
run time?

973

Suppose that the virtual page reference stream contains repetitions of long sequences of page references followed occasionally by a random page

reference. For example, the sequence: 0, 1, ... , 511, 431, 0, 1, ... , 511, 332, 0, 1, ... consists of repetitions of the sequence 0, 1, ... , 511 followed by a random
reference to pages 431 and 332.

1.

Why won&#39;t the standard replacement algorithms (LRU, FIFO, Clock) be effective in handling this workload for a page allocation that is less than
the sequence length?

2.

If this program were allocated 500 page frames, describe a page replacement ap proach that would perform much better than the LRU, FIFO, or Clock
algorithms.

974

If FIFO page replacement is used with four page frames and eight pages, how many page faults will occur with the reference string 0172327103 if the

four frames are ini tially empty? Now repeat this problem for LRU.

975

22. Consider the page sequence of Fig. 3-15(b). Suppose that the R bits for the pages B

through A are 11011011, respectively. Which page will second chance remove?

22.A small computer has four page frames. At the first clock tick, the R bits are 0111 (page 0 is 0, the rest are 1). At subsequent clock ticks, the values
are 1011, 1010, 1101, 0010, 1010, 11 00, and 0001. If the aging algorithm is used with an 8-bit count er, give the values of the four counters after the
last tick

976

Give a simple example of a page reference sequence where the first page selected for replacement will be different for the clock and LRU page

replacement algorithms. As sume that a process is allocated 3 frames, and the referenc.e string contains page num bers from the set 0, 1, 2, 3.

977

22. In the WSClock algorithm of Fig. 3-2l(c), the hand points to a page with R = 0. If

&#39;t = 400, will this page be removed? What about if "t = 1000?

22. How long does it take to load a 64-KB program from a disk whose average seek time is 10 msec, whose rotation time is 10 msec, and whose
tracks hold 32 KB

1.

for a 2-KB page size?

2.

for a 4-KB page size?

The pages are spread randomly around the disk and the number of cylinders is so large that the chance of two pages being on the same cylinder is negligible.

978

22. A computer has four page frames. The time of loading, time of last access, and the R

and M bits for each page are as shown below (the times are in clock ticks):
Page

Loaded

Last ref.

R

M

126

280

1

230

265

1

2

140

270

3

110

1

285

1

1

1.

Which page will NRU replace?

2.

Which page will FIFO replace?

3.

Which page will LRU replace?

4.

Which page wi ll second chance replace?

979

22. Consider the following two-dimensional array: int X[64][64];

Suppose that a system has four page frames and each frame is 128 words (an integer occupies one word). Programs that manipulate the X array fit
into exactly one page and always occupy page 0. The data are swapped in and out of the other three frames. The X ar is stored in row-major order
(i.e., X[0][1] follows X[O][O] in memory). Which of the two code fragments shown below will generate the lowest number of page faults? Explain and
compute the total number of page faults.

Fragment A

for (int j = 0; j

for (int i = 0; i

Fragment B

for (int i = 0; i

for (intj = 0; j

980

64; j++) X[i][j] = 0;

One of the first timesharing machines, the PDP- 1, had a memory of 4K 18-bit words. It held one process at a time in memory. When the scheduler

decided to run another process, the process in memory was written to a paging drum, with 4K 18-bit words around the circumference of the drum. The drum could
start writing (or reading) at any word, rather than only at word 0. Why do you suppose this drum was chosen?

981

A computer provides each process with 65,536 bytes of address space divided into pages of 4096 bytes. A particular program has a text size of

32,768 bytes, a data size of 16,386 bytes, and a stack size of 15,870 bytes. Will this program fit in the address space? If the page size were 512 bytes, would it fit?
Remember that a page may not contain parts of two different segments.

982

30. Can a page be in two working sets at the same time? Explain.It has been observed that the number of instructions executed between page faults
is directly proportional to the number of page frames allocated to a program. If the available memory is doubled, the mean interval between page
faults is also doubled.

30. Suppose that a normal instruction takes 1 rnicrosec, but if a page fault occurs, it takes 2001 J.lsec (i.e., 2 msec to handle the fault). If a program
takes 60 sec to run, during which time it gets 15,000 page faults, how long would it take to run if twice as much memory were available?

983

A group of operating system designers for the Frugal Computer Company are thinking about ways to reduce the amount of backing store needed in

their new operating sys tem. The head guru has just suggested not bothering to save the program text in the swap area at all, but just page it in directly from the
binary file whenever it is needed. Under what conditions, if any, does this idea work for the program text? Under what conditions, if any, does it work for the data?

984

A machine language instruction to load a 32-bit word into a register contains the 32- bit address ofthe word to be loaded. What is the maximum

number of page faults this instruction can cause?

985

30. When segmentation and paging are both being used, as in MULTICS, first the seg
ment descriptor must be looked up, then the page descriptor. Does the TLB also work
this way, with two levels of lookup?

986

30. We consider a program which has the two segments shown below consisting of in structions in segment 0, and read/write data in segment 1.

Segment 0 has read/execute protection, and segment 1 has read/write protection. The memory system is a de mand-paged virtual memory system with virtual
addresses that have a 4-bit page num ber, and an 10-bit offset. The page tables and protection are as follows (all numbers in the table are in decimal):

987

38.Can you think of any situations where supporting virtual memory would be a bad idea, and what would be gained by not having to support virtual
memory? Explain.

38. Plot a histogram and calculate the mean and median of the sizes of executable binary files on a computer to which you have access. On a
Windows system, look at all .exe and .dll files; on a UNIX system look at all executable files in /bin, /usrlbin, and

/l oca l/ bi n that are not scripts (or use the file utility to find all executables). Determine the optimal page size for this computer just considering the
code (not data). Consider internal fragmentation and page table size, making some reasonable assumption about the size of a page table entry.
Assume that all programs are equally likely to be run and thus should be weighted equally.

988

Small programs for MS-DOS can be compiled as .COM files. These files are always loaded at address OxlOO in a single memory segment that is

used for code, data, and stack. Instructions that transfer control of execution, such as JMP and CALL, or that ac cess static data from fixed addresses have the
addresses compiled into the object code. Write a program that can relocate such a program file to run starting at an arbitrary ad dress. Your program must scan
through code looking for object codes for instructions that refer to fixed memory addresses, then modify those addresses that point to memo ry locations within the
range to be relocated. You can find the object codes in an as sembly language programming text. Note that doing this perfectly without additional information is, in
general, an impossible task, because some data words may have values that mimic instruction object codes.

989

38. Write a program that simulates a paging system using the aging algorithm. The num ber of page frames is a parameter. The sequence of page

references should be read

from a file. For a given input file, plot the number of page faults per 1000 memory ref erences as a function of the number of page frames available.

990

42. Write a program that demonstrates the effect of TLB misses on the effective memory access time by measuring the per-access time it takes to
stride through a large array.

1.

Explain the main concepts behind the program, and describe what you expect the output to show for some practical virtual
memory architecture.

(b) Run the program on some computer and explain how well the data fit your expec

tations.

(c) Repeat part (b) but for an older computer with a different architecture and explain any major differences in the output.

991

42. Write a program that will demonstrate the difference between using a local page replacement policy and a global one for the simple case of two

processes. You will need a routine that can generate a page reference string based on a statistical model. This model has N states numbered from 0 to N-1
representing each of the possible page references and a probability p 1 associated with each state i representing the chance that the next reference is to the same
page. Otherwise, the next page reference will be one of the other pages with equal probability.

1.

Demonstrate that the page reference string generation routine behaves properly for some small N.

2.

Compute the page fault rate for a small example in which there is one process and a fixed number of page frames. Explain why the behavior is correct.

3.

Repeat part (b) with two processes with independent page reference sequences and

twice as many page frames as in Part (b).

4.

Repeat part (c) but using a global policy instead of a local one. Also, contrast the per-process page fault rate with that of the local policy
approach.

992

In Fig. 2-2, three process states are shown. In theory, with three states, there could be six transitions, two out of each state. However, only four

transitions are shown. Are there any circumstances in which either or both of the missing transitions might oc cur?

993

Suppose that you were to design an advanced computer architecture that did process switching in hardware, instead of having interrupts. What

information would the CPU need? Describe how the hardware process switching might work.

994

3. On ali current computers, at least part of the interrupt handlers are written in assembly language. Why?

4.When an interrupt or a system call transfers control to the operating system, a kernel stack area separate from the stack of the interrupted process
is generally used. Why?

995

Multiple jobs can run in parallel and finish faster than if they had run sequentially. Suppose that two jobs, each of which needs 10 minutes of CPU

time, start simultan eously. How long will the last one take to complete if they run sequentially? How long if they run in parallel? Assume 50% I/0 wait.

996

In the text it was stated that the model of Fig. 2-l l(a) was not suited to a file server using a cache in memory. Why not? Could each process have its

own cache?

997

If a multithreaded process forks, a problem occurs if the child gets copies of all the parent&#39;s threads. Suppose that one of the original threads

was waiting for keyboard input. Now two threads are waiting for keyboard input, one in each process. Does this problem ever occur in single-threaded processes?

998

In Fig. 2-8, a multithreaded Web server is shown. If the only way to read from a file is the normal blocking read system call, do you think user-level

threads or kernel-level threads are being used for the Web server? Why?

999

In the text, we described a multithreaded Web server, showing why it is better than a single-threaded server and a finite-state machine server. Are

there any circumstances in which a single-threaded server might be better? Give an example.

1000

10.In Fig. 2-12 the register set is listed as a per-thread rather than a per-process item. Why? After all, the machine has only one set of registers.

10.Why would a thread ever voluntarily give up the CPU by calling thread_yield? After all, since there is no periodic clock interrupt, it may never get
the CPU back.

1001

Can a thread ever be preempted by a clock interrupt? If so, under what circum stances? If not, why not?

1002

13. In this problem you are to compare reading a file using a single-threaded file server and a multithreaded server. It takes 15 msec to get a request

for work, dispatch it, and do the rest of the necessary processing, assuming that the data needed are in the block cache. If a disk operation is needed, as is the
case one-third of the time, an additional 75 msec is required, during which time the thread sleeps. How many requests/sec can the server handle if it is single
threaded? If it is multithreaded?

1003

What is the biggest advantage of implementing threads in user space? What is the biggest disadvantage?

1004

In Fig. 2-15 the thread creations and messages printed by the threads are interleaved at random. Is there a way to force the order to be strictly thread

I created, thread 1 prints message, thread 1 exits, thread 2 created, thread 2 prints message, thread 2 exists, and so on? If so, how? If not, why not?

1005

13. In the discussion on global variables in threads, we used a procedure create_global to allocate storage for a painter to the variable, rather than the

variable itself. Is this essential, or could the procedures work with the values themselves just as well?

1006

Consider a system in which threads are implemented entirely in user space, with the run-time system getting a clock interrupt once a second.

Suppose that a dock interrupt occurs while some thread is executing in the run-time system. What problem might occur? Can you suggest a way to solve it?

1007

13. Suppose that an operating system does not have anything like the select system call to see in advance if it is safe to read from a file, pipe, or
device, but it does allow alarm clocks to be set that interrupt blocked system calls. Is it possible to implement a threads package in user space under
these conditions? Discuss.

14. Can the priority inversion problem discussed in Sec. 2.3.4 happen with user-level threads? Why or why not?

1008

13.In Sec. 2.3.4, a situation with a high-priority process, H, and a low-priority process, L, was described, which led to H looping forever. Does the
same problem occur if round-robin scheduling is used instead of priority scheduling? Discuss.

14. In a system with threads, is there one stack per thread or one stack per process when user-level threads are used? What about when kernel-level
threads are used? Explain.

1009

When a computer is being developed, it is usually first simulated by a program that runs one instruction at a time. Even multiprocessors are simulated

strictly sequentially like this. Is it possible for a race condition to occur when there are no simultaneous events like this?

1010

Does the busy waiting solution using the turn variable (Fig. 2-23) work when the two processes are running on a shared-memory multiprocessor, that

is, two CPUs sharing a common memory?

1011

Does Peterson&#39;s solution to the mutual exclusion problem shown in Fig. 2-24 work when process scheduling is preemptive? How about when it

is nonpreemptive?

1012

13. Give a sketch of how an operating system that can disable interrupts could implement semaphores.

26. Show how counting semaphores (i.e., semaphores that can hold an arbitrary value) can be implemented using only binary semaphores and
ordinary machine instructions.

1013

If a system has only two processes, does it make sense to use a barrier to synchronize them? Why or why not?

1014

Can two threads in the same process synchronize using a kernel semaphore if the threads are implemented by the kernel? What if they are

implemented in user space? Assume that no threads in any other processes have access to the semaphore. Discuss your answers.

1015

26. Synchronization within monitors uses condition variables and two special operations, wait and signal. A more general form of synchronization

would be to have a single primitive, waituntil, that had an arbitrary Boolean predicate as parameter. Thus, one could say, for example,

waituntil x

The signal primitive would no longer be needed. This scheme is clearly more general

than that of Hoare or Brinch Hansen, but it is not used. Why not? Hni

the implementation.

t: Think about

1016

A fast food restaurant has four kinds of employees: (1) order takers, who take custo mers&#39; orders; (2) cooks, who prepare the food; (3) packaging

specialists, who stuff the food into bags; and (4) cashiers, who give the bags to customers and take their money. Each employee can be regarded as a
communicating sequential process. What form of interprocess communication do they use? Relate this model to processes in UNIX.

1017

Suppose that we have a message-passing system using mailboxes. When sending to a full mailbox or trying to receive from an empty one, a process

does not block. Instead, it gets an error code back. The process responds to the error code by just trying again, over and over, until it succeeds. Does this scheme
lead to race conditions?

1018

The CDC 6600 computers could handle up to 10 I/0 processes simultaneously using an interesting form of round-robin scheduling called processor

sharing. A process switch occurred after each instruction, so instruction 1 came from process 1, instruc tion 2 came from process 2, etc. The process switching
was done by special hardware, and the overhead was zero. If a process needed T sec to complete in the absence of competition, how much time would it need if
processor sharing was used with n proc esses?

1019

Can a measure of whether a process is likely to be CPU bound or I/0 bound be deter mined by analyzing source code? How can this be determined at

run time?

1020

In the section "When to Schedule," it was mentioned that sometimes scheduling could

be improved if an important process could play a role in selecting the next process to run when it blocks. Give a situation where this could be used and explain
how.

1021

35. Measurements of a certain system have shown that the average process runs for a time

T before blocking on I/0. A process switch requires a time S, which is effectively

wasted (overhead). For round-robin scheduling with quantum Q, give a formula for the CPU efficiency for each of the following:

1.

Q = oo

2.

Q>T

3.

S

4.

Q=s

5.

Q nearly 0

1022

Five jobs are waiting to be run. Their expected run times are 9, 6, 3, 5, and X. In what order should they be run to minimize average response time?

(Your answer will depend on X.)

1023

36. Five batch jobs A through E, arrive at a computer center at almost the same time. They have estimated running times of 10, 6, 2, 4, and 8 minutes.

Their (externally deter mined) priorities are 3, 5, 2, 1, and 4, respectively, with 5 being the highest priority. For each of the following scheduling algorithms,
determine the mean process turn

around time. Ignore process switching overhead.

1.

Round robin.

2.

Priority scheduling.

3.

First-come, fri st-served (run in order 10, 6, 2, 4, 8).

4.

Shortest job first

For (a), assume that the system is multiprogrammed, and that each job gets its fair share of the CPU. For (b) through (d) assume that only one job at a time runs,
until it finishes. All jobs are completely CPU bound.

1024

36. A process running on CTSS needs 30 quanta to complete. How many times must it be swapped in, including the very fust time (before it has run

aall)?

37. Can you think of a way to save the CTSS priority system from being fooled by ran dom carriage returns?

1025

36. The aging algorithm with a = 1/2 is being used to predict run times. The previous four

runs, from oldest to most recent, are 40, 20, 40, and 15 msec. What is the prediction

of the next time?

1026 36. A soft real-time system has four periodic events with periods of 50, 100, 200, and 250 msec each. Suppose that the four events require 35, 20, 10, and x
msec of CPU time, respectively. What is the largest value of x for which the system is schedulable?

37

1027

Explain why two-level scheduling is commonly used.

A real-time system needs to handle two voice calls that each run every 5 rnsec and consume 1 msec of CPU time per burst, plus one video at 25

frames/sec, with each frame requiring 20 msec of CPU time. Is this system schedulable?

1028

36. Consider a system in which it is desired to separate policy and mechanism for the scheduling of kernel threads. Propose a means of achieving this
goal.

37. In the solution to the dining philosophers problem (Fig. 2-46), why is the state variable set to HUNGRY in the procedure take_forks?

1029

Consider the procedure put_forks in Fig. 2-20. Suppose that the variable state[i] was set to THINKING after the two calls to test, rather than before.

How would this change affect the solution?

1030

The readers and writers problem can be formulated in several ways with regard to which category of processes can be started when. Carefully

describe three different variations of the problem, each one favoring (or not favoring) some category of proc esses. For each variation, specify what happens when
a reader or a writer becomes ready to access the database, and what happens when a process is finished using the database.

1031

47. Write a shell script that produces a file of sequential numbers by reading the last num ber in the file, adding 1 to it, and then appending it to the file.

Run one instance of the script in the background and one in the foreground, each accessing the same file. How long does it take before a race condition manifests
itself? What is the critical region?

Modify the script to prevent the race (Hni

t : use
In file file.lock

to lock the data file).

1032

47. Assume that you have an operating system that provides semaphores. Implement a message system. Write the procedures for sending and
receiving messages.

48. Solve the dining philosophers problem using monitors instead of semaphores.

47.

1033

Suppose that a university wants to show off how politically correct it is by applying the U.S. Supreme Court&#39; s "Separate but equal is

inherently unequal" doctrine to gender as well as race, ending its long-standing practice of gender-segregated bath rooms on campus. However, as a
concession to tradition, it decrees that when a woman is in a bathroom, other women may enter, but no men, and vice versa. A sign with a sliding
marker on the door of each bathroom indicates which of three possible states it is currently in:

Empty

Women present

Men present

In some programmg language you like, write the following procedures: woman_wants_to_enter, man_wants_to_enter, woman_leaves, man_leaves. You may use
whatever counters and synchronization techniques you like.

1034

47. Rewrite the program of Fig. 2-23 to handle more than two processes.

47. Write a producer-consumer problem that uses threads and shares a common buffer. However, do not use semaphores or any other
synchronization primitives to guard the shared data structures. Just let each thread access them when it wants to. Use sleep and wakeup to handle the full and
empty conditions. See how long it takes for a fatal race condition to occur. For example, you might have the producer print a number once in a while. Do not print
more than one number every minute because the I/0 could affect the race conditions.

1035

1. What is multiprogramming?

2. What is spooling? Do you think that advanced personal computers will have spooling

as a standard feature in the future?

1036

On early computers, every byte of data read or written was handled by the CPU (i.e., there was no DMA). What implications does this have for

multiprogramming? What isthe key difference between a trap and an interrupt?

1037

Why is the process table needed in a timesharing system? Is it also needed in personal computer systems in which only one process exists, that

process taking over the entire machine until it is finished?

1038

Is there any reason why you might want to mount a file system on a nonempty direc tory? If so, what is it?

1039

14. What is the purpose of a system call in an operating system?

15. For each of the following system calls, give a condition that causes it to fail: fork, exec, and unlink.

1040

14. Can the

count = write(fd, buffer, nbytes);

call return any value in count other than nbytes? If so, why?

14.

A file whose ftle descriptor is fd contains the following sequence of bytes: 3, 1, 4, 1, 5,

9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5. The following system calls are made:

lseek(fd, 3, SEEK _ SET);

read(fd, &buffer, 4);

where the Iseek call makes a seek to byte 3 of the file. What does bu ff e r contain after the read has completed?

1041

Suppose that a 10-MB file is stored on a disk on the same track (track #: 50) in con secutive sectors. The disk arm is currently situated over track

number 100. How long will it take to retrieve this file from the disk? Assume that moving the arm from one cylinder to the next takes about 1 ms and it takes about
5 ms for the sector where the beginning of the file is stored to rotate under the head. Also, assume that reading oc curs at a rate of 100 MB/s.

1042

What is the essential difference between a block special file and a character special file?

1043

In the example given in Fig. 1-17, the library procedure is called read and the system call itself is called read. Is it essential that both of these have the

same name? If not, which one is more important?

1044

The client-server model is popular in distributed systems. Can it also be used in a sin gle-computer system?

1045

To a programmer, a system call looks like any other call to a library procedure. Is it important that a programmer know which library procedures result

in system calls? Under what circumstances and why?

1046

Figure 1-23 shows that a number of UNlX system calls have no Win32 API equiva lents. For each of the calls listed as having no Win32 equivalent,

what are the conse quences for a programmer of converting a UNlX program to run under Windows?

1047

A portable operating system is one that can be ported from one system architecture to another without any modification. Explain why it is infeasible to

build an operating

1048

why use er-diagram

1049

Consider the Change Problem in Binaryland The input to this problem is an integer L. The output should be the minimum cardinality collection of coins

required to make L nibbles of change (that is, you

1050

Write a program to calculate students average test scores and their grades. You may assume the following data:Johnson 85 83 77 91 76Aniston 80 90

95 93 48Cooper 78 81 11 90 73Gupta 92 83 30 69 87Blair 23 45 96 38 59Clark 60 85 45 39 67Kennedy 77 31 52 74 83Bronson 93 94 89 77 97Sunny 79 85 28 93
82Smith 85 72 49 75 63Use three arrays: a one-dimensional array to store the student names, a (parallel) two-dimensional array to store the test score, and a
parallel one-dimensional array to store grades. Your program must contain at least the following methods: a method to read and store data into two arrays, a
method to calculate the average test score and grade and a method to output the results. Have your program also output the class average.Grade calculation to
be computed as follows:MarksGrade85-100A75-84B65-74C50-64D<50F

1051

Question 1: The address depletion of IPv4 and other shortcomings of this protocol prompted a new version of IP known as IPv6. Explain the

advantages of this new IPv6 when compared to IPv4? [3 Marks]

Question 2: Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 is known as transition from version 4 to version 6 and requires formal strategies to handle this transition. Explain each of
the strategies for this migration process using appropriate examples. [4 Marks]Question 3: In a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, Internet users that are ready to share
their resources become peers and form a network. Describe the differences between centralised and decentralised P2P networks? Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of both networks. [3 Marks]Question 4: What is a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and how is it used in P2P networks? Briefly explain how a DHT
works with an example of a P2P network. [3 Marks]Question 5: In the client-server paradigm, explain which entity provides the service and which entity receives
the service. Why should a server be run all the time, but a client can be run when it is needed?[3 Marks]Question 6: When an HTTP server receives a request
message from an HTTP client, how does the server know when all headers have arrived and the body of the message is to follow? [4 Marks]

1052

make sure work is free from plagarism and do the accurate work .

Document Preview:
COIT20261 Network Routing and Switching (Term 2, 2015) Assessment item 1—Written Assessment Due date: 11:30pm AEST, Friday, Week 10 ASSESSMENT
Weighting: 40% 1 Objectives This assessment item relates to the course learning outcomes 1 to 5 as stated on page 7 of the course profile. Instructions Please
write your answers to all questions in the ‘Template for Your Answers’ Section of this document and upload only that template. Please show all your working and
steps. Please ensure that you write your answers in your own words to avoid possible plagiarism and copyright violation. You can understand the Plagiarism
Procedures by following the corresponding link in the CQUniversity Policies section of the Course Profile. You also need to upload the .pcap file for Question 4 in
order to receive marks. Question 1 (9 marks) Given the following network, construct the routing table of router R1: Question 2 (7 marks) An organisation has been
granted a block of addresses starting with the address 172.154.60.0/24. Create 4 subnets for this organisation with the first subblock of 120 addresses, the

second subblock of 60 addresses, the third subblock of 30 addresses and the fourth subblock of 12 addresses. (1.5 marks for each correct answer) How many
addresses are left? (1 mark) Question 3: (4 marks) Consider the following UDP header dump: BB400045003AFF10 Identify the source port number. (0.5 marks)
Identify the destination port number. (0.5 marks) What is the length of the data? (1 mark) Is it a packet from the client to the server or vice versa? (1 mark) What is
the client process? (1 mark) Question 4 (15 marks) Investigate the cloud-managed wireless networks and compile a brief report of around 1400 words. Your
references may come from websites, white papers, government documents or published conference or journal papers. Your report should include only the
introduction (about 200 words), body (about 1000 words), conclusion (about 200 words) and...

Attach 1052

1053

In this assignment you are to implement a modified version of this game as a multithreaded application that creates three threads, one thread for a

referee, and two others to play the connect 4 game. The only problem here is that threads do not take turns, but rather contend for the board. This means that a
player can go two times in a row if that player can access the board game before the other. It is OK for this game to be unfair if taking turns doesn't happen.

This is a different version of the producer consumer problem where the producer produces a game board (6x7) and a single integer indicating if a winner has been
found or not. The scenario of running the program goes as follows:

1. The producer produces an empty game board, and indicates that no winner has been assigned and play may resume.

2. A thread will only access the board game if it has been released by the producer and also if no winner has been announced and the play may resume.

3. After a player makes a move (based on generating a random number between 1 and 7), the player thread should indicate to the referee that it's time to check for
a winner.

* The player should print the game board after making the move and insert an appropriate pause so the user has enough time to see the board changing.

4. The referee thread will check to see if there's a winner, and if so, it will announce it and end the game. Otherwise, it will indicate that no winner has been found
and play may resume.

* The referee should either announce a winner or indicate, no winner found and play should resume.

5. Once play resumes and no winner has been found, the next available player thread may take control, insert a chip, and once again indicate to the referee it's
time to check.

* The player should print the game board after making the move

STEPS 4 and 5 are repeated until a winner is announced or the game ends in a tie.

Your program should make use of mutexes and condition variables to check the availabilty of the board and to check if play may resume for the player threads or
referee may check the results for the referee thread.

1054

1. Architecture Notebook (40 marks)

Analyse the Case Study documents and develop a candidate architecture to meet the functional and non-functional requirements you have identified in
Assignment 1 and the system wide requirements identified in Task 1. Document this candidate architecture in an Architectural Notebook. Use the template
provided in the Resources/Assignment 2 section of the subject Interact site. Make sure the architectural notebook addresses:
i) The key concerns driving the overall architecture. (These should correspond with the 3-5 most important NFRs you identified.)

ii) Any assumptions and dependencies that affect the architecture.
iii) Any architecturally significant requirements. (E.g. a requirement for persistent data may require access to a database)
iv) Decisions, constraints, and justifications that shape the architecture.
v) Architectural mechanisms used to implement requirements (e.g a database or XML file to implement a persistence requirement)
vi) Any architectural frameworks or patterns that will be applied

1.

Component Diagram (15 marks)

Document your proposed architecture with a high level logical view showing functional and technical components in a component diagram.

1.

Deployment Diagram (15 marks)

Document how your proposed architecture maps to the intended deployment environment with a deployment diagram showing how your functional and technical
components will be distributed over hardware nodes.

1055

Question about Starting out with C++: From Control Structures Through Objects - 8th edition Ch. 3 Page 145 Programming Challenges #19

1056

Describe three of the most pressing ethical issues in computing today and provide examples of each

1057

Pthreads provides an API for managing thread cancellation. The pthread setcancelstate() function is used to set the cancellation state. Its prototype

appears as follows: pthread setcancelstate(int state, int *oldstate) The two possible values for the state are PTHREAD CANCEL ENABLE and PTHREAD CANCEL
DISABLE. Using the code segment shown in Figure 4.17, provide examples of two operations that would be suitable to perform between the calls to disable and
enable thread cancellation. Programming Problems 195 int oldstate; pthread setcancelstate(PTHREAD CANCEL DISABLE, &oldstate); /* What operations would
be performed here? */ pthread setcancelstate(PTHREAD CANCEL ENABLE, &ol

1058

Is this an appropriate concept of a Normalized table in Excel using the information from the Huffman Trucking Fleet Maintenance database information

Document Preview:
Purchase Purchase Date Purchase Price Quantity Issues Issue Date Parts Catalogue Description Type Manufacturer Reorder Point Reorder Quantity Purchasing
History Catalogue ID Quantity Purchased Order Quantity Price Shipping Tax FOB Quantity On hand Parts Inventory Vendors Qunatity Name Order Address Order
Contact Order Phone Order Fax Billing Address Billing Contact Billing Phone Billing Fax Street City State Zip Vehicle Information Vehicles Vehicle Types Type ID
Class Code Put into Service Date Gross Weight Mileage Accululated Depreciation Taken out of Service Date Capacity Maintenance Maintenance Descriptors
Vehicle Maintenance Tire Maintenance Maintenenace Work Order Maintenance Type (PK) Level Code Avearge Hours Required Days Between Recommended
Maintenance Masimum Days Between Maintenance Vehicle Part ID Maitenance ID (FK) Vehicle Serial Number (PK) Put in Sevice Date Last Maintenance Date
Next Scheduled Maintenance Date Under Warranty Flag Barcode Vehicle Type Put in Service Date Last Rotated Disposal Date Manufacturer ID (PK) Work Order
ID (PK) Vehiicle Part ID Maintenance Type ID (FK) Assingment TO Date Started Date Completed Hours VIN (PK) Type ID (PK) Transaction ID (PK) ID (PK)
Manufacturer ID (PK) Transaction ID (FK) Vendor ID (PK) Row Labels (blank) Vehicle Serial Number (PK) Grand Total Column Labels Accululated Total Capacity

Total Class Code Total Depreciation Total Gross Weight Total Mileage Total Purchase Price Total Put into Service Date Total Taken out of Service Date Total Type
ID Total VIN (PK) Total (blank) Total Last Maintenance Date Total Maitenance ID (FK) Total Next Scheduled Maintenance Date Total Put in Sevice Date Total
Under Warranty Flag Total Vehicle Part ID Total Vehicle Serial Number (PK) Total Put in Service Date Total Type Total Last Rotated Total Vehicle Type Total
Disposal Date Total Barcode Total Manufacturer ID (PK) Total

Attach 1058

1059

Carefully read the instructions given and follow them to complete This assignment and submit it on or before the due date

Project Assignment 4: Section III of the Research Proposal Project (The Research Methodology)
This is the fourth research project assignment for this course (NOTE: The research project builds on itself each week and will culminate with your final research
proposal submission during Week 7). Remember that the cumulative project assignments constitutes a research proposal for your selected research problem, and
therefore, you should abide by the guidelines given on page 121-122 of your textbook regarding the organizing and writing your research proposal.
In Project assignment 3, you included section I of the Research Proposal Project, in which you included a description of your selected research problem. Keep
your modified presentation of the your research problem following the directions given in project assignment 2 till you included as section I in cumulative research
proposal submission in week 7. And also you submitted Section II: literature review for your research proposal project. In which you included an annotated
bibliography for your study using scholarly sources. This project assignment 4 will serve as your section III of the cumulative research proposal project, in which
you will present your research methodology for solving your research problem. Your methodology could include a Qualitative design, Quantitative design or a
mixed Research design.
In Chapters 6 you study five Qualitative research designs. All these designs have two things in common, they focus on phenomena that occur in natural settings,
and they involve capturing and studying the complexity of these phenomena.
In chapters 8 and 9 you study two groups of Quantitative designs. In chapter 8 we cover Descriptive Research, this category of research designs involves either
identifying the characteristics of an observed phenomenon or possible associations among two or more phenomena. In Chapter 9, we cover another category of
designs called experimental designs that are used for identifying cause-effect relationships. In Chapter 10, we study Mixed-Methods Research and in Chapter 11
we study Strategies for analyzing Quantitative data. Depending on your selected research problem, decide which research design , Qualitative, Quantitative, or
mixed. Spend your time wisely this week and next week to develop the appropriate design.
If you select a Quantitative approach, Section III will include
Your justification for selecting a Quantitative research approach. Discusses which Quantitative design method will be used and why it is suitable.
For each sub problem: the data needed, the means for obtaining the data and the sampling procedure to be used.
The statistical Analysis procedures will be used to analyze the data.
If you select a Qualitative approach, Section III will include
1. Your justification for selecting a Qualitative research approach. Discusses which qualitative design method will be used and why it is suitable.
Role of the researcher (including qualifications and assumptions).
Selection and description of the site and participants.
Data collection strategies
Follow the following instruction to have your submission graded.
Please pay special attention to select the appropriate grading rubric to ensure that you complete all pertinent items in your qualitative research design or
quantitative research design. Do not include the grading rubric in you submission. Your final written product for Section III, should address each of the
requirements clearly and in detail.
GRADING RUBRIC FOR SECTION III
Grading Rubric for Quantitative Design
Category Category Description
Discusses which quantitative design method will be used and why it is suitable. (5 pts)
Characteristics of the Data- Discusses whether the data is continuous or discrete, what type of scale the data will represent, where the data will come from. (5 pts)
Discusses measures that are used for the independent and dependent variables and how any confounding variables will be controlled. (5 pts)
If experimental, includes the type of experiment that will be used. (5 pts)
The statistical Analysis procedures will be used to analyze the data.
(5 pts)
The overall quality of your selection (5 pts)
Student’s paper is free of grammatical errors and is written in a manner where a college level reader can grasp the essay’smeaning/argument in a single rapid
reading. In text citations are used where appropriate to cite others’ work. Reference list is complete and IAW APA standards. (5 pts)
Grading Rubric for Qualitative Research Approach
Category Description Descriptor
Qualitative Design
Justification for selecting a Qualitative research approach (5 points)
Focus- Discusses whether focus will be on individuals, groups, cultures, experiences, processes, or content; and the rationale for the decision. (5 pts)
Design- Discusses which one of the five qualitative design methods will be used and why it is suitable. (5 pts)
Data- discusses how the researcher will gain access to the site, how much time will be used, what resources are needed and available, and constraints on data
collection. (5 pts)
Data Collection- discusses how participants or materials will be sampled, the role that the researcher will assume, how anonymity and confidentiality will be

guaranteed. (5 pts)
Data Collection Procedures- includes detailed procedures that will be followed for data collection. (5 pts)
Student’s paper is free of grammatical errors and is written in a manner where a college level reader can grasp the essay’s meaning/argument in a single rapid
reading. In text citations are used where appropriate to cite others’ work. Reference list is complete and IAW APA standards. (5 pts)
Total 35 pts

Attach 1059

1060

:In APA format with correct citations and references complete the followin with no plagiarism

In preparation for the final submission to the management team of PVSS, you will create a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of
the presentation from the group project.

In an analysis of 2–3 pages, create the following:
A SWOT analysis of the Group Project presentation.

Critique the presentation, and describe what could have been completed better. Explain why.

2 A certification and accreditation document for review and signature by all respective parties.
Grading Rubric:

Discussion Topic

Points

SWOT Analysis

45

C&A Documents

45

Quality of writing:
Grammar

15

APA format

Use at least 2 credible sources

1061

I need this 100% original with introduction and clusion.

Document Preview:
1700 words, 4 refernces apa style Write a paper to investigate a problem in an organization that is causing process inefficiency. Identify an area where a
management information system can help create greater efficiency. You may draw upon experiences where you work, personal experiences as a customer
interacting with a management information systems, or examples from the literature. Examples of problems that can create inefficiencies might include but are not
limited to how an organization tracks sales internally, how inventory is tracked and shipped to customers, or how field tech scheduling is performed. Include the
following considerations: Define the purpose of a Management Information System (MIS) Describe the organizational problem either caused by an inefficient MIS
or requiring a MIS solution. Describe the impact of the organizational inefficiency. Provide reasons why the organizational inefficiency exists. Assess why a MIS
solution may meet resistance. Compare and contrast at least two management information systems that can provide potential solutions to the organizational
inefficiency Recommend an appropriate course of action.

Attach 1061

1062

Turn to pages 64 and 65 in your textbook (Chapter 3). Complete the practical application exercise by reading the article (Presented this week on
Moodle):

Parental Involvement and Its Influence on the Reading Achievement of 6th Grade Students by Hawes and Plourde (2005).
Then answer the 9 questions on the Check list on page 64-65; “Questions to Consider When Evaluating Research.” Explain clearly how the descriptive research
design was used by answering these questions in details.
Read and follow the instructions given below.
1.

Follow the grading rubric presented below but do not include it in the submitted assignment.

Category

Category Description

Question or Problem (5 pts)

States the article’s research question or problem, or both. States the focus of the author’s work

Data/Synthesis (5 pts)

Discusses the extent to which the research applies new data collection or synthesis of existing data.

Organization (5 pts)

Provides insights on the article’s organization and readability.

Literature Review (5 pts)

Provides a synopsis of the study’s literature review (extent to which it integrated other studies)

Procedures (5 pts)

Discusses procedures used in the study and provides some critical analysis of them

Data Collection (5 pts)

Discusses data collection in study and provides critical analysis.

Results (5 pts)

Provides analysis on relevance and accuracy of results

Strengths and Weaknesses
(5 pts)

Provides 3 strengths and 3 weaknesses of the article

Documentation (5 points)

Essay is properly documented using a reference list and in-text citations and conforms to APA standards.

Grammar & Writing Style (5

Student’s answers are free of grammatical errors and is written in a manner where a college level reader can grasp the

points)

essay’s meaning/argument in a single rapid reading.

Total 50 points

Attach 1062

1063

int oldstate; pthread setcancelstate(PTHREAD CANCEL DISABLE, &oldstate); /* What operations would be performed here? */ pthread

setcancelstate(PTHREAD CANCEL ENABLE, &oldstate);

1064

I need a assignment which is based on network routing and switching can you do it?

1065

presentation and written assessment

Document Preview:
COIT20248 Assignment 2 – Website Design and Modelling Presentation and Written Assessment Due date: 2 October 2015, 8:00 PM ASSESSMENT Weighting:
30% Length: No fixed length 2 Objectives This assessment relates to course learning outcomes 1 to 6 stated in the e-course profile. Assessment 2 is a group
assignment. You are required to form a group of 3-5 people. Following on Assessment 1, Assessment 2 is based on the same project case study. In Assessment 2
– Website Design and Modelling, you are required to complete tasks 1-5 below which assess your general course knowledge, particularly on modelling diagrams
and Interface design from weeks 6-10 about different facets of systems development. Please note that ALL submissions are passed through a computerized copy

detection system and it is extremely easy for teaching staff to identify copied or otherwise plagiarised work. ? Copying (plagiarism) can incur penalties ranging
from deduction of marks to failing the course or even exclusion from the University. ? Please ensure you are familiar with the Academic Misconduct Procedures,
available from: http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_file.do?policyid=1244http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_file.do?policyid=1244 The tasks In the report
format used in CQUniversity (refer to the Help section below for a link to the report guide), explain how you would complete the following modelling tasks and
website design. The report presentation including the references. You are to develop the report having each task clearly numbered together with your answer. You
are also expected to write an introduction and conclusion for this report. In performing the following tasks, you have to strictly follow all diagramming rules used in
the text for this course. In each task, please feel free to make any assumption necessary for the reader. The explanation of your assumptions can help the reader
understand your reasoning and is as important criteria in producing...

Attach 1065

1066

How many characters for pushback is guaranteed per file while usingungetc(c, fp);

1067

Database Schema for a student-Lab scenario

Student(stud_no: integer, stud_name: string, class: string)

Class(class: string, descrip: string)

Lab(mach_no: integer, Lab_no: integer, description: String)

Allotment(Stud_no: Integer, mach_no: integer, dayof week: string)

For the above schema, perform the following—

a) Create the tables with the appropriate integrity constraints

b) Insert around 10 records in each of the tables

c) List all the machine allotments with the student names, lab and machine numbers

d) List the total number of lab allotments day wise

e) Give a count of how many

1068

A2 file update application

Document Preview:
CSC8415 Computer Network Programming Faculty of Sciences Introductory Book Semester 2, 2015 c The University of Southern Queensland, June 16, 2015.
The University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 Australia http://www.usq.edu.au Copyrighted materials reproduced herein are used under
the provisions of the Copy- right Act 1968 as amended, or as a result of application to the copyright owner. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system or trans- mitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission. ii Contents
Study chart for any semester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Submit Assignments 3 Assignment schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A0: File

Transfer Application Part I 5 Trivial File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Task and Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A1: File
Transfer Application Part II 9 Trivial File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Task and Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Marking
Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A2: File Update Application 13 Trivial Remote File Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Tasks and
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Marking Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 iii iv CSC8415|Computer Network Programming
c University of Southern Queensland STUDY CHART FOR ANY SEMESTER 1 Study chart for any semester Week Dates Sections to study Assessment 1 M1:
Intro to TCP/UDP 2 M2: Sockets Intro 3 M3: Elementary TCP Sockets 4 M4: TCP Client-Server Example 5 M5: Elementary UDP Sockets 6 M5: Elementary UDP
Sockets Project 1 Due 7 M6: Daemon Process 8 M6: inetd Superserver 9 M7:...

Attach 1068

1069

A2 file update application

Document Preview:
CSC8415 Computer Network Programming Faculty of Sciences Introductory Book Semester 2, 2015 c The University of Southern Queensland, June 16, 2015.
The University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 Australia http://www.usq.edu.au Copyrighted materials reproduced herein are used under
the provisions of the Copy- right Act 1968 as amended, or as a result of application to the copyright owner. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system or trans- mitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission. ii Contents
Study chart for any semester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Submit Assignments 3 Assignment schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A0: File
Transfer Application Part I 5 Trivial File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Task and Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A1: File
Transfer Application Part II 9 Trivial File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Task and Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Marking
Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A2: File Update Application 13 Trivial Remote File Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Tasks and
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Marking Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 iii iv CSC8415|Computer Network Programming
c University of Southern Queensland STUDY CHART FOR ANY SEMESTER 1 Study chart for any semester Week Dates Sections to study Assessment 1 M1:
Intro to TCP/UDP 2 M2: Sockets Intro 3 M3: Elementary TCP Sockets 4 M4: TCP Client-Server Example 5 M5: Elementary UDP Sockets 6 M5: Elementary UDP
Sockets Project 1 Due 7 M6: Daemon Process 8 M6: inetd Superserver 9 M7:...

Attach 1069

1070

Please write your answers to all questions in the ‘Template for Your Answers’ Section of this document and upload only that template. Please show

all your working and steps. Please ensure that you write your answers in your own words

Document Preview:
COIT20261 Network Routing and Switching (Term 2, 2015) Assessment item 1—Written Assessment Due date: 11:30pm AEST, Friday, Week 10 ASSESSMENT
Weighting: 40% 1 Objectives This assessment item relates to the course learning outcomes 1 to 5 as stated on page 7 of the course profile. Instructions Please
write your answers to all questions in the ‘Template for Your Answers’ Section of this document and upload only that template. Please show all your working and
steps. Please ensure that you write your answers in your own words to avoid possible plagiarism and copyright violation. You can understand the Plagiarism
Procedures by following the corresponding link in the CQUniversity Policies section of the Course Profile. You also need to upload the .pcap file for Question 4 in
order to receive marks. Question 1 (9 marks) Given the following network, construct the routing table of router R1: Question 2 (7 marks) An organisation has been
granted a block of addresses starting with the address 172.154.60.0/24. Create 4 subnets for this organisation with the first subblock of 120 addresses, the
second subblock of 60 addresses, the third subblock of 30 addresses and the fourth subblock of 12 addresses. (1.5 marks for each correct answer) How many
addresses are left? (1 mark) Question 3: (4 marks) Consider the following UDP header dump: BB400045003AFF10 Identify the source port number. (0.5 marks)
Identify the destination port number. (0.5 marks) What is the length of the data? (1 mark) Is it a packet from the client to the server or vice versa? (1 mark) What is
the client process? (1 mark) Question 4 (15 marks) Investigate the cloud-managed wireless networks and compile a brief report of around 1400 words. Your
references may come from websites, white papers, government documents or published conference or journal papers. Your report should include only the
introduction (about 200 words), body (about 1000 words), conclusion (about 200 words) and...

Attach 1070

1071

Show the result of inserting the keys 10111101, 00000010, 10011011, 10111110,

01111111, 01010001, 10010110, 00001011, 11001111, 10011110, 11011011,
00101011, 01100001, 11110000, 01101111 into an initially empty extendible
hashing data structure with M = 4.

1072

The following is an access verification technique, listing several files and the access allowed for a single user. Identify the control technique used here,

and for each, explain the type of access allowed. a. File_1 R-E- b. File_12 RWE- c. File_13 RW-- d. File_14 A??

1073

Only the second questionQuestion number 2

http://condor.depaul.edu/ntomuro/courses/402/assign/hw1-new.html

1074

Can someone help me with this assignment please

Document Preview:
ITAS362 Introduction to Information Assurance and Information Security Wk 5 IP Due 9/21/15 The commanding officer is having second thoughts on using the
wireless network that was first considered. He is concerned about the security of a wireless network. Prepare a slide presentation on wireless networking and what
can be done to secure a wireless network. Include the following: You are not limited to shelf products. Consider proprietary solutions and remote access solutions.
When researching third-party solutions, do not just rely on the vendor’s claims for their products. Include substantial research material in the speaker notes.
Prepare an 8–20-slide presentation to address these points. Include speaker notes in the presentation. Plan the presentation and speaker notes so that someone
else could actually give the presentation. Be sure to document your references using APA format.

Attach 1074

1075

If a programer or CPU designer decides to increase the number of bits used to represent a certain type of data value, which of the following

statement(s) will be true?

1076
Can you assist with these normalization questions.
Thank you

Document Preview:
MMIS 630 Extra Credit: Normalization Use the following table to answer questions 1 and 2: Table: BOOK-DETAIL BookID** GenreID GenreDesc Price 1 1
Gardening 25.99 2 2 Sports 12.99 3 1 Gardening 10.00 4 3 Travel 14.99 5 2 Sports 17.99 **Primary key What, if any normalization error is present in the table?
None First Normal Form Second Normal Form Third Normal Form Describe or illustrate how you would correct the normalization error, if one is present. Use the
following table to answer questions 3 and 4: Table: BOOKS Book-Code** Title Price Pub-Code** Publisher City 0180 Shyness 7.65 BB Bantam Books Boston
0189 Kane and Able 5.55 PB Pocket Books New York 0200 The Stranger 8.75 BB Bantam Books Boston 0378 The Dunwich Horror 19.75 PB Pocket Books New
York 079X Smokescreen 4.55 PB Pocket Books New York **Primary Key What, if any normalization error is present in the table? None First Normal Form Second
Normal Form Third Normal Form Describe or illustrate how you would correct the normalization error, if one is present. Use the following table to answer questions
5 and 6: Table: PRODUCT ProductID** Color Price 1 Red, Green 15.99 2 Yellow 13.99 3 Green 22.99 4 Yellow, Blue 17.50 5 Red 19.99 **Primary key What, if
any normalization error is present in the table? None First Normal Form Second Normal Form Third Normal Form Describe or illustrate how you would correct the
normalization error, if one is present. Use the following table to answer questions 7 and 8: Table: PURCHASE-DETAIL CustomerID** StoreID** StoreLocation 1 1
Los Angeles 1 3 San Francisco 2 1 Los Angeles 3 2 New York 4 3 San Francisco *Primary key What, if any normalization error is present in the table? None First
Normal Form Second Normal Form Third Normal Form Describe or illustrate how you would correct the normalization error, if one is present. Use the following
table to...

Attach 1076

1077

I need the memo of 3 paper based on the assignemnt requriement and website i have created. I need in 12 hrs

Document Preview:
Here is the guidelines for Module 5. Professor will not grade if memo has not been given to her via email: To count as a “page” in this project, a page must fill one
window on a computer screen when the window is at its maximum size. The material in the window must include some text and images. Observe laws concerning
copyright and fair use. Text needs to be written by you, not downloaded or copied. Make sure that images are from open-sources. (See pages 147-151 regarding
intellectual property law and documenting sources) All information should be presented in a way that is suited to your audience and purpose. Organize your
website to match your readers’ search strategies. The pages are easy to navigate individually and as a group. Build a reader-centered, three click hierarchy.
Include the main menu and link to the homepage on every page. Put navigational aids in the same location on every page. Help your readers immediately
understand the organization of your web pages. Use clear, intuitive information links. Give your pages order, harmony, and proportion. The pages are unified with
one another in terms of visual design, writing style, and purpose. Your text is easy to read. The headings are clear and information needs to be presented in
small, visually distinct chunks. Turn in an email memo to your instructor that identifies the audience and purpose of your site (See page 481 for an example Email
memo). Post your site on a server and include the URL in your memo.

Attach 1077

1078

Create a Web page for a store that rents computers by the hour. • Use an external style sheet. • Format the heading level styles in olive and the

paragraphs in blue. • Format the heading and body elements using sans-serif fonts, such as Arial and Helvetica. Include headings, such as Services Offered,
Hours of Operation, Rental Charges, and Accepted Forms of Payment. • Within the Rental Charges heading, create a table that lists the cost of different types of
computer platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and Macintosh. • Format the rows in the table so that they alternate from white to gray. • Within the gray rows, format
the text to be white. Within the white rows, format the text to be black. You will need to set the color and background-color properties for the table’s elements using
class selectors. • Save the Web page as ComputerCenter.html and the style sheet as computers.css.

1079

Write the op-code of the instruction B2A5 (hexadecimal) as a string of 4 bits.

1080

Write the op-code of the instruction B2A5 (hexadecimal) as a string of 4 bits.

1081

Please complete this assignment as soon as possible

Document Preview:
You will be designing a simple Sudoku Game. The rules of Sudoku can be found on web. The rules are explained: When the New Game button is selected, the
user selects a file with the FileChooser The file is then read and displayed When the user selects the Display Possible Values button, all valid values for Row 2,
Column 2 are displayed. When the user selects the Enter button, the value is displayed at the row 2, column 2 if the value is valid for row 2, column 2. Examples
of Error Messages ValueNotValidException InputOutOfRangeException

Attach 1081

1082

. In a digital transmission, the sender clock is 0.2 percent faster than the receiver clock. How many extra bits per second does the sender send if the

data rate is 1 Mbps?

1083

32 times a plus b

1084

no plagarism

Document Preview:
ITECH2106-6106 Webpage & Multimedia Design CRICOS Provider No. 00103D ITECH2106-6106 Assignment 3-Website Development.docx Page 1 of 3
Assignment 3: Website Development 20 type A marks -Due week 11 – Friday 5pm Objectives This assessment task examines the following Learning Outcomes
and Attributes: • Knowledge: o Recognise the importance of content organisation, interface design, interface usability and the accessibility issues associated with
multimedia and web design; o Identify and apply the design principles that underlie good multimedia and webpage design, from both a visual & content design
perspective; • Skills: o Demonstrate the appropriate use of visual and content design tools, and multimedia and web authoring software; o Develop a sophisticated
web site from scratch, using information gathering and design techniques. • Application: o Select appropriate design principles to design multimedia products and
web pages that are align with project expectations; o Operate appropriate software packages to build multimedia products and web pages that are align with
project expectations. • Values: o Appreciate ethical behaviour in relation to multimedia and web page design, in particular issues related to copyright. Overview In
this assignment, students are required to develop a website from scratch, based on the design document that they created in Assignment 2. The target audience
analysed in Assignment 1 should be taken into account during creation, as well as avoiding the mistakes made by the competition during the competitive analysis.
The requirements of this website that you must design and develop can be found in the document “Major Assignment Overview” on Moodle. Additional
requirements for building the website are listed on the next page. Plagiarism Students are expected to hand in their own work. Each document will be quite unique
in the way that each student goes about their analysis. Any suspicion of plagiarism will be thoroughly investigated and, if...

Attach 1084

1085

assume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listing and also

wants to have access to the city wide multiple listing service used by all real estate agency. Which design strategy would you recommend for the construction of
this system? Why?

1086

print '\x97\x98'

1087

Question 1: The address depletion of IPv4 and other shortcomings of this protocol prompted a new version of IP known as IPv6. Explain the

advantages of this new IPv6 when compared to IPv4?
Question 2: Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 is known as transition from version 4 to version 6 and requires formal strategies to handle this transition. Explain each of
the strategies for this migration process using appropriate examples.Question 3: In a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, Internet users that are ready to share their
resources become peers and form a network. Describe the differences between centralised and decentralised P2P networks? Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of both networks.Question 4: What is a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and how is it used in P2P networks? Briefly explain how a DHT works with
an example of a P2P network. Question 5: In the client-server paradigm, explain which entity provides the service and which entity receives the service. Why
should a server be run all the time, but a client can be run when it is needed? Question 6: When an HTTP server receives a request message from an HTTP
client, how does the server know when all headers have arrived and the body of the message is to follow?
Rationale
This assessment consists of six questions assessing a basic understanding of network & data communication models, next generation IP and application layer

paradigm. This assessment covers the following learning objectives:
define and explain various Internet technologies;

describe and analyse the role and importance of Internet technologies in the modern world; and

explain how different application layer services such as client-server and peer-to-peer paradigms work in the Internet.

1088
This task requires you to use the MARIE simulator for Questions 1 and 2. Prior to starting this task, you must ensure that the simulator is running
correctly by completing the tutorial provided with the simulator, located under Resources within the Interact site.]1. Assemble the MARIE program below.Hex
Addr Label Instruction100 Start, LOAD X
101 ADD Y
102 STORE TEMP
103 LOAD W
104 ADD U
105 ADD TEMP106 OUTPUT
107 STORE Z108 HALT
109 X, DEC 5
10A Y, DEC 1410B TEMP, HEX 00FD10C W, DEC 410D U, DEC 16
10E Z, HEX 00FEa) List the hexadecimal code for each instruction
b) Draw the symbol table
c) What is the value stored in the AC when the program terminates.2. Write a MARIE program using a loop that implement

3. Suppose that a 256M

* 128 Memory built using 1024*32 RAM Chips and memory is word addressable. [5 marks]a. How many RAM Chips are necessary?b. How many RAM Chips are
there per memory word?c. How many address bits are needed for each RAM Chip?d. How many banks will this memory have?e. How many address bits are
needed for all memory?4. Choose one area of rapid technological change in IT or Computer Science, research and report on recent developments and the outlook
for the future in the area that you have chosen. You will need to provide both in text citations and bibliography entries according to Faculty of Business policy (APA
format). Your report should be around 500 words. [10 marks]Online submission via Turnitin is required for this assignment.Rationale
This assessment task covers topics on CPU operation and Instruction Set Architecture, and has been designed to ensure that you are engaging with the subject
content on a regular basis. More specifically it seeks to assess your ability to:

be able to define and appropriately use computer systems terminologies;

be able to describe the essential elements of computer organisation and discuss how the elements function;

be able to describe the basic instruction set architecture of a simple computer;

be able to discuss the general trends in computing technologies including examples of leading edge developments.

Marking criteria

1089

1. How does the WiMAX privacy sublayer provide security for a WiMAX network?

2. How does CSMA/CA in DCF handle media contention?
3. Telestra is a company that is licensed to provide wired telecommunication services in
Australia. The company has contracted Exetel to assist it with the selection and implementation
of a new field service system. The goal is to provide service technicians with wireless access to
the corporate network and a vast electronic library of technical manuals and schematic diagrams,
which would reduce or eliminate the need for staff to carry a large number of books and
drawings, especially while servicing equipment underground or when climbing on transmission
towers. In addition, this means that the technicians would be able to immediately read and update
the records for all the equipment, thereby avoiding massive amounts of paperwork as well as
potential errors and omissions. However, the company is having trouble deciding on which
technology to adopt- handheld cellular, tables with 3G or 4G access, or notebooks equipped with
cellular cards. Exetel has asked you to help.
-Create a presentation outlining the advantages for Telestra of using digital cellular handsets or
cellular wireless cards. Determine the ability of the smaller cellular handsets (as opposed to
notebook computers, which may be difficult to carry everywhere) to display standard PC
documents such as Word, Excel, and PDF files, and evaluate how this could help the company.
Because the group you will be presenting to is composed of nontechnical manager, be sure your
presentation is understandable by both technical and non-technical personnel. Limit yourself to a
maximum of 15 PowerPoint slides.
RationaleTo demonstrate your understanding of:

wireless networks terminology and technology;

planning and performing wireless network site survey;

wireless network security;

emerging mobile network technologies;

research skills;

1090

1. How is economics like a science?

2. Why do economists make assumptions?

3. Should an economic model describe reality exactly?

4. Draw and explain a production possibilities frontier for an economy that produces milk and cookies. What happens to this frontier if disease kills half
of theeconomy’s cow population?

5. Use a production possibilities frontier to describe the idea of “efficiency.”

1091

6. What are the two subfields into which economics is divided? Explain what each subfield studies.

7. What is the difference between a positive and a normative statement? Give an example of each.

8. What is the Council of Economic Advisers?

9. Why do economists sometimes offer conflicting advice to policymakers?

1092

1. Describe some unusual language used in one of the other fields that you are studying. Why are these special terms useful?

1. One common assumption in economics is that the products of different firms in the same industry are indistinguishable. For each of the following
industries, discuss whether this is a reasonable assumption.

1.

steel

2.

novels

3.

wheat

4.

fast food

1093

Draw a circular-flow diagram. Identify the parts of the model that correspond to the flow of goods and services and the flow of dollars for each of the

following activities.

1.

Sam pays a storekeeper $1 for a quart of milk.

2.

Sally earns $4.50 per hour working at a fast food restaurant.

3.

Serena spends $7 to see a movie.

4.

Stuart earns $10,000 from his 10 percent ownership of Acme Industrial.

1094

Imagine a society that produces military goods and consumer goods, which we’ll call “guns” and “butter.”

1.

Draw a production possibilities frontier for guns and butter. Explain why it most likely has a bowed- out shape.

2.

Show a point that is impossible for the economy to achieve. Show a point that is feasible but inefficient.

3.

Imagine that the society has two political parties, called the Hawks (who want a strong military) and the Doves (who want a smaller military). Show a
point on your production possibilities frontier that the Hawks might choose and a point the Doves might choose.

4.

Imagine that an aggressive neighboring country reduces the size of its military. As a result, both the Hawks and the Doves reduce their desired
production of guns by the same amount. Which party would get the bigger “peace dividend,” measured by the increase in butter production? Explain.

1095

The first principle of economics discussed in Chapter 1 is that people face tradeoffs. Use a production possibilities frontier to illustrate society’s

tradeoff between a clean environment and high incomes. What do you suppose determines the shape and position of the frontier? Show what happens to the
frontier if engineers develop an automobile engine with almost no emissions.

1096

Classify the following topics as relating to microeconomics or macroeconomics.

1.

a family’s decision about how much income to save

2.

the effect of government regulations on auto emissions

3.

the impact of higher national saving on economic growth

4.

a firm’s decision about how many workers to hire

5.

the relationship between the inflation rate and changes in the quantity of money

1097

Classify each of the following statements as positive or normative. Explain.

1.

Society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.

1098

2.

A reduction in the rate of growth of money will reduce the rate of inflation.

3.

The Federal Reserve should reduce the rate of growth of money.

4.

Society ought to require welfare recipients to look for jobs.

5.

Lower tax rates encourage more work and more saving.

8. Classify each of the statements in Table 2-2 as positive, normative, or ambiguous. Explain.

9. If you were president, would you be more interested in your economic advisers’ positive views or their normative views? Why?

1099

The Economic Report of the President contains statistical information about the economy as well as the Council of Economic Advisers’ analysis of

current policy issues. Find a recent copy of this annual report at your library and read a chapter about an issue that interests you. Summarize the economic
problem at hand and describe the council’s recommended policy.

1100

11. Who is the current chairman of the Federal Reserve? Who is the current chair of the Council of Economic Advisers? Who is the current secretary
of the treasury?

12. Look up one of the Web sites listed in Table 2-1. What recent economic trends or issues are addressed there?

13. Would you expect economists to disagree less about public policy as time goes on? Why or why not? Can their differences be completely
eliminated? Why or why not?

1101

13-1. Describe each of the following major digital system categories:

1.

Standard logic

2.

ASICs

3.

Microprocessor/DSP

13-2.*Name three factors that are generally considered when making de- sign engineering decisions.

13-3. Why is a microprocessor/DSP system called a software solution for a design?

1102

4. .*What major advantage does a hardware design solution have over a software solution?

13-5. Describe each of the following four ASIC subcategories:

1.

PLDs

2.

Gate arrays

3.

Standard-cell

4.

Full-custom

13-6.*What are the major advantages and disadvantages of a full-custom ASIC?

1103

13-7. Name the six PLD programming technologies. Which is one-time pro- grammable? Which is volatile?

13-8.*How is the programming of SRAM-based PLDs different from other programming technologies?

1104

13-9. Describe the functions of each of the following architectural struc- tures found in the Altera MAX7000S family:

1.

LAB

2.

PIA

3.

Macrocell

13-10.*What two ways can be used to program the MAX7000S family devices? 13-11. What standard device interface is used for in-system programming in

the MAX7000S family?

1105

13-12.*What are the four input-only pins on the EPM7128SLC84 (by pin number and function)?

13-13. What is the advantage of using one of the global clock inputs for reg- istered operation?

1106

13-14.*What is the fundamental architectural difference between the MAX 7000S and FLEX10K families? What is the programming tech- nology used

by each family? Which family is nonvolatile? Which family contains more logic resources?

1107

1. Standard logic, ASICs, microprocessor 2. Speed 3. Application-specific integrated circuit 4. Programmable logic devices, gate arrays, standard

cells, full custom 5. High-capacity programmable logic device 6. (1) Logic blocks: programmable AND/fixed-OR CPLD versus look-up table FPGA (2) Signal routing
resources: uniform CPLD versus varied FPGA 7. Volatility refers to whether a PLD (or memory device) loses stored information when it is powered-down.

1108

1. An IC that contains a large number of gates whose interconnections can be modi- fied by the user to perform a specific function. 2. O 1 = A 3. An

intact fuse

4. A hard-wired connection

1109

1. A macrocell is the programmable logic block in MAX7000S CPLDs consisting of a programmable AND/OR circuit and a programmable register (flip-

flop). 2. An ISP PLD device is in-system programmable, which means that it can be programmed while connected in the circuit. 3. Global clocks, tristate output
enables, asynchronous clear 4. Power consumption may be decreased by slowing down macrocells.

1110

1. A look-up table is typically a 16-word by 1-bit SRAM array used to store the desired output logic levels for a simple logic function. 2. SRAM

programs faster and has a higher logic cell density than EEPROM. 3. SRAM is volatile and must be reconfigured upon power-up of the device. 4. Embedded array
blocks provide RAM storage on the PLD.

1111

B 12-1.*A certain memory has a capacity of 16K * 32. How many words does it store? What is the number of bits per word? How many memory cells

does it contain?

B 12-2. How many different addresses are required by the memory of Problem 12-1?

1112

B 12-3.*What is the capacity of a memory that has 16 address inputs, four data inputs, and four data outputs?

B 12-4. A certain memory stores 8K 16-bit words. How many data input and data output lines does it have? How many address lines does it have? What is its
capacity in bytes?

1113

12-5. Define each of the following terms.

B (a) RAM

2.

RWM

1114

2.

ROM

2.

Internal memory

2.

Auxiliary memory

2.

Capacity

2.

Volatile

2.

Density

2.

Read

2.

Write

T 12-44.*The following messages are printed out when the power-up self-test is performed on the RAM system of Figure 12-42.

module-0 test OK module-1 test OK module-2 test OK

address 0C00 faulty at bit 7 address 0C01 faulty at bit 7 address 0C02 faulty at bit 7

.....

.....

.....

address 0FFE faulty at bit 7 address 0FFF faulty at bit 7

Examine these messages and list the possible faults.

1115

B 12-1.*A certain memory has a capacity of 16K * 32. How many words does it store? What is the number of bits per word? How many memory cells

does it contain?

B 12-2. How many different addresses are required by the memory of Problem 12-1?

1116

B 12-3.*What is the capacity of a memory that has 16 address inputs, four data inputs, and four data outputs?

B 12-4. A certain memory stores 8K 16-bit words. How many data input and data output lines does it have? How many address lines does it have? What is its
capacity in bytes?

1117

12-5. Define each of the following terms.

B (a) RAM

2.

RWM

2.

ROM

2.

Internal memory

2.

Auxiliary memory

2.

Capacity

2.

Volatile

2.

Density

2.

Read

2.

Write

1118

12-6. (a) What are the three buses in a computer memory system?

B (b) Which bus is used by the CPU to select the memory location?

3.

Which bus is used to carry data from memory to the CPU during a read operation?

3.

1119

What is the source of data on the data bus during a write operation?

7. .*Refer to Figure 12-6. Determine the data outputs for each of the fol- lowing input conditions.

(a) [ A ] = 1011; CS = 1

(b) [ A ] = 0111; CS = 0

12-8. Refer to Figure 12-7.

1120

1.

What register is enabled by input address 1011?

2.

What input address code selects register 4?

9. .*A certain ROM has a capacity of 16K * 4 and an internal structure like that shown in Figure 12-7.

1.

How many registers are in the array?

2.

How many bits are there per register?

3.

What size decoders does it require?

1121

12-10. (a) True or false: ROMs cannot be erased.

2.

What is meant by programming or burning a ROM?

2.

Define a ROM’s access time.

2.

How many data inputs, data outputs, and address inputs are needed for a 1024 * 4 ROM?

2.

What is the function of the decoders on a ROM chip?

1122

For each item below, indicate the type of memory being described: MROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, flash. Some items will correspond to more

than one memory type.

1.

Can be programmed by the user but cannot be erased.

2.

Is programmed by the manufacturer.

3.

Is volatile.

4.

Can be erased and reprogrammed over and over.

5.

Individual words can be erased and rewritten.

6.

Is erased with UV light.

7.

Is erased electrically.

8.

Uses fusible links.

9.

Can be erased in bulk or in sectors of 512 bytes.

10.

Does not have to be removed from the system to be erased and re- programmed.

11.

Requires a special supply voltage for reprogramming.

12.

Erase time is about 15 to 20 min.

1123

B 12-14. Which transistors in Figure 12-9 will be conducting when A 1 = A 0 = 1 and EN = 0?

12-15.*Change the MROM connections in Figure 12-9 so that the MROM stores the function y = 3 x + 5.

1124

20. .*Refer to the function generator of Figure 12-17.

1.

What clock frequency will result in a 100-Hz sine wave at the output?

2.

What method could be used to vary the peak-to-peak amplitude of the sine wave?

1125

12-21. For the ML2035 of Figure 12-18, assume that a value of 038E (hex) in the latch will produce the desired frequency. Draw the timing dia- gram

for the LATI , SID , and SCK inputs, and assume that the LSB is shifted in first.

1126

22. * The system shown in Figure 12-50 is a waveform (function) generator. It uses four 256-point look-up tables in a 1-Kbyte ROM to store one cy-

cle each of a sine wave (address 000–0FF), a positive slope ramp (ad- dress 100–1FF), a negative slope ramp (200–2FF), and a triangle wave (300–3FF). The
phase relationship among the three output channels is controlled by the values initially loaded into the three counters. The critical timing parameters are t pd(ckQ and OE - Q max)

, counters = 10 ns, latches = 5 ns, and t ACC ROM = 20 ns. Study the diagram until you understand how it operates and then answer the following:

1.

If counter A is initially loaded with 0, what values must be loaded into counters B and C so that A lags B by 90° and A lags C by 180°?

2.

If counter A is initially loaded with 0, what values must be loaded into counters B and C to generate a three-phase sine wave with 120° shift between
each output?

3.

What must the frequency of pulses on DAC_OUT be in order to generate a 60-Hz sine wave output?

4.

What is the maximum frequency of the CLK input?

5.

What is the maximum frequency of the output waveforms?

6.

What is the purpose of the function select counter?

1127

12-23. (a) Draw the logic symbol for an MCM101514, a CMOS static RAM or- ganized as a 256K * 4 with separate data in and data out, and an

active-LOW chip enable.

(b) Draw the logic symbol for an MCM6249, a CMOS static RAM or- ganized as a 1M * 4 with common I/O, an active-LOW chip enable, and an active-LOW output
enable.

1128

12-25. Draw the logic symbol for the TMS4256, which is a 256K * 1 DRAM. How many pins are saved by using address multiplexing for this DRAM?

1129

D 12-27. Show how to connect two 74157 multiplexers (Section 9-6) to provide the multiplexing function required in Figure 12-28(b).

12-28. Refer to the signals in Figure 12-30. Describe what occurs at each of the labeled time points.

1130

1131

.*Study the functional block diagram of the TMS44100 DRAM in Figure 12-27.

1.

What are the actual dimensions of the DRAM cell array?

2.

If the cell array were actually square, how many rows would there be?

3.

How would this affect the refresh time?

12-32. Show how to combine two 6206 RAM chips (Figure 12-20) to produce a 32K * 16 module.

D 12-33. Show how to connect two of the 6264 RAM chips symbolized in Figure 12-23 to produce a 16K * 8 RAM module. The circuit should not re- quire any
additional logic. Draw a memory map showing the address range of each RAM chip.

1132

D 12-34.*Describe how to modify the circuit of Figure 12-37 so that it has a to- tal capacity of 16K * 8. Use the same type of PROM chips.

D 12-35. Modify the decoding circuit of Figure 12-37 to operate from a 16-line address bus (i.e., add A 13 , A 14 , andA 15 ). The four PROMs are to main- tain the
same hex address ranges.

1133

12-36. For the memory system of Figure 12-38, assume that the CPU is stor- ing one byte of data at system address 4000 (hex).

1.

Which chip is the byte stored in?

2.

Is there any other address in this system that can access this data byte?

3.

Answer parts (a) and (b) by assuming that the CPU has stored a byte at address 6007. ( Hint: Remember that the EEPROM is not completely
decoded.)

4.

Assume that the program is storing a sequence of data bytes in the EEPROM and that it has just completed the 2048th byte at ad- dress 67FF. If the
programmer allows it to store one more byte at address 6800, what will be the effect on the first 2048 bytes?

1134

12-41. Repeat Problem 12-40 for the decoder outputs shown in Figure 12-52(b).

42. .*Consider the RAM system of Figure 12-42. The checkerboard pattern test will not be able to detect certain types of faults. For instance, assume
that there is a break in the connection to the A input to the decoder. If a checkerboard pattern SELF-TEST is performed on this circuit, the displayed messages will
state that the memory is OK.

1135

1.

Explain why the circuit fault was not detected.

2.

How would you modify the SELF-TEST so that faults such as this will be detected?

T 12-43.*Assume that the 1K * 8 modules used in Figure 12-42 are formed from two 1K * 4 RAM chips. The following messages are printed out when

the power-up self-test is performed on this RAM system:

module-0 test OK module-1 test OK

address 0800 faulty at bits 4–7

address 0801 faulty at bits 4–7

address 0802 faulty at bits 4–7

.......

.......

.......

address 0BFE faulty at bits 4–7 address 0BFF faulty at bits 4–7 module-3 test OK

Examine these messages and list the possible faults.

1136

T 12-44.*The following messages are printed out when the power-up self-test is performed on the RAM system of Figure 12-42.

module-0 test OK module-1 test OK module-2 test OK

address 0C00 faulty at bit 7 address 0C01 faulty at bit 7 address 0C02 faulty at bit 7

.....

.....

.....

address 0FFE faulty at bit 7 address 0FFF faulty at bit 7

Examine these messages and list the possible faults.

1137

11-1. DRILL QUESTION

1.

What is the expression relating the output and inputs of a DAC?

2.

Define step size of a DAC.

3.

Define resolution of a DAC.

4.

Define full scale.

5.

Define percentage resolution.

(f)* True or false: A 10-bit DAC will have a smaller resolution than a 12- bit DAC for the same full-scale output.

(g)* True or false: A 10-bit DAC with full-scale output of 10 V has a smaller percentage resolution than a 10-bit DAC with 12 V full scale.

1138

An eight-bit DAC produces an output voltage of 2.0 V for an input code of 01100100. What will the value of V OUT be for an input code of 10110011?

Determine the weight of each input bit for the DAC of Problem 11-2.

11-4. What is the resolution of the DAC of Problem 11-2? Express it in volts and as a percentage.

1139

11-5.*What is the resolution in volts of a 10-bit DAC whose F.S. output is 5 V?

11-6. How many bits are required for a DAC so that its F.S. output is 10 mA and its resolution is less than 40 mA?

1140

11-7.*What is the percentage resolution of the DAC of Figure 11-30? What is the step size if the top step is 2 V?

FIGURE 11-30 Problems 2 V

11-7 and 11-8.

1 kHz CLOCK

V

Spikes

11-8. What is the cause of the negative-going spikes on the V OUT waveform of Figure 11-30? ( Hint: Note that the counter is a ripple counter and that the spikes
occur on every other step.)

1141

11-9.*Assuming a 12-bit DAC with perfect accuracy, how close to 250 rpm can the motor speed be adjusted in Figure 11-4?

11-10. A 12-bit DAC has a full-scale output of 15.0 V. Determine the step size, the percentage resolution, and the value of V OUT for an input code of 011010010101.

1142

11-11.*A microcontroller has an eight-bit output port that is to be used to drive a DAC. The DAC that is available has 10 input bits and has a full- scale

output of 10 V. The application requires a voltage that ranges be- tween 0 and 10 V in steps of 50 mV or smaller. Which eight bits of the 10-bit DAC will be
connected to the output port?

1143

11-12. You need a DAC that can span 12 V with a resolution of 20 mV or less.

How many bits are needed?

11-13.*The step size of the DAC of Figure 11-5 can be changed by changing the value of R F . Determine the required value of R F for a step size of

0.5 V. Will the new value of R F change the percentage resolution?

1144

11-14. Assume that the output of the DAC in Figure 11-7(a) is connected to the op-amp of Figure 11-7(b).

1.

With V REF = 5 V, R = 20 kÆ, and R F = 10 kÆ, determine the step size and the full-scale voltage at V OUT .

2.

Change the value of R F so that the full-scale voltage at V OUT is

- 2 V.

3.

Use this new value of R F , and determine the proportionality fac- tor, K , in the relationship V OUT = K ( V REF * B).

1145

11-15.* What is the advantage of the DAC of Figure 11-8 over that of Figure 11-7, especially for a larger number of input bits?

11-16. An eight-bit DAC has a full-scale error of 0.2% F.S. If the DAC has a full-scale output of 10 mA, what is the most that it can be in error for any digital input? If
the D/A output reads 50 mA for a digital input of 00000001, is this within the specified range of accuracy? (Assume no offset error.)

1146

1147

11-18. DRILL QUESTION

1.

Define binary-weighted resistor network.

2.

Define R /2 R ladder network.

3.

Define DAC settling time.

4.

Define full-scale error.

5.

Define offset error.

11-21.*Repeat Problem 11-20 using the measured data given in Table 11-12.

TABLE 11-12

00000000 20.5 mV

00000001 30.5 mV

00000010 20.5 mV

00000100 60.6 mV

00001111 150.6 mV

10000000 1.300 V

1148

11-22.*A technician connects a counter to the DAC of Figure 11-3 to perform a staircase test using a 1-kHz clock. The result is shown in Figure 11-32.

What is the probable cause of the incorrect staircase signal?

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

Voltages

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 1 2 5 10 15

Time (ms)

FIGURE 11-32 Problem 11-22.

1149

An eight-bit digital-ramp ADC with a 40-mV resolution uses a clock frequency of 2.5 MHz and a comparator with V T = 1 mV. Determine the following

values.

(a)*The digital output for V A = 6.000 V

2.

The digital output for 6.035 V

2.

The maximum and average conversion times for this ADC

1150

B 11-25. Why were the digital outputs the same for parts (a) and (b) of Problem 11-24?

D 11-26. What would happen in the ADC of Problem 11-24 if an analog voltage of V A = 10.853 V were applied to the input? What waveform would ap- pear at the
D/A output? Incorporate the necessary logic in this ADC

so that an “overscale” indication will be generated whenever V A is too large.

1151

.* An ADC has the following characteristics: resolution, 12 bits; full- scale error, 0.03% F.S.; full scale output, +5 V.

1.

What is the quantization error in volts?

2.

What is the total possible error in volts?

1152

For the ADC of Figure 11-33, determine the range of analog input val- ues that will produce a digital output of 0100011100.

1153

Assume that the analog signal in Figure 11-34(a) is to be digitized by performing continuous A/D conversions using an eight-bit digital- ramp converter

whose staircase rises at the rate of 1 V every 25 ms. Sketch the reconstructed signal using the data obtained during the digitizing process. Compare it with the
original signal, and discuss what could be done to make it a more accurate representation.

4

3

2

Voltage

1

FIGURE 11-34 Problems 11-30, 11-31, and 11-41.

1154

1155

On the sine wave of Figure 11-34(b), mark the points where samples are taken by a flash A/D converter at intervals of 75 ms (starting at the origin).

Then draw the reconstructed output from the D/A converter (connect the sample points with straight lines to show filtering).

Calculate the sample frequency, the sine input frequency, and the dif- ference between them. Then compare to the resulting reconstructed waveform frequency.

1156

A sampled data acquisition system is being used to digitize an audio signal. Assume the sample frequency F S is 20 kHz. Determine the out- put

frequency that will be heard for each of the following input fre- quencies.

(a)* Input signal = 5 kHz (b)* Input signal = 10.1 kHz

3.

Input signal = 10.2 kHz

1157

3.

Input signal = 15 kHz

3.

Input signal = 19.1 kHz

3.

Input signal = 19.2 kHz

11-34. Draw the waveform for V AX as the SAC of Figure 11-19 converts V A = 6.7 V. 11-35. Repeat Problem 11-34 for VA = 16 V.

11-36.*A certain eight-bit successive-approximation converter has 2.55 V full scale. The conversion time for V A = 1 V is 80 ms. What will be the con- version time
for V A = 1.5 V?

1158

11-37. Figure 11-35 shows the waveform at V AX for a six-bit SAC with a step size of 40 mV during a complete conversion cycle. Examine this wave-

form and describe what is occurring at times t 0 to t 5 . Then determine the resultant digital output.

1.92 V

V

AX

1.28 V

0V

t 0t 1t 2t 3t 4t 5t

FIGURE 11-35 Problem 11-37.

1159

1160

11-41. Discuss how a flash ADC with a conversion time of 1 ms would work for the situation of Problem 11-30.

11-42. Draw the circuit diagram for a four-bit flash converter with BCD out- put and a resolution of 0.1 V. Assume that a +5 V precision supply volt- age is available.

1161

11-43. For each of the following statements, indicate which type of ADC—dig- ital-ramp, SAC, or flash—is being described.

1.

Fastest method of conversion

2.

Needs a START pulse

3.

Requires the most circuitry

4.

Does not use a DAC

5.

Generates a staircase signal

6.

Uses an analog comparator

7.

Has a relatively fixed conversion time independent of V A

1162

11-44. DRILL QUESTION

For each statement, indicate what type(s) of ADC is (are) being de- scribed.

1163

1.

Uses a counter that is never reset to 0

2.

Uses a large number of comparators

3.

Uses a VCO

4.

Is used in noisy industrial environments

5.

Uses a capacitor

6.

Is relatively insensitive to temperature

11-45.* Refer to the sample-and-hold circuit of Figure 11-24. What circuit fault would result in V OUT looking exactly like V A ? What fault would

cause V OUT to be stuck at 0?

11-46. Use the CMOS 4016 IC (Section 8-16) to implement the switching in Figure 11-25, and design the necessary control logic so that each ana- log input is
converted to its digital equivalent in sequence. The ADC is a 10-bit, successive-approximation type using a 50-kHz clock signal, and it requires a 10-ms-duration
start pulse to begin each conversion. The digital outputs are to remain stable for 100 ms after the conver- sion is complete before switching to the next analog
input. Choose an appropriate multiplexing clock frequency.

1164

D 11-48. You have available a 10-bit SAC A/D converter (AD 573), but your sys- tem requires only eight bits of resolution and you have only eight port

bits available on your microprocessor. Can you use this A/D converter, and if so, which of the 10 data lines will you attach to the port?

1165

11-49. The data in Table 11-13 are input samples taken by an A/D converter. Notice that if the input data were plotted, it would represent a simple step

function like the rising edge of a digital signal. Calculate the sim- ple average of the four most recent data points, starting with OUT[4]

and proceeding through OUT[10]. Plot the values for IN and OUT against the sample number n as shown in Figure 11-37.
TABLE 11-13

Sample n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

IN[ n ] (V)

10

10

10

10

10

10

OUT[ n ] (V)

0
Sample calculations:

OUT[ n ] = (IN[ n - 3] + IN[ n - 2] + IN[ n - 1] + IN[ n ])/4 = 0
OUT[4] = (IN[1]

+ IN[2]

+ IN[3]

+ IN[4])/4

=0

OUT[5] = (IN[2]

+ IN[3]

+ IN[4]

+ IN[5])/4

= 2.5

(Notice that this calculation is equivalent to multiplying each sample by 1 ⁄4 and summing.)

1166

11-50. Repeat the previous problem using a weighted average of the last four samples. The weights in this case are placing greater emphasis on

recent samples and less emphasis on older samples. Use the weights 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4.

OUT[ n ] = 0.1(IN[ n - 3]) + 0.2(IN[ n - 2]) + 0.3(IN[ n - 1]) + 0.4(IN[ n ])

OUT[5] = 0.1(IN[2]) + 0.2(IN[3] + 0.3(IN[4] + 0.4(IN[5]) = 4

1167

11-51. What does the term MAC stand for? 11-52.* DRILL QUESTIONS

True or false:

1.

A digital signal is a continuously changing voltage.

2.

A digital signal is a sequence of numbers that represent an analog signal.

When processing an analog signal, the output may be distorted due to:

1168

1.

Quantization error when converting analog to digital

2.

Not sampling the original signal frequently enough

3.

Temperature variation in the processor components

4.

The high-frequency components associated with sudden changes in voltage out of the DAC

5.

Electrical noise on the power supply

6.

Alias signals introduced by the digital system

9-4. Show how to use 74LS138s to form a 1-of-16 decoder.

9-5.*Figure 9-70 shows how a decoder can be used in the generation of con- trol signals. Assume that a RESET pulse has occurred at time t 0 , and determine the
CONTROL waveform for 32 clock pulses.

CLOCK

TC

MOD-8

counter

CLK

EN CLR

MOD-8

TC

counter

CLK

EN

1

CLR

Q 2Q 1Q 0

Q 2Q 1Q 0

RESET

A 2A 1A 0E 3E 2E 1

CLOCK

74LS138

RESET

O 7O 6

O 5O 4O 3O 2

O 1O 0

t

0 t1 t2 t3

CONTROL

1.

(b)

FIGURE 9-70 Problems 9-5 and 9-6.

1169

9-9. Modify the circuit of Figure 9-6 so that relay K 1 stays energized from PGT 3 to 5 and K 2 stays energized from PGT 6 to 9. (Hint: This modi-

fication requires no additional circuitry.)

1170

9-10.*Show how to connect BCD-to-7-segment decoder/drivers and LED 7-segment displays to the counter circuit of Figure 7-22. Assume that each

segment is to operate at approximately 10 mA at 2.5 V.

1171

(a) Refer to Figure 9-10 and draw the segment and backplane wave- forms relative to ground for CONTROL = 0. Then draw the wave- form of

segment voltage relative to backplane voltage.

(b) Repeat part (a) for CONTROL = 1.

1172

.*The BCD-to-7-segment decoder/driver of Figure 9-8 contains the logic for activating each segment for the appropriate BCD inputs. Design the logic

for activating the g segment.

1173

*The keyboard circuit of Figure 9-16 is designed to accept a three-digit decimal number. What would happen if four digit keys were activated (e.g.,

3095)? Design the necessary logic to be added to this circuit so that after three digits have been entered, any additional digits will be ignored until the CLEAR key
is depressed. In other words, if 3095 is entered on the keyboard, the output registers will display 309 and will ignore the 5 and any subsequent digits until the
circuit is cleared.

1174

T 9-23.*Suppose that a 22-Æ resistor was mistakenly used for the g segment in Figure 9-8. How would this affect the display? What possible

problems could occur?

9-24. Repeat Example 9-8 with the observed sequence shown below:
COUNT
Observed
display

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1175

9-25.*Repeat Example 9-8 with the observed sequence shown below:

COUNT

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Observed
display

1176

T 9-26.*To test the circuit of Figure 9-11, a technician connects a BCD counter to the 74HC4511 inputs and pulses the counter at a very slow rate. She

notices that the f segment works erratically, and no particular pattern is evident. What are some of the possible causes of the mal- function? (Hint: Remember, the
ICs are CMOS.)

1177

B 9-27. The timing diagram in Figure 9-74 is applied to Figure 9-19. Draw the output waveform Z.

FIGURE 9-74 Problem I 1

9-27.

I0

S

1178

9-28. Figure 7-68 shows an eight-bit shift register that could be used to delay a signal by 1 to 8 clock periods. Show how to wire a 74151 to this shift

register in order to select the desired Q output and indicate the logic level necessary on the select inputs to provide a delay of 6 * T clk .

1179

9-29.*The circuit in Figure 9-75 uses three two-input multiplexers (Figure 9-19).

Determine the function performed by this circuit.

FIGURE 9-75 Problem

9-29.

I 3I 2

Z

I 1I 0

S 1S 0

Q21

9-30. Use the idea from Problem 9-29 to arrange several 74151 1-of-8 multi- plexers to form a 1-of-64 multiplexer.

9-31.*Show how two 74157s and a 74151 can be arranged to form a 1-of-16 multiplexer with no other required logic. Label the inputs I 0 to I 15 to show how they
correspond to the select code.

Q22

9-32. (a) Expand the circuit of Figure 9-24 to display the contents of two three-stage BCD counters.

(b)*Count the number of connections in this circuit, and compare it with the number required if a separate decoder/driver and dis- play were used for each stage of
each counter.

1180

9-33.*Figure 9-76 shows how a multiplexer can be used to generate logic waveforms with any desirable pattern. The pattern is programmed

FIGURE 9-76 Problems

9-33 and 9-34.

+V CC

1 ki1

using eight SPDT switches, and the waveform is repetitively produced by pulsing the MOD-8
counter. Draw the waveform at Z for the given switch positions.

1181

9-39.* DRILL QUESTION

For each item, indicate whether it is referring to a decoder, an en- coder, a MUX, or a DEMUX.

1.

Has more inputs than outputs.

2.

Uses SELECT inputs.

3.

Can be used in parallel-to-serial conversion.

4.

Produces a binary code at its output.

5.

Only one of its outputs can be active at one time.

6.

Can be used to route an input signal to one of several possible outputs.

7.

Can be used to generate arbitrary logic functions.

1182

9-40. Show how the 7442 decoder can be used as 1-to-8 demultiplexer. (Hint: See Problem 9-7.)

9-41.*Apply the waveforms of Figure 9-72 to the inputs of the 74LS138 DEMUX of Figure 9-30(a) as follows:

D : A 2C : A 1B : A 0A : E 1

Draw the waveforms at the DEMUX outputs.

1183

9-42. Consider the system of Figure 9-31. Assume that the clock frequency is 10 pps. Describe what the monitoring panel indications will be for each

of the following cases.

1.

All doors closed

2.

All doors open

3.

Doors 2 and 6 open

1184

9-43.*Modify the system of Figure 9-31 to handle 16 doors. Use a 74150 16- input MUX and two 74LS138 DEMUXes. How many lines are going to

the remote monitoring panel?

9-44. Draw the waveforms at transmit_data, and DEMUX outputs O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and O 3 in Figure 9-33 for the following register data loaded into the transmit
registers in Figure 9-32: [A] = 0011, [B] = 0110, [C] = 1001, [D] = 0111.

1185

9-45. Figure 9-78 shows an 8 * 8 graphic LCD display grid controlled by a 74HC138 configured as a decoder, and a 74HC138 configured as a de-

multiplexer. Draw 48 cycles of the clock and the data input necessary to activate the pixels shown on the display.

FIGURE 9-78 Problem

9-45.

Columns

1186

Consider the circuit of Figure 9-24. A test of the circuit yields the re- sults shown in Table 9-10. What are the possible causes of the mal- function?

1187

T 9-50.*The synchronous data transmission system of Figure 9-32 and Figure 9-33 is malfunctioning. An oscilloscope is used to monitor the MUX and

O J D H ,J

FIGURE 9-79 Problem 9-50.

DEMUX outputs during the transmission cycle, with the results shown in Figure 9-79.
What are the possible causes of the malfunction?

1188

9-51. The synchronous data transmission system of Figures 9-32 and 9-33 is not working properly and the troubleshooting tree diagram of Figure 9-35

has been used to isolate the problem to the timing and control section of the receiver. Draw a troubleshooting tree diagram that will isolate the problem further to
one of the four blocks in that section (FF1, Bit counter, Word counter, or FF2). Assume that all wires are connected as shown, with no wiring errors.

1189

9-52. Redesign the circuit of Problem 9-16 using a 74HC85 magnitude com- parator. Add a “copy overflow” feature that will activate an ALARM output

if the OPERATE output fails to stop the machine when the re- quested number of copies is done.

9-53.*Show how to connect 74HC85s to compare two 10-bit numbers.

1190

9-54. Assume a BCD input of 69 to the code converter of Figure 9-40. Determine the levels at each © output and at the final binary output.

9-55.*A technician tests the code converter of Figure 9-40 and observes the following results:
BCD Input

Binary Output

52

0110011

95

1100000

27

0011011

What is the probable circuit fault?

1191

9-56. DRILL QUESTION

True or false:

1.

A device connected to a data bus should have tristate outputs.

2.

Bus contention occurs when more than one device takes data from the bus.

3.

Larger units of data can be transferred over an eight-line data bus than over a four-line data bus.

4.

A bus driver IC generally has a high output impedance.

5.

Bidirectional registers and buffers have common I/O lines.

1192

.*For the bus arrangement of Figure 9-44, describe the input signal re- quirements for simultaneously transferring the contents of register C to both of

the other registers.

1193

9-59. Assume the same initial conditions of Problem 9-58, and sketch the signal on DB 3 for the waveforms of Figure 9-80.

9-60. Figure 9-81 shows two more devices that are to be added to the data bus of Figure 9-44. One is a set of buffered switches that can be used to enter data
manually into any of the bus registers. The other device is an output register that is used to latch any data that are on the bus during a data transfer operation and
display them on a set of LEDs.

1.

Assume that all registers contain 0000. Outline the sequence of operations needed to load the registers with the following data from the switches: [A]
= 1011, [B] = 0001, [C] = 1110.

2.

What will the state of the LEDs be at the end of this sequence?

1194

9-64. The keyboard entry circuit of Figure 9-16 is to be used as part of an electronic digital lock that operates as follows: when activated, an UNLOCK

output goes HIGH. This HIGH is used to energize a solenoid that retracts a bolt and allows a door to be opened. To activate UN- LOCK, the operator must press
the CLEAR key and then enter the correct three-key sequence.

1.

Show how 74HC85 comparators and any other needed logic can be added to the keyboard entry circuit to produce the digital lock op- eration
described above for a key sequence of CLEAR-3-5-8.

2.

1195

Modify the circuit to activate an ALARM output if the operator enters something other than the correct three-key sequence.

9-65.*Write the HDL code for a BCD-to-decimal decoder (the equivalent of a 7442).

9-66. Write the HDL code for a HEX decoder/driver for a 7-segment dis- play. The first 10 characters should appear as shown in Figure 9-7. The last six characters
should appear as shown in Figure 9-84.

FIGURE 9-84 HEX char-

acters for Problem 9-66.

1196

9-67. Write a low-priority ENCODER description that will always encode the lowest number if two inputs are activated simultaneously.

9-68. Rewrite the code of the four-bit comparator of Figures 9-66 or 9-67 to make an eight-bit comparator without using macrofunctions.

1197

9-69. Use HDL to describe a four-bit binary number to a two-digit BCD code converter.

9-70. Use HDL to describe a three-digit BCD code to eight-bit binary num- ber converter. (Maximum BCD input is 255.)

1198

B 7-1.*Add another flip-flop, E , to the counter of Figure 7-1. The clock signal is an 8-MHz square wave.

1.

What will be the frequency at the E output? What will be the duty cycle of this signal?

2.

Repeat (a) if the clock signal has a 20 percent duty cycle.

3.

What will be the frequency at the C output?

4.

What is the MOD number of this counter?

B

1199

7-2. Draw a binary counter that will convert a 64-kHz pulse signal into a 1-kHz square wave.

B 7-3.*Assume that a five-bit binary counter starts in the 00000 state. What will be the count after 144 input pulses?

1200

1201

B 7-4. A 10-bit ripple counter has a 256-kHz clock signal applied.

1.

What is the MOD number of this counter?

2.

What will be the frequency at the MSB output?

3.

What will be the duty cycle of the MSB signal?

4.

Assume that the counter starts at zero. What will be the count in hexadecimal after 1000 input pulses?

7-5.*A four-bit ripple counter is driven by a 20-MHz clock signal. Draw the waveforms at the output of each FF if each FF has t pd 20 ns. Determine

which counter states, if any, will not occur because of the propagation delays.

1202

7-6. (a) What is the maximum clock frequency that can be used with the counter of Problem 7-5?

(b) What would f max be if the counter were expanded to six bits?

1203

B 7-7.*(a) Draw the circuit diagram for a MOD-32 synchronous counter.

(b) Determine f max for this counter if each FF has t pd 20 ns and each gate has t pd 10 ns.

B 7-8. (a) Draw the circuit diagram for a MOD-64 synchronous counter.

(b) Determine f max for this counter if each FF has t pd 20 ns and each gate has t pd 10 ns.

1204

B 7-9.*Draw the waveforms for all the FFs in the decade counter of Figure 7-8(b) in response to a 1-kHz clock frequency. Show any glitches that might

appear on any of the FF outputs. Determine the frequency at the D output.

B 7-10. Repeat Problem 7-9 for the counter of Figure 7-8(a).

1205

7-11.*Change the inputs to the NAND gate of Figure 7-9 so that the counter divides the input frequency by 50.

7-12. Draw a synchronous counter that will output a 10-kHz signal when a 1-MHz clock is applied.

C, T

1206

7-13.*Draw a synchronous, MOD-32, down counter.

7-14. Draw a synchronous, MOD-16, up/down counter. The count direction is controlled by dir ( dir 0 to count up).

7-15.*Determine the count sequence of the up/down counter in Figure 7-11 if the INVERTER output were stuck HIGH. Assume the counter starts at 000.

1207

7-20. Repeat Problem 7-19 for a 74ALS191 and a DCBA input of 1100.

7-21.*Refer to the IC counter circuit in Figure 7-99(a):

1.Draw the state transition diagram for the counter’s QD QC QB QA
outputs.
2.

Determine the counter’s modulus.
74ALS163
74ALS161
CLK
CLK CLK
1 1 ENT
ENP
CLR LOAD
QD D
QC C
QB B
QA A
RCO RCO
QD
QC

QC

QB

QB

QA

QA

QD

(a)
FIGURE 7-99 Problems 7-21 and 7-22.
(b)
3.

What is the relationship of the output frequency of the MSB to the input CLK frequency?
3.

What is the duty cycle of the MSB output waveform?

B 7-22. Repeat Problem 7-21 for the IC counter circuit in Figure 7-99(b).
B 7-23.*Refer to the IC counter circuit in Figure 7-100(a).
1.

Draw the timing diagram for outputs QD QC QB QA.

2.

What is the counter’s modulus?

3.

What is the count sequence? Does it count up or down?

4.

Can we produce the same modulus with a 74HC190? Can we produce the same count sequence with a 74HC190?
74HC191

CLK

CLK

CTEN

RCO
QD

1.

C

QC

QC

1

B

QB

QB

D

QD

A

QA

QA

C

QC

B

QB

A

QA

(b)

FIGURE 7-100 Problems 7-23 and 7-24.

1208

D 7-25.*Draw a schematic to create a recycling, MOD-6 counter that uses:

1.

the clear control on a 74ALS160

2.

the clear control on a 74ALS162

START

LOAD

D 7-26. Draw a schematic to create a recycling, MOD-6 counter that produces the count sequence:

1209

1.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and repeats with a 74ALS162

2.

5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, and repeats with a 74ALS190

3.

6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, and repeats with a 74ALS190

D

7-28. Design a MOD-100, BCD counter using either two 74HC160 or two

74HC162 chips and any necessary gates. The IC counter chips are

to be synchronously cascaded together to produce the BCD count se- quence for 0 to 99. The MOD-100 is to have two control inputs, an active-HIGH count
enable ( EN ) and an active-HIGH, synchronous load (LD ). Label the counter outputs Q0 , Q1 , Q2 , etc., with Q0 LSB. Which set of outputs represents the 10s
digit?

1210

B 7-29.*With a 6-MHz clock input to a 74ALS163 that has all four control in- puts HIGH, determine the output frequency and duty cycle for each of

the five outputs (including RCO).

1211

B 7-30. With a 6-MHz clock input to a 74ALS162 that has all four control inputs HIGH, determine the output frequency and duty cycle for each of the

following outputs: QA, QC, QD, RCO. What is unusual about the waveform pattern that would be produced by the QB output? This pat- tern characteristic results
in an undefined duty cycle.

1212

B

7-31.*The frequency of f in is 6 MHz in Figure 7-101. The two IC counter chips have been cascaded asynchronously so that the output frequency

pro- duced by counter U1 is the input frequency for counter U2. Determine the output frequency for f out1 and f out2 .

1213

B

7-32. The frequency of f in is 1.5 MHz in Figure 7-102. The two IC counter chips have been cascaded asynchronously so that the output fre- quency

produced by counter U1 is the input frequency for counter U2. Determine the output frequency for f out1 and f out2 .

1214

D

7-33.*Design a frequency divider circuit that will produce the following three output signal frequencies: 1.5 MHz, 150 kHz, and 100 kHz. Use

74HC162 and 74HC163 counter chips and any necessary gates. The in- put frequency is 12 MHz.

1215

D

7-34. Design a frequency divider circuit that will produce the following three output signal frequencies: 1 MHz, 800 kHz, and 100 kHz. Use 74HC160

and 74HC161 counter chips and any necessary gates. The input frequency is 12 MHz.

74ALS161

f

FIGURE 7-101 Problem 7-31.

74ALS161

f

f

FIGURE 7-102Problem 7-32.

out2

out2

1216

B 7-35.*Draw the gates necessary to decode all of the states of a MOD-16 counter using active-LOW outputs.

B 7-36. Draw the AND gates necessary to decode the 10 states of the BCD counter of Figure 7-8(b).

1217

C 7-37.*Analyze the synchronous counter in Figure 7-103(a). Draw its timing diagram and determine the counter’s modulus.

C 7-38. Repeat Problem 7-37 for Figure 7-103(b).

(a)

1

DJ

CLK

DK

CLR

CJ

CLK

CK

CLR

BJ

CLK

B

K

CLR

AJ

CLK

AK

CLR

1

CLK

DCBA

(b)

FIGURE 7-103 Problems 7-37 and 7-38.

1218

C 7-39.*Analyze the synchronous counter in Figure 7-104(a). Draw its timing diagram and determine the counter’s modulus.

C 7-40. Repeat Problem 7-39 for Figure 7-104(b).

1219

C 7-41.*Analyze the synchronous counter in Figure 7-105(a). F is a control input. Draw its state transition diagram and determine the counter’s

modulus.

C 7-42. Analyze the synchronous counter in Figure 7-105(b). Draw its com- plete state transition diagram and determine the counter’s modulus. Is the counter selfcorrecting?

CJ

CLK

CK

BJ

CLK

BK

AJ

CLK

AK

1

CLK

(a)

CJ

CLK

CK

BJ

CLK

BK

AJ

CLK

AK

1

CLK

FIGURE 7-104 Problems 7-39 and 7-40.

(b)

1220

D 7-43.*(a) Design a synchronous counter using J-K FFs that has the follow- ing sequence: 000, 010, 101, 110, and repeat. The undesired (un-

used) states 001, 011, 100, and 111 must always go to 000 on the next clock pulse.

(b) Redesign the counter of part (a) without any requirement on the unused states; that is, their NEXT states can be don’t cares. Compare with the design from (a).

1221

D 7-44. Design a synchronous, recycling, MOD-5 down counter that produces the sequence 100, 011, 010, 001, 000, and repeat. Use J-K flip-flops.

1222

1.

Force the unused states to 000 on the next clock pulse.

2.

Use don’t-care NEXT states for the unused states. Is this design self-correcting?

D 7-45.*Design a synchronous, recycling, BCD down counter with J-K FFs us- ing don’t-care NEXT states.

D 7-46. Design a synchronous, recycling, MOD-7 up/down counter with J-K FFs. Use the states 000 through 110 in the counter. Control the count direction with
input D ( D 0 to count up and D 1 to count down).

1

DJ

CLK

DK

CJ

CLK

CK

BJ

CLK

B

K

AJ

CLK

A

K

F

CLK

(a)

FIGURE 7-105 Problems 7-41 and 7-42.

(b)

1223

DD

H, D

7-47.*Design a synchronous, recycling, MOD-8, binary down counter with D flip-flops.

7-48. Design a synchronous, recycling, MOD-12 counter with D FFs. Use the states 0000 through 1011 in the counter.

1224

7-49.*Design a recycling, MOD-13, up counter using an HDL. The count se- quence should be 0000 through 1100. Simulate the counter.

7-50. Design a recycling, MOD-25, down counter using an HDL. The count sequence should be 11000 through 00000. Simulate the counter.

7-51.*Design a recycling, MOD-16 Gray code counter using an HDL. The counter should have an active-HIGH enable ( cnt ). Simulate the counter.

1225

7-52. Design a bidirectional, half-step controller for a stepper motor using an HDL. The direction control input ( dir ) will produce a clockwise (CW)

pattern when HIGH or counterclockwise when LOW. The se- quence is given in Figure 7-106. Simulate the sequential circuit.

FIGURE 7-106 Problem

CW

7-52.

1226

7-53.*Design a frequency divider circuit to output a 100-kHz signal using an HDL. The input frequency is 5 MHz. Simulate the counter.

7-54. Design a frequency divider circuit that will output either of two spec- ified frequency signals using an HDL. The output frequency is se- lected by the control
input fselect. The divider will output a frequency of 5 kHz when fselect 0 or 12 kHz when fselect 1. The input fre- quency is 60 kHz. Simulate the counter.

1227

7-59.*Create a MOD-1000 BCD counter by cascading together three of the HDL BCD counter modules (described in Section 7-13). Simulate the

counter.

7-60. Create a MOD-256 binary counter by cascading together two of the full-featured, MOD-16, HDL counter modules (described in Section 7- 12). Simulate the
counter.

1228

7-61.*Design a synchronous, MOD-50 BCD counter by cascading the HDL designs for a MOD-10 and a MOD-5 counter together. The MOD-50

counter should have an active-HIGH count enable ( enable ) and an ac- tive-LOW, synchronous clear ( clrn ). Be sure to include the terminal count detection for
the 1s digit to cascade with the 10s digit. Simulate the counter.

1229

7-67.*How many clock pulses will be needed to completely load eight bits of serial data into a 74ALS166? How does this relate to the number of flip-

flops contained in the register?

7-68. Repeat Example 7-18 for the input waveforms given in Figure 7-109.

FIGURE 7-109 Problem 7-68.

1230

7-72. Refer to Figure 7-112 to answer the following questions:

8.

Which register function (load or shift) will be performed on the next clock if in 1 and out 0? What data value will be input when clocked?

8.

Which register function (load or shift) will be performed on the next clock if in 0 and out 1? What data value will be input when clocked?

8.

Which register function (load or shift) will be performed on the next clock if in 0 and out 0? What data value will be input when clocked?

8.

Which register function (load or shift) will be performed on the next clock if in 1 and out 1? What data value will be input when clocked?

8.What input condition will eventually (after several clock pulses) cause the output to switch states?

FIGURE 7-112 Problem

7-72.

IN

OUT

13.

To change the output logic level requires the new input condition to last for at least how many clock pulses?

13.

If the input signal changes levels and then goes back to its origi- nal logic level before the number of clock pulses specified in part (f),
what happens to the output signal.

13.

1231

Explain why this circuit can be used to debounce switches.

B 7-73.*Draw the diagram for a MOD-5 ring counter using J-K flip-flops. Make sure that the counter will start the proper count sequence when it is

turned on.

7-74. Add one more J-K flip-flop to convert the MOD-5 ring counter in Problem 7-73 into a MOD-10 counter. Determine the sequence of states for this counter. This
is an example of a decade counter that is not a BCD counter. Draw the decoding circuit for this counter.

1232

B

7-75.*Draw the diagram for a MOD-10 Johnson counter using a 74HC164.

Make sure that the counter will start the proper count sequence

when it is turned on. Determine the count sequence for this counter and draw the decoding circuit needed to decode each of the 10 states. This is another
example of a decade counter that is not a BCD counter.

1233

7-76. The clock input to the Johnson counter in Problem 7-75 is 10 Hz. What is the frequency and duty cycle for each of the counter outputs?

1234

T 7-77.*The MOD-10 counter in Figure 7-8(b) produces the count sequence 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, and repeats. Identify

some possible fault conditions that might produce this result.

T 7-78. The MOD-10 counter in Figure 7-8(b) produces the count sequence 0000, 0101, 0010, 0111, 1000, 1101, 1010, 1111, and repeats. Identify

some possible fault conditions that might produce this result.

1235

7-82. Create an eight-bit SIPO shift register using an HDL. The data in is ser_in and the outputs are q[7..0]. The shift register function is en- abled by

an active-HIGH control named shift. The shift register also has a higher priority active-HIGH synchronous clear ( clear ). Simulate the design.

7-83.*Simulate the universal shift register design from Example 7-24.

1236

7-84. Create an eight-bit universal shift register by cascading two of the modules in Example 7-24. Simulate the design.

7-85.*Design a MOD-10, self-starting Johnson counter with an active-HIGH, asynchronous reset ( reset ) using an HDL. Simulate the design.

1237

7-86. Sometimes a digital application may need a ring counter that recircu- lates a single zero instead of a single one. The ring counter would then

have an active-LOW output instead of an active-HIGH. Design a MOD-8, self-starting ring counter with an active-LOW output using an HDL. The ring counter
should also have an active-HIGHhold control to dis- able the counting. Simulate the design.

1238

.*Use Altera’s simulator to test the nonretriggerable, level-sensitive, one-shot design example in either Figure 7-88 (AHDL) or 7-89 (VHDL). Use a 1-

kHz clock and create a 10-ms output pulse for the simulation. Verify that:

1.

The correct pulse width is created when triggered.

2.

The output can be terminated early with the reset input.

3.

The one-shot design is nonretriggerable and cannot be triggered again until it has timed out.

4.

The trigger signal must last long enough for the clock to catch it.

5.

The pulse width can be changed to a different value.

1239

7-88. Modify the nonretriggerable, level-sensitive, one-shot design exam- ple from either Figure 7-88 (AHDL) or Figure 7-89 (VHDL) so that the one-

shot is retriggerable but still level-sensitive. Simulate the design.

1240

6-18. Convert the FA circuit of Figure 6-8 to all NAND gates.

6-19.*Write the function table for a half adder (inputs A and B ; outputs SUM and CARRY). From the function table, design a logic circuit that will act as a half
adder.

1241

6-20. A full adder can be implemented in many different ways. Figure 6-27 shows how one may be constructed from two half adders. Construct a

function table for this arrangement, and verify that it operates as a FA.

FIGURE 6-27 Problem 6-20.

SUM

A

HA

CARRY

B

HA

CARRY

SUM

CARRY IN

CARRY OUT

Full adder

21.

1242

*Refer to Figure 6-10. Determine the contents of the A register after the following sequence of operations: [ A] = 0000, [0100]

: [ B ], [ S ] : [ A ], [1011] : [ B ], [ S ] : [ A ].

6-22. Refer to Figure 6-10. Assume that each FF has t PLH = t PHL = 30 ns and a setup time of 10 ns, and that each FA has a propagation delay of 40 ns. What is the
minimum time allowed between the PGT of the LOAD pulse and the PGT of the TRANSFER pulse for proper operation?

1243

6-23. In the adder and subtractor circuits discussed in this chapter, we gave no consideration to the possibility ofoverflow. Overflow occurs when the

two numbers being added or subtracted produce a result that con- tains more bits than the capacity of the accumulator. For example, using four-bit registers,
including a sign bit, numbers ranging from + 7 to - 8 (in 2’s complement) can be stored. Therefore, if the result of an addition or subtraction exceeds + 7 or - 8, we
would say that an over- flow has occurred. When an overflow occurs, the results are useless because they cannot be stored correctly in the accumulator register.
To illustrate, add + 5 (0101) and + 4 (0100), which results in 1001. This 1001 would be interpreted incorrectly as a negative number because there is a 1 in the
sign-bit position.

In computers and calculators, there are usually circuits that are used to detect an overflow condition. There are several ways to do this. One method that can be
used for the adder that operates in the 2’s-complement system works as follows:

1.

Examine the sign bits of the two numbers being added.

2.

Examine the sign bit of the result.

3.

Overflow occurs whenever the numbers being added are both pos- itive and the sign bit of the result is 1 orwhen the
numbers are both negative and the sign bit of the result is 0.

This method can be verified by trying several examples. Readers should try the following cases for their own clarification: (1) 5 + 4; (2)

- 4 + (- 6); (3) 3 + 2. Cases 1 and 2 will produce an overflow, and case 3 will not. Thus, by examining the sign bits, one can design a logic cir- cuit that will produce
a 1 output whenever the overflow condition occurs. Design this overflow circuit for the adder of Figure 6-10.

1244

6-24. Add the necessary logic circuitry to Figure 6-10 to accommodate the transfer of data from memory into the Aregister. The data values from

memory are to enter the A register through its D inputs on the PGT of the firstTRANSFER pulse; the data from the sum outputs of the FAs will be loaded into A on
the PGT of the secondTRANSFER. In other words, a LOAD pulse followed by two TRANSFER pulses is required to perform the complete sequence of loading
the B register from memory, loading the A register from memory, and then transferring their sum into the A register. ( Hint: Use a flip-flop X to control which source
of data gets loaded into the D inputs of the accumulator.)

1245

6-25.*Design a look-ahead carry circuit for the adder of Figure 6-10 that gen- erates the carry C 3 to be fed to the FA of the MSB position based on the

values of A 0 , B 0 , C 0 , A 1 , B 1 , A 2 , and B 2 . In other words, derive an ex- pression for C 3 in terms of A 0 , B 0 , C 0 , A 1 , B 1 , A 2 , and B 2 . ( Hint: Begin by writing
the expression for C 1 in terms of A 0 , B 0 , and C 0 . Then write the

expression for C 2 in terms of A 1 , B 1 , and C 1 . Substitute the expression for C 1 into the expression for C 2 . Then write the expression for C 3 in terms of A 2 , B 2 ,
and C 2 . Substitute the expression for C 2 into the ex- pression for C3 . Simplify the final expression for C 3 and put it in sum- of-products form. Implement the
circuit.)

1246

6-26. Show the logic levels at each input and output of Figure 6-11(a) when 354 8 is added to 103 8 .

6-27. For the circuit of Figure 6-14, determine the sum outputs for the fol- lowing cases.

(a)* A register = 0101 (+ 5), B register = 1110 (- 2);

SUB = 1, ADD = 0

2.

A register = 1100 (- 4), B register = 1110 (- 2);

SUB = 0, ADD = 1

2.

Repeat (b) with ADD = SUB = 0.

1247

6-28. For the circuit of Figure 6-14 determine the sum outputs for the fol- lowing cases.

1.

A register = 1101 (- 3), B register = 0011 (+ 3), SUB = 1, ADD = 0.

2.

A register = 1100 (- 4), B register = 0010 (+ 2), SUB = 0, ADD = 1.

3.

A register = 1011 (- 5), B register = 0100 (+ 4), SUB = 1, ADD = 0.

6-29. For each of the calculations of Problem 6-27, determine if overflow has occurred.

6-30. For each of the calculations of Problem 6-28, determine if overflow has occurred.

1248

D 6-31. Show how the gates of Figure 6-14 can be implemented using three 74HC00 chips.

D 6-32.*Modify the circuit of Figure 6-14 so that a single control input, X , is used in place of ADD and SUB. The circuit is to function as an adder when X = 0, and
as a subtractor when X = 1. Then simplify each set of gates. ( Hint:Note that now each set of gates is functioning as a con- trolled inverter.)

1249

B 6-33. Determine the F , C N + 4 , and OVR outputs for each of the following sets of inputs applied to a 74LS382.

(a)*[ S ] = 011, [ A ] = 0110, [ B ] = 0011, C N = 0

(b) [ S ] = 001, [ A ] = 0110, [ B ] = 0011, C N = 1

(c) [ S ] = 010, [ A ] = 0110, [ B ] = 0011, C N = 1

D 6-34. Show how the 74HC382 can be used to produce Recall that special property of an XOR gate.)

1250

6-35. Determine the g outputs in Figure 6-16 for the following sets of inputs. (a)*[ S ] = 110, [ A ] = 10101100, [ B ] = 00001111

(b) [ S ] = 100, [ A ] = 11101110, [ B ] = 00110010

1251

6-36. Add the necessary logic to Figure 6-16 to produce a single HIGH out- put whenever the binary number at A is exactly the same as the bi- nary

number at B. Apply the appropriate select input code (three codes can be used).

1252

6-37. Consider the circuit of Figure 6-10. Assume that the A 2 output is stuck LOW. Follow the sequence of operations for adding two numbers, and

determine the results that will appear in the A register after the sec- ond TRANSFER pulse for each of the following cases. Note that the numbers are given in
decimal, and the first number is the one loaded into B by the first LOAD pulse.

(a)*2 + 3

(b)*3 + 7

(c) 7 + 3

(d) 8 + 3

(e) 9 + 3

1253

6-38. A technician breadboards the adder/subtractor of Figure 6-14. During testing, she finds that whenever an addition is performed, the result is 1

more than expected, and when a subtraction is performed, the re- sult is 1 less than expected. What is the likely error that the techni- cian made in connecting this
circuit?

1254

.*Describe the symptoms that would occur at the following points in the circuit of Figure 6-14 if the ADD and SUB lines were shorted together.

1.

B[3..0] inputs of the 74LS283 IC

2.

C 0 input of the 74LS283 IC

3.

SUM ( g) [3..0] outputs

4.

C4

1255

Problems 6-40 through 6-45 deal with the same two arrays, a and b , which we will assume have been defined in an HDL source file and have the

following values: [a] = [10010111], [b] = [00101100]. Output array [z] is also an eight- bit array. Answer Problems 6-40 through 6-45 based on this information.
(Assume undefined bits in z are 0.)

6-40. Declare these data objects using your favorite HDL syntax.

1256

6-41. Give the value of z for each expression (identical AHDL and VHDL expressions are given):

(a)*z[] = a[] & b[]; z

(b)*z[] = a[] # b[]; z

(c) z[] = a[] $ !b[]; z

(d) z[7..4] = a[3..0] & b[3..0]; z(7 DOWNTO 4)

(e) z[7..1] = a[6..0]; z[0] = GND; z(7 DOWNTO 1)

1257

6-42. What is the value of each of the following:

(a) a[3..0] a(3 DOWNTO 0)

(b) b[0] b(0)

(c) a[7] b(7)

6-43. What is the value of each of the following? (a)*a[5] a(5)

(b)*b[2] b(2)

(c)* b[7..1] b(7 DOWNTO 1)

1258

6-44.*Write one or more statements in HDL that will shift all the bits in [a] one position to the right. The LSB should move to the MSB position. The

rotated data should end up in z[].

6-45. Write one or more HDL statements that will take the upper nibble of b and place it in the lower nibble of z. The upper nibble of z should be zero.

1259

6-46. Refer to Problem 6-23. Modify the code of Figure 6-21 or Figure 6-22 to add an overflow output.

47.

.*Another way to detect 2’s-complement overflow is to XOR the carry into the MSB with the carry out of the MSB of an adder/subtractor.
Use the same numbers given in Problem 6-23 to verify this. Modify Figure 6-21 or Figure 6-22 to detect overflow using this method.

47.

1260

.*Modify Figure 6-21 or Figure 6-22 to implement Figure 6-10.

6-49. Modify Figure 6-21 or Figure 6-22 to make it a 12-bit adder without us- ing constants.

6-50. Modify Figure 6-21 or Figure 6-22 to make it a versatile n -bit adder module with a constant defining the number of bits.

6-51. Write an HDL file to create the equivalent of a 74382 ALU without us- ing a built-in macrofunction.

1261

1262

6-52. Define each of the following terms.

1.

Full adder (f) Accumulator

2.

2’s complement (g) Parallel adder

3.

Arithmetic/logic unit (h) Look-ahead carry

4.

Sign bit (i) Negation

5.

Overflow (j) B register

6-53.*In a typical microprocessor ALU, the results of every arithmetic op- eration are usually (but not always) transferred to the accumulator register,

as in Figures 6-10, 6-14, and 6-15. In most microprocessor ALUs, the result of each arithmetic operation is also used to control the states of several special flipflops called flags. These flags are used by the microprocessor when it is making decisions during the execution of certain types of instructions. The three most
common flags are:

S (sign flag). This FF is always in the same state as the sign of the last result from the ALU.

Z (zero flag). This flag is set to 1 whenever the result from an ALU operation is exactly 0. Otherwise, it is cleared to 0.

C (carry flag). This FF is always in the same state as the carry from the MSB of the ALU.

Using the adder/subtractor of Figure 6-14 as the ALU, design the logic circuit that will implement these flags. The sum outputs and C 4 output are to be used to
control what state each flag will go to upon the oc- currence of the TRANSFER pulse. For example, if the sum is exactly 0 (i.e., 0000), the Z flag should be set by
the PGT of TRANSFER; oth- erwise, it should be cleared.

1263

6-54.*In working with microcomputers, it is often necessary to move binary numbers from an eight-bit register to a 16-bit register. Consider the

numbers 01001001 and 10101110, which represent + 73 and - 82, re- spectively, in the 2’s-complement system. Determine the 16-bit repre- sentations for these
decimal numbers.

1264

6-55. Compare the eight- and 16-bit representations for + 73 from Problem 6-53. Then compare the two representations for - 82. There is a gen- eral

rule that can be used to convert easily from eight-bit to 16-bit rep- resentations. Can you see what it is? It has something to do with the sign bit of the eight-bit
number.

1265

5. Boolean theorems and rules can be used to simplify the expression of a logic circuit and can lead to a simpler way of implementing the circuit.

6. NAND gates can be used to implement any of the basic Boolean opera- tions. NOR gates can be used likewise.

7. Either standard or alternate symbols can be used for each logic gate, de- pending on whether the output is to be active-HIGH or active-LOW.

1266

5.The IEEE/ANSI standard for logic symbols uses rectangular symbols for each logic device, with special notations inside the rectangles to show how
the outputs depend on the inputs.

6. Hardware description languages have become an important method of describing digital circuits.

1267

5. HDL code should always contain comments that document its vital char- acteristics so a person reading it later can understand what it does.

6. Every HDL circuit description contains a definition of the inputs and outputs, followed by a section that describes the circuit’s operation.

7. In addition to inputs and outputs, intermediate connections that are buried within the circuit can be defined. These intermediate connec- tions are
called nodes or signals.

1268

The color letters preceding some of the problems are used to indicate the na- ture or type of problem as follows:

B basic problem

T troubleshooting problem

D design or circuit-modification problem

N new concept or technique not covered in text

C challenging problem

H HDL problem

1269

B 3-1.*Draw the output waveform for the OR gate of Figure 3-52.

FIGURE 3-52

A

A

B Bx

C

C

1270

3-2. Suppose that the A input in Figure 3-52 is unintentionally shorted to ground (i.e., A = 0). Draw the resulting output waveform.

2.

3-3.*Suppose that the A input in Figure 3-52 is unintentionally shorted to the +5 V supply line (i.e., A = 1). Draw the resulting output wave- form.

1271

3-4. Read the statements below concerning an OR gate. At first, they may appear to be valid, but after some thought you should realize that nei- ther

one is always true. Prove this by showing a specific example to re- fute each statement.

1.

If the output waveform from an OR gate is the same as the wave- form at one of its inputs, the other input is being held perma- nently LOW.

2.

(Video) ✔️ Windows 10 - How to Share Files, Folders & Drives Between Computers Over a Network

If the output waveform from an OR gate is always HIGH, one of its inputs is being held permanently HIGH.

3-5. How many different sets of input conditions will produce a HIGH out-

1272

put from a five-input OR gate?

B 3-6. Change the OR gate in Figure 3-52 to an AND gate. (a)*Draw the output waveform.

2.

Draw the output waveform if the A input is permanently shorted to ground.

2.

1273

Draw the output waveform if A is permanently shorted to +5 V.

D 3-7.*Refer to Figure 3-4. Modify the circuit so that the alarm is to be acti- vated only when the pressure and the temperature exceed their max- imum limits at the same time.

B 3-8.*Change the OR gate in Figure 3-6 to an AND gate and draw the output waveform.

1274

B 3-9. Suppose that you have an unknown two-input gate that is either an OR gate or an AND gate. What combination of input levels should you apply

to the gate’s inputs to determine which type of gate it is?

B 3-10. True or false: No matter how many inputs it has, an AND gate will pro- duce a HIGH output for only one combination of input levels.

B 3-11. Apply the A waveform from Figure 3-23 to the input of an INVERTER. Draw the output waveform. Repeat for waveform B.

1275

B 3-12. (a)* Write the Boolean expression for output x in Figure 3-53(a). Determine the value of x for all possible input conditions, and list the values in a truth table.

(b) Repeat for the circuit in Figure 3-53(b).

FIGURE 3-53 A

B

x

C

(a)

x

(b)

B 3-13.*Create a complete analysis table for the circuit of Figure 3-15(b) by finding the logic levels
present at each gate output for each of the 32 possible input combinations.

B 3-14. (a) * Change each OR to an AND, and each AND to an OR, in Figure 3-15(b). Then write the
expression for the output.

2.

Complete an analysis table.

B 3-15. Create a complete analysis table for the circuit of Figure 3-16 by find- ing the logic levels present at each gate output for each of the 16 pos- sible
combinations of input levels.

B 3-17 * . (a) Apply the input waveforms of Figure 3-54 to a NOR gate, and draw the output waveform.

1276

2.

Repeat with C held permanently LOW.

2.

Repeat with C held HIGH.

FIGURE 3-54

AB

C

1277 2. .

3.

3-18. Repeat Problem 3-17 for a NAND gate.

3-19.*Write the expression for the output of Figure 3-55, and use it to de- termine the complete truth table. Then apply the waveforms of Figure 3-54

to the circuit inputs, and draw the resulting output waveform.

FIGURE 3-55 A

B

C

B 3-20. Determine the truth table for the circuit of Figure 3-24.

2.

3-21. Modify the circuits that were constructed in Problem 3-16 so that NAND gates and NOR gates are used wherever appropriate.

1278

C 3-25. Prove DeMorgan’s theorems by trying all possible cases.

B 3-26. Simplify each of the following expressions using DeMorgan’s theo- rems.

(a)* ABC

(d)

A+B

(g)* A ( B + C ) D

(b) A + BC

(e)* AB

(h)

( M + N )( M + N )

(c)* ABCD

(f)

A+C+D

(i)

ABCD

3-27.*Use DeMorgan’s theorems to simplify the expression for the output of

2.

1279

Figure 3-55.

3-28. Convert the circuit of Figure 3-53(b) to one using only NAND gates.

Then write the output expression for the new circuit, simplify it using

DeMorgan’s theorems, and compare it with the expression for the original circuit.

1280

C 3-29. Convert the circuit of Figure 3-53(a) to one using only NOR gates. Then write the expression for the new circuit, simplify it using DeMorgan’s

theorems, and compare it with the expression for the original circuit.

B 3-30. Show how a two-input NAND gate can be constructed from two-input NOR gates.

2.

3-31. Show how a two-input NOR gate can be constructed from two-input NAND gates.

1281

2.

3-32. A jet aircraft employs a system for monitoring the rpm, pressure, and

RPM sensor output = 0 only when speed 6 4800 rpm

P sensor output = 0 only when pressure 6 220 psi

temperature values of its engines using sensors that operate as follows:

T sensor output = 0 only when temperature 6 200°F

Figure 3-56 shows the logic circuit that controls a cockpit warning light for certain combinations of engine conditions. Assume that a HIGH at output W activates
the warning light.

(a) * Determine what engine conditions will give a warning to the pilot.

(b) Change this circuit to one using all NAND gates.

FIGURE 3-56

B 3-33. For each statement below, draw the appropriate logic-gate symbol— standard or alternate—for the given operation.

1282

1283

1.

A HIGH output occurs only when all three inputs are LOW.

2.

A LOW output occurs when any of the four inputs is LOW.

3.

A LOW output occurs only when all eight inputs are HIGH.

2.

3-34. Draw the standard representations for each of the basic logic gates.

Then draw the alternate representations.

2.

3-35. The circuit of Figure 3-55 is supposed to be a simple d igital c ombina-

tion lock whose output will generate an active-LOW UNLOCK signal for only one combination of inputs.

(a) * Modify the circuit diagram so that it represents more effectively the circuit operation.

(b) Use the new circuit diagram to determine the input combination that will activate the output. Do this by working back from the output using the information given
by the gate symbols, as was done in Examples 3-22 and 3-23. Compare the results with the truth table obtained in Problem 3-19.

1284

3

3-36. (a) Determine the input conditions needed to activate output Z in Figure 3-37(b). Do this by working back from the output, as was done in

Examples 3-22 and 3-23.

3.

Assume that it is the LOW state of Z that is to activate the alarm. Change the circuit diagram to reflect this, and then use the re- vised
diagram to determine the input conditions needed to acti- vate the alarm.

1285

3.

3-37. Modify the circuit of Figure 3-40 so that A

1

= 0 is needed to produce

DRIVE = 1 instead of A 1 = 1.

B 3-38.*Determine the input conditions needed to cause the output in Figure 3-57 to go to its active state.

FIGURE 3-57

A

B

x

CD

E

B 3-39.*What is the asserted state for the output of Figure 3-57? For the out- put of Figure 3-36(c)?

B 3-40. Use the results of Problem 3-38 to obtain the complete truth table for the circuit of Figure 3-57.

1285

B 3-44. Redraw the programmable connection matrix from Figure 3-44. Label the output signals (horizontal lines) from the connection matrix (from

top row to bottom row) as follows: AAABADHE. Draw an X in the ap- propriate intersections to short-circuit a row to a column and create these connections to the
logic circuit.

1286

H 3-45.*Write the HDL code in the language of your choice that will produce the following output functions:

X = A + B Y = AB

Z=A+B+C

H 3-46. Write the HDL code in the language of your choice that will imple- ment the logic circuit of Figure 3-39.

1287

1.

Use a single Boolean equation.

2.

Use the intermediate variables V , W , X , and Y .

1288

C 3-47.*Refer to Figure 3-40 in Example 3-23. Inputs A 7 through A 0 are address inputs that are supplied to this circuit from outputs of the micro-

processor chip in a microcomputer. The eight-bit address code A 7 to A 0 selects which device the microprocessor wants to activate. In Example 3-23, the required
address code to activate the disk drive was A 7 through A 0 = 11111110 2 = FE 16 .

Modify the circuit so that the microprocessor must supply an ad- dress code of 4A

16

to activate the disk drive.

1289

Convert these binary numbers to decimal.
(a)*10110

(d) 01101011

(g)*1111010111

(b) 10010101

(e)*11111111

(h) 11011111

(c)*100100001001

(f) 01101111

Convert the following decimal values to binary.
(a) * 37

(d) 1000

(g)*205

(b) 13

(e)*77

(h) 2133

(f) 390

(i)* 511

*

(c) 189
2-1.
2-2.

2-3. What is the largest decimal value that can be represented by (a)* an eight-bit binary number? (b) A 16-bit number?

1290

2-4. Convert each hex number to its decimal equivalent. (a)*743 (d) 2000 (g)*7FF

(b) 36 (e)* 165 (h) 1204

(c)*37FD (f) ABCD

2-5. Convert each of the following decimal numbers to hex. (a)*59 (d) 1024 (g)*65,536

(b) 372 (e)* 771 (h) 255

(c)*919 (f) 2313

1291

2-6. Convert each of the hex values from Problem 2-4 to binary. 2-7. Convert the binary numbers in Problem 2-1 to hex.

2-8. List the hex numbers in sequence from 195 16 to 280 16 .

1292

2-9. When a large decimal number is to be converted to binary, it is some- times easier to convert it first to hex, and then from hex to binary. Try this

procedure for 2133 10 and compare it with the procedure used in Problem 2-2(h).

1293

2-10. How many hex digits are required to represent decimal numbers up to 20,000?

2-11. Convert these hex values to decimal.
(a)*92

(d) ABCD

(g)*2C0

(b) 1A6

(e)* 000F

(h) 7FF

(c)*37FD

(f) 55

1294

2-12. Convert these decimal values to hex.

(a)*75 (d) 24 (g)*25,619
(b) 314 (e)* 7245 (h) 4095
(c)*2048 (f) 498

2-13. Take each four-bit binary number in the order they are written and write the equivalent hex digit without performing a calculation by hand or by calculator.
(a) 1001

(e)

1111

(i) 1011

(m)

0001

(b) 1101

(f)

0010

(j) 1100

(n)

0101

(c) 1000

(g)

1010

(k) 0011

(o)

0111

(d) 0000

(h)

1001

(l) 0100

(p)

0110

1295

2-14. Take each hex digit and write its four-bit binary value without per- forming any calculations by hand or by calculator.

(a) 6

(e)

4

(i) 9

(m)

(b) 7

(f)

3

(j) A

(n)

8

(c) 5

(g)

C

(k) 2

(o)

D

(d) 1

(h)

B

(l) F

(p)

9

2-15.* Convert the binary numbers in Problem 2-1 to hexadecimal. 2-16.* Convert the hex values in Problem 2-11 to binary.
2-17.* List the hex numbers in sequence from 280 to 2A0.
2-18. How many hex digits are required to represent decimal numbers up to 1 million?

1296

2-19. Encode these decimal numbers in BCD. (a)*47 (d) 6727 (g) * 89,627

(b) 962 (e)*13 (h) 1024

(c)*187 (f) 529

2-20. How many bits are required to represent the decimal numbers in the range from 0 to 999 using (a) straight binary code? (b) Using BCD code?

1297

2-21. The following numbers are in BCD. Convert them to decimal. (a)*1001011101010010 (d) 0111011101110101

(b) 000110000100 (e)* 010010010010

(c)*011010010101 (f) 010101010101

1298

.*(a) How many bits are contained in eight bytes?

2.

What is the largest hex number that can be represented in four bytes?

2.

1299

What is the largest BCD-encoded decimal value that can be represented in three bytes?

2-23. (a) Refer to Table 2-4. What is the most significant nibble of the ASCII code for the letter X?

2.

How many nibbles can be stored in a 16-bit word?

2.

1300

How many bytes does it take to make up a 24-bit word?

2-24. Represent the statement “X = 3 * Y” in ASCII code. Attach an odd- parity bit.

2-25.*Attach an even -parity bit to each of the ASCII codes for Problem 2-24, and give the results in hex.

1301

2-26. The following bytes (shown in hex) represent a person’s name as it would be stored in a computer’s memory. Each byte is a padded ASCII code.

Determine the name of each person.

(a)*42 45 4E 20 53 4D 49 54 48

(b) 4A 6F 65 20 47 72 65 65 6E

1302

.*In a microcomputer, the addresses of memory locations are binary numbers that identify each memory circuit where a byte is stored. The number of

bits that make up an address depends on how many mem- ory locations there are. Since the number of bits can be very large, the addresses are often specified in
hex instead of binary.

1303

1.

If a microcomputer uses a 20-bit address, how many different memory locations are there?

2.

How many hex digits are needed to represent the address of a memory location?

3.

What is the hex address of the 256th memory location? ( Note: The first address is always 0.)

2-38. In an audio CD, the audio voltage signal is typically sampled about 44,000 times per second, and the value of each sample is recorded on the

CD surface as a binary number. In other words, each recorded bi- nary number represents a single voltage point on the audio signal waveform.

1.

If the binary numbers are six bits in length, how many different voltage values can be represented by a single binary number? Repeat for eight bits
and ten bits.

2.

If ten-bit numbers are used, how many bits will be recorded on the CD in 1 second?

3.

If a CD can typically store 5 billion bits, how many seconds of au- dio can be recorded when ten-bit numbers are used?

1304

2-39.*A black-and-white digital camera lays a fine grid over an image and then measures and records a binary number representing the level of gray it

sees in each cell of the grid. For example, if four-bit numbers are used, the value of black is set to 0000 and the value of white to 1111, and any level of gray is
somewhere between 0000 and 1111. If six-bit numbers are used, black is 000000, white is 111111, and all grays are between the two.

Suppose we wanted to distinguish among 254 different levels of gray within each cell of the grid. How many bits would we need to use to represent these levels?

1305

2-40. A 3-Megapixel digital camera stores an eight-bit number for the brightness of each of the primary colors (red, green, blue) found in each picture

element (pixel). If every bit is stored (no data compres- sion), how many pictures can be stored on a 128-Megabyte memory card? (Note: In digital systems, Mega
means 2

1306

20

.)

2-41. Construct a table showing the binary, hex, and BCD representations of all decimal numbers from 0 to 15. Compare your table with Table 2-3.

1307

Convert these binary numbers to decimal.
(a)*10110

(d) 01101011

(g)*1111010111

(b) 10010101

(e)*11111111

(h) 11011111

(c)*100100001001

(f) 01101111

Convert the following decimal values to binary.
(a) * 37

(d) 1000

(g)*205

(b) 13

(e)*77

(h) 2133

(f) 390

(i)* 511

*

(c) 189
2-1.
2-2.

2-3. What is the largest decimal value that can be represented by (a)* an eight-bit binary number? (b) A 16-bit number?

1308

2-4. Convert each hex number to its decimal equivalent. (a)*743 (d) 2000 (g)*7FF

(b) 36 (e)* 165 (h) 1204

(c)*37FD (f) ABCD

2-5. Convert each of the following decimal numbers to hex. (a)*59 (d) 1024 (g)*65,536

(b) 372 (e)* 771 (h) 255

(c)*919 (f) 2313

1309

2-6. Convert each of the hex values from Problem 2-4 to binary. 2-7. Convert the binary numbers in Problem 2-1 to hex.

2-8. List the hex numbers in sequence from 195 16 to 280 16 .

1310

.*Which of the following are analog quantities, and which are digital?

1.

Number of atoms in a sample of material

2.

Altitude of an aircraft

3.

Pressure in a bicycle tire

4.

Current through a speaker

5.

Timer setting on a microwave oven

1311

1-2. Which of the following are analog quantities, and which are digital?

1.

Width of a piece of lumber

2.

The amount of time before the oven buzzer goes off

3.

The time of day displayed on a quartz watch

4.

Altitude above sea level measured on a staircase

5.

Altitude above sea level measured on a ramp

1312

1-3.*Convert the following binary numbers to their equivalent decimal values.

(a) 11001 2

(b) 1001.1001 2

(c) 10011011001.10110 2

1-4. Convert the following binary numbers to decimal. (a) 10011 2

(b) 1100.0101

(c) 10011100100.10010

1313

1-5.*Using three bits, show the binary counting sequence from 000 to 111. 1-6. Using six bits, show the binary counting sequence from 000000 to

111111.

1-7.*What is the maximum number that we can count up to using 10 bits? 1-8. What is the maximum number that we can count up to using 14 bits? 1-9.*How
many bits are needed to count up to a maximum of 511?

1-10. How many bits are needed to count up to a maximum of 63?

1314

1-11.*Draw the timing diagram for a digital signal that continuously alter- nates between 0.2 V (binary 0) for 2 ms and 4.4 V (binary 1) for 4 ms.

1-12. Draw the timing diagram for a signal that alternates between 0.3 V (binary 0) for 5 ms and 3.9 V (binary 1) for 2 ms.

1315

1316

1.

1.

.*Suppose that the decimal integer values from 0 to 15 are to be trans- mitted in binary.

1.

How many lines will be needed if parallel representation is used?

2.

How many will be needed if serial representation is used?

1-14. How is a microprocessor different from a microcomputer? 1-15. How is a microcontroller different from a microcomputer?

Analog quantities can take on any value over a continuous range; digital quanti- ties can take on only discretevalues.

1317
integration

Easier to design; easier to store information; greater accuracy and precision; programmability; less affected by noise; higher degree of

2.

Real-world physical quantities are analog. Digital processing takes time.

1. 107 10 2. 11000 2 3. 4095 10

1318

1. False 2. Yes, provided that the two input voltages are within the same logic level range 3. Logic 4. Timing diagram

1. Parallel is faster; serial requires only one signal line.

1319

1. One that has memory will have its output changed and remain changed in response to a momentary change in the input signal. 2. Input, output,

memory, arithmetic/logic, control 3. Control and arithmetic/logic 4. Microprocessor

1320

CIS52005 Assignment 3 Research Report – Due Date 30th September 2015

Task 1 Research and write a critical analysis of the following SAP System Security Parameters

Task 1.1 Discuss how the user master record in SAP plays an important role in ensuring assignment of appropriate rights, activity groups / roles and authorisations
for individual users. (About 500 words)

Task 1.2.1 SAP R/3 creates a number of default accounts which deserve special attention. Describe what is special about the default user account SAP*. (About
250 words)

Task1.2.2 As it is not possible to delete the SAP* user account describe two suggested controls to secure this account from misuse. (About 250 words)

Task 2 Ethical Behaviour for an Information Security Professional

Review theWikipedia Link for Professional Ethics and ACS Code of Professional Practice and provided with the Assignment 3 and consider the following two case
studies as an Information Security Professional:

Task 2.1 Helen the IT Consultant - Summary of case
Three years ago Helen started her own consulting business. She has been so successful that she now has several people working for her and many clients. Their
consulting work included advising on how to set up corporate intranets, designing database management systems, and advising about security.

Presently she is designing a database management system for the personnel office of a medium-sized company. Helen has involved the client in the design
process, informing the CEO, the director of computing, and the director of personnel about the progress of the system.

It is now time to make decisions about the kind and degree of security to build into the system. Helen has described several options to the client. Because the
system is going to cost more than they planned, the client has decided to opt for a less secure system.

She believes the information they will be storing is extremely sensitive. It will include performance evaluations, medical records for filing insurance claims, salaries,
and so forth. With weak security, employees working on client machines may be able to figure out ways to get access to this data, not to mention the possibility of
on-line access from hackers.

Helen feels strongly that the system should be much more secure. She has tried to explain the risks, but the CEO, director of computing and director of personnel
all agree that less security will do. What should she do? Should she refuse to build the system as they request?

Task 2.1.1 Identify and describe the key ethical concerns raised in this case study? (About 250 words)

Task 2.1.2Identify and describe how specific values of ACS Code of Professional Practice would provide guidance on how to deal with key ethical
concerns raised by Helen in a recent consultancy job (About 250 words)

Task 2.2 Fred in the State Department - Summary of case
Fred works in a large state department of alcoholism and drug abuse. The agency administers programs for individuals with alcohol and drug problems, and
maintains a huge database of information on the clients who use their services. Some of the data files contain the names and current addresses of clients. Fred
has been asked to take a look at the track records of the treatment programs. He is to put together a report that contains the number of clients seen in each
program each month for the past five years, length of each client’s treatment, number of clients who return after completion of a program, criminal histories of
clients, and so on. In order to put together this report, Fred has been given access to all files in the agency’s mainframe computer. After assembling the data into a
file that includes the clients’ names, he downloads it to the computer in his office. Under pressure to get the report finished by the deadline, Fred decides he will
have to work at home over the weekend in order to finish on time. He burns the information onto a CD and takes it home. After finishing the report he leaves the
CD at home and forgets about it.

Task 2.2.1 Identify and describe key ethical concerns raised by Fred’s actions outlined in this case study? (About 250 words)

Task 2.2.2 Identify and describe how specific values of ACS Code of Professional Practice would provide guidance on how to deal with key ethical concerns raised
by Fred’s action (About 250 words)

Task 3 Research the Top Ten OSWASP Vulnerabilities and one Zero Day Software vulnerability

Review theOWASP Top Ten Web Application Vulnerabilities and then identify, research and write a critical analysis of a recent Zero Day Software
Vulnerability in the context of the OWASP Top Ten Web Applications Vulnerability Framework and the possible consequences for an organisation if compromised
by this Zero Day Software vulnerability (About 500 words)

1321

A space agency wants to develop a database of all satellites that humans have launched into space. Data includes the satellite identification, date of

launch, destruction date, purpose, maximum orbital altitude, launching location, launching agency, and contact information for agency.

1322

student attendance fingerprint recognitionmasters research project for semester

1323

A value-added assessment answers the question

1324

what method allows large number of independent, selectable channels to exist on a single fiber?

1325

1. What are the differences between the microeco- nomic and macroeconomic perspectives on the economy?

2. Why are both input and output prices important to managers?

3. What are the four major types of markets in micro- economic analysis? What are the key characteris- tics that distinguish these markets?

1326

4. Since a monopolist has some degree of market power, and can also take measures to keep competitors away from the market, a monopo- list can
set the price of their product as high as they want. The higher the price charged, the higher the revenue. Do you agree?

Explain your answer.

5. In macroeconomics, what are the five major cat- egories of spending that make up GDP? Are all five categories added together to determine GDP?

6. Discuss the differences between fiscal and mon- etary policies.

1327

1.

Give illustrations from the opening case in this chapter of how both microeconomic and macro- economic factors influence the global
automobile industry.

2.

In each of the following examples, discuss which market model appears to best explain the behav- ior described:

1.

Corn prices reached record highs in the United States in August 2012, given the worst drought in decades. However, by October these prices started to
drop again as countries including

China, Japan, and South Korea began to pur- chase from producers in other countries such as Argentina and Brazil. 13

2.

In 2012, Staples Inc., OfficeMax Inc., and Office Depot Inc. were all closing many stores, decreasing the size of their stores,
and focus- ing more on online operations. All three chains struggled to deal with changing consumer shopping habits as consumers tested equip- ment in the
stores and then made purchases

online. 14

3.

In fall 2012, T-Mobile announced it was close to a merger with its smaller rival MetroPCS. This merger would strengthen TMobile’s posi- tion as the fourth-largest wireless operator in the United States. The merger would allow the combined company to cut costs and operate on a
larger scale. 15

3.

Chinese cooking is the most popular food in America that isn’t dominated by big national chains. Chinese food is typically
cooked in a wok that requires high heat and a special stove. Specialized chefs are also required. Small mom- and-pop
restaurants comprise nearly all of the

nation’s 36,000 Chinese restaurants, which have more locations than McDonald’s, Burger King, and Wendy’s combined.

1328

3. HSBC’s revenue after insurance claims fell from

$68.3 billion in 2012 to $64.6 billion in 2013.

1329

16

17

Does it necessarily mean that HSBC made less profit in 2013 than in 2012? Explain your answer.

4. The slow recovery from the recession of 2007– 2009 forced many firms to develop new competi- tive strategies to survive.

Find examples of these strategies in various business publications.

1330

question and answers

Document Preview:
COIT20229 Networking with TCP/IP (Term 2, 2015) Assessment item 1—Written Assessment Due date: 11:30pm AEST, Friday, Week 10 ASSESSMENT
Weighting: 40% 1 Objectives This assessment item relates to the course learning outcomes 1 to 5 as stated on page 7 of the course profile. Instructions Please
write your answers to all questions in the ‘Template for Your Answers’ Section of this document and upload only that template. Please show all your working and
steps. Please ensure that you write your answers in your own words to avoid possible plagiarism and copyright violation. You can understand the Plagiarism
Procedures by following the corresponding link in the CQUniversity Policies section of the Course Profile. You also need to upload the .pcap file for Question 4 in
order to receive marks. Question 1 (6 marks) Given the following network, construct the routing table of router R1: Question 2 (5 marks) An organisation has been
granted a block of addresses starting with the address 172.154.60.0/24. Create 4 subnets for this organisation with the first subblock of 120 addresses, the
second subblock of 60 addresses, the third subblock of 30 addresses and the fourth subblock of 12 addresses. (1 mark for each correct answer) How many
addresses are left? (1 mark) Question 3: (4 marks) Consider the following UDP header dump: BB400045003AFF10 Identify the source port number. (0.5 marks)
Identify the destination port number. (0.5 marks) What is the length of the data? (1 mark) Is it a packet from the client to the server or vice versa? (1 mark) What is
the client process? (1 mark) Question 4 (5 marks) Using Wireshark tool capture the packets at the same time that you download Lecture 2 from the COIT20229
Course Webpage. Before you undertake this task, you should have Wireshark installed in your home computer/notebook and connected to the Internet. It is
recommended that you undertake the packet capture exercises using Wireshark that are scheduled for...

Attach 1330

1331

Car dealers have realized how profitable it can be to sell automobiles by using the web pretend that you work for a local car dealership that is of a

large chain such as car max

Assessment item 3NormalisationValue:15%Due date:11-Sep-2015Return
date:02-Oct-2015Submission method optionsAlternative submission method
Task
1332

Table 1: GRADE REPORT relation
View complete question »
Studen Student_ Campus_A Maj Cours Course_ Instructor_ Instructor_L Gra
t_ID
Name
ddress
or e_ID
title
Name
ocation
de
168300
Williams
58

Albury

BIT

168300
Williams
58

ITC11 Databa
Peter
4
se Sys

B104

HD

Albury

Sys
ITC21
BIT
Analysi John
1
s

B115

D

543291
Baker
073

Wagga

Acc ITC20 Databa
David
t
0
se Mgt

H310

D

543291073

Wagga

Acct

1333

Baker

Acc11

Fund Acct

The advantages of ___________ supervision include vicarious learning, exposure to a broader range of clients, and more diverse feedback.

a.

Distance.

b.

Triadic.

c.

Individual.

d.

None of the above

1334

I just attached the files for requirements. you may just check it, please

Document Preview:
Case Study Assignment - Part 2 (Report and Presentation Slides) Case Study Assignment - Part 2 This is the second part of your case study assignment. If you
have not completed part 1 of your case study assignment, you need to do this now as it is a critical requirement for completing this part of the assignment. Note
that when you submit this assignment, you should include part 1 (corrected if necessary) to show your completed work that informs this second part of the study.
(Part 1 is already done) Assignment Part 2 should not exceed 25 pages. This page count includes coversheet, tables, diagrams and references, but excludes your
revised assignment 1 (including your revised event table with activities). If you are not clear how to cite and reference your research consult the unit outline. You
might treat the list of required assignment components below as a check list. Omitting one or more of them will have a negative effect on your assignment grade.
Consult the notes you have been taking during lectures and tutorials combined with the research you have been conducting each week to fully understand the
assignment. You should also refer to your textbook and other resources. 1. Update Part 1 of the assignment Apart from what you see appropriate, you should note
the feedback that you have received during your presentation as well as in your written report on part 1 of the case study and adjust as necessary. (Please allow at
least couple of weeks before your tutor returns marked part-1 assignment to you. So, it is suggested that you start doing part 2 of the assignment earlier rather
than later, and do not wait for part-1 of assignment to be marked because it might be too late to complete part-2 of the assignment by the time you get your marks
back from your tutor. Remember, you can always revise part-1 as well as your part-2 of the assignment when you have a draft submission ready). 2. Develop a
Context Diagram for your system If you are not clear what a...

Attach 1334

1335

Consider two recent security breaches popular in the media. Analyze these in the context of what you learned in week 1 (namely assumptions,

convenience, cost and simplicity) along with the six dumb ideas. (see below)

Your output should be a word document or pdf file with one paragraph devoted to your comments related to assumptions, convenience, cost and simplicity. And a
second paragraph related to the "six dumb ideas" with respect to the security breach.

You should cite your sources of information for that content. I want your own thoughts and ideas - so do not paraphrase someone else. Tell me what you really
think and support your idea with references.

The "Six Dumb Ideas" will be discussed during an online session. You can review them here http://www.ranum.com/security/computer_security/editorials/dumb/

1336

What is the diff between object and refrance ?

1337

Here is the attached copy of the document. Its an partially completed document and was submitted to the professor. Professor suggested the following

changes in it. I want the document to be finished according to the professor.If want to the idea and content in the before pages you can and make it the best
according.The main moto of this paper is to present an idea in the paper with some recent algorithms and their implementation in medical field.

Attach 1337

1338

4.Quality Management in Software Engineering is also known as

1339

1. Show how a structure of the form

while X equals 0 do;

.

.

.

end;

can be simulated with Bare Bones.

Write a Bare Bones program that places a 1 in the variable Z if the variable X is less than or equal to the

variable Y, and places a 0 in the variable Z otherwise.

1340

2.

Write a Bare Bones program that places the Xth power of 2 in the variable Z.

2.

In each of the following cases write a program sequence in Bare Bones that performs the indicated activity:

4.

1341

1.

Assign 0 to Z if the value of X is even; otherwise assign 1 to Z.

2.

Calculate the sum of the integers from 0 to X.

Write a Bare Bones routine that divides the value of X by the value of Y. Disregard any remainder; that is, 1 divided by 2 produces 0, and

5 divided by 3 produces 1.

4.

Describe the function computed by the following Bare Bones program, assuming the function’s inputs are represented by X and Y and its output by Z:

copy X to Z; copy Y to Aux;

while Aux not 0 do; decr Z;

decr Aux; end;

1342

6. Describe the function computed by the following Bare Bones program, assuming the function’s inputs are represented by X and Y and its output by

Z:

clear Z;

copy X to Aux1; copy Y to Aux2;

while Aux1 not 0 do; while Aux2 not 0 do;

decr Z; decr Aux2;

end;

decr Aux1; end;

1343

Write a Bare Bones program that computes the exclusive of the variables X and Y, leaving the result in the variable Z. You might assume that X and Y

start only with integer values of 0 and 1.

1344

8.Show that if we allow instructions in a Bare Bones program to be labeled with integer values and replace the while loop structure with the conditional

branch represented by the form

if name not 0 goto label;

where name is any variable and label is an integer value used elsewhere to label an instruction, then the new language will still be a universal programming
language.

1345

9. In this chapter we saw how the statement

copy name1 to name2 ;

could be simulated in Bare Bones. Show how that statement could still be simulated if the while loop structure in Bare Bones were replaced with a posttest loop
expressed in the form

repeat ... until (name equals 0)

1346

10.Show that the Bare Bones language would remain a universal language if the while statement were replaced with a posttest loop expressed in the

form

repeat ... until (name equals 0)

1347

11.Design a Turing machine that once started will use no more than a single cell on its tape but will never reach its halt state.

12.Design a Turing machine that places 0s in all the cells to the left of the current cell until it reaches a cell containing an asterisk.

1348

Suppose a pattern of 0s and 1s on the tape of a Turing machine is delimited by asterisks at either end. Design a Turing machine that rotates this

pattern one cell to the left, assuming that the machine starts with the current cell being the asterisk at the right end of the pattern.

1349

14. Design a Turing machine that reverses the pattern of 0s and 1s that it finds between the current cell (which contains an asterisk) and the first
asterisk to the left.

15. Summarize the Church–Turing thesis.

1350

16. Is the following Bare Bones program self-terminating? Explain your answer.

copy X to Y; incr Y;

incr Y;

while X not 0 do; decr X;

decr X; decr Y; decr Y;

end; decr Y;

while Y not 0 do; incr X;

decr Y; end;

while X not 0 do; end;

1351

17. Is the following Bare Bones program self-terminating? Explain your answer.

while X not 0 do; end;

18. Is the following Bare Bones program self-terminating? Explain your answer.

while X not 0 do; decr X;

end;

1352

19. Analyze the validity of the following pair of statements:

The next statement is true.

The previous statement is false.

1353

20. Analyze the validity of the statement “The cook on a ship cooks for all those and only those who do not cook for themselves.” (Who cooks for the
cook?)

21. Suppose you were in a country where each person was either a truth teller or a liar.

(A truth teller always tells the truth, a liar always lies.) What single question could you ask a person that would allow you to

detect whether that person was a truth teller or a liar?

1354

22.Summarize the significance of Turing machines in the field of theoretical computer science.

23. Summarize the significance of the halting problem in the field of theoretical computer science.

24. Suppose you needed to find out if anyone in a group of people had a birthday on a partic- ular date. One approach would be to ask the members
one at a time. If you took this approach, the occurrence of what event would tell you that there was such a person? What event would tell you that
there was no such person? Now suppose that you wanted to find out if at least one of the positive inte- gers has a particular property and you applied
the same approach of systematically testing the integers one at a time. If, in fact, some integer has the property, how would you find out? If, however,
no integer has the property, how would you find out? Is the task of testing to see if a conjecture is true neces- sarily symmetric with the task of testing
to see if it is false?

1355

25.

Is the problem of searching through a list for a particular value a polynomial problem? Justify your answer.

25.

Design an algorithm for deciding whether a given positive integer is prime. Is your solu- tion efficient? Is your solution a polynomial or nonpolynomial
one?

25.

Is a polynomial solution to a problem always better than an exponential solution? Explain your answer.

28.

Does the fact that a problem has a polynomial solution mean that it can always be solved in a practical amount of time? Explain your answer.

28.

Charlie Programmer is given the problem of dividing a group (of an even number of peo- ple) into two disjoint subgroups of equal size so that the

1356

difference between the total ages of each subgroup is as large as possible. He proposes the solution of forming all possible subgroup pairs,
computing the difference between the age totals of each pair, and selecting the pair with the largest difference. Mary Programmer, on the other hand,
pro- poses that the original group first be sorted by age and then divided into two subgroups by forming one subgroup from the younger half of the
sorted group and the other from the older half. What is the complexity of each of these solutions? Is the problem

itself of polynomial, NP, or nonpolynomial complexity?

1357

30.

Why is the approach of generating all possible arrangements of a list and then picking the one with the desired arrangement not a satis- factory way to
sort a list?

30.

Suppose a lottery is based on correctly picking four integer values, each in the range from 1 to 50. Moreover, suppose that the jackpot grows so large
that it becomes profitable to buy a separate lottery ticket for each possible combination. If it takes one second to buy a single ticket, how long

would it take to buy one ticket for each combi- nation? How would the time requirement change if the lottery required picking five numbers instead of four? What
does this prob- lem have to do with the material from this chapter?

1358

32.

Is the following algorithm deterministic? Explain your answer.

40.

Suppose you are given two algorithms for solving the same problem. One algorithm has

4

procedure mystery (Number)time complexity n and the other has time if (Number > 5) then (answer “yes”) else(pick a value less than 5 and give this number as
the answer)

1359

34.

Identify the points of nondeterminism in the following algorithm:

Select three numbers between 1 and 100.

if (the sum of the selected numbers is

greater than 150)

then (answer “yes”)

else (select one of the chosen numbers and give that number as the answer)

1360

34.

Does the following algorithm have a polyno- mial or nonpolynomial time complexity? Explain your answer.

procedure mystery (ListOfNumbers) Pick a collection of numbers from

ListOfNumbers.

if (the numbers in that collection add to 125)

then (answer “yes”)

else (do not give an answer)

1361

Which of the following problems are in the class P?

1.

A problem with complexity n 2

2.

A problem with complexity 3 n

3.

A problem with complexity n 2 + 2 n

4.

A problem with complexity n !

34.

Summarize the distinction between stating that a problem is a polynomial problem and stating that it is a nondeterministic polynomial problem.

34.

Give an example of a problem that is in both the class P and the class NP.

1362

complexity 4n. For what size inputs is the

former more efficient than the latter?

1363

Suppose we were faced with solving the traveling salesman problem in a context involving 15 cities in which any two cities were connected by a

unique road. How many different paths through the cities would there be? How long would it take to compute the length of all of these paths assuming that the
length of a path can be computed in one microsecond?

1364

40.

How many comparisons between names are made if the merge sort algorithm (Figures 12.9 and 12.8) is applied to the list Alice, Bob, Carol, and
David? How many are required if the list is Alice, Bob, Carol, David, and Elaine?

40.

Give an example of a problem in each of the categories represented in Figure 12.12.

40.

Design an algorithm for finding integer solutions for equations of the form x 2 + y 2 = n , where n is some given positive integer. Determine the time

1365

complexity of your algorithm.

40.

Another problem that falls in the NP-complete category is the knapsack problem, which is the problem of finding which numbers from a list are the
ones whose sum is a particular value. For example, the numbers 257, 388, and 782 are the entries in the list

642 257 771 388 391 782 304

whose sum is 1427. Find the entries whose sum is 1723. What algorithm did you apply? What is the complexity of that algorithm?

1366

40.

Identify similarities between the traveling salesman problem and the knapsack problem (see Problem 45).

40.

The following algorithm for sorting a list is called the bubble sort. How many compar- isons between list entries does the bubble sort require when
applied to a list of n entries?

procedure BubbleSort (List) Counter ← 1;

while (Counter

[N ← the number of entries in List;

while (N > 1) do

( if (the Nth List entry is less than the entry preceding it)

then (interchange the Nth entry

with the preceding entry); N ← N - 1

)

]

1367

40.

Use RSA public-key encryption to encrypt the message 110 using the public keys n = 91 and e = 5.

40.

Use RSA public-key encryption to decrypt the message 111 using the private keys n = 133 and d = 5.

40.

Suppose you know that the public keys to a public-key encryption system based on the RSA algorithm are n = 77 and e = 7. What are the private
keys? What allows you to solve this problem in a reasonable amount of time?

1368

40.

Find the factors of 107,531. How does this problem relate to this chapter?

40.

What can be concluded if the positive integer n has no integer factors in the range from 2 to the square root of n ? What does this tell you about the
task of finding the factors of a positive integer?

1369

1.

2.

Suppose the best algorithm for solving a problem would require 100 years to execute. Would you consider the problem to be tractable? Why?

Should citizens have the right to encrypt messages in such a manner that precludes monitoring from government agencies? Does your answer
provide for “proper” law enforcement? Who should decide what “proper” law enforce- ment is?

1370

If the human mind is an algorithmic device, what consequences does Turing’s thesis have in regard to humanity? To what extent do you believe that

Turing machines encompass the computational abilities of the human mind?

1371

We have seen that there are different computational models (finite tables, alge- braic formulae, Turing machines, and so on) having different

computational abilities. Are there differences in the computational capabilities of different organisms? Are there differences in the computational capabilities of
differ- ent humans? If so, should humans with higher abilities be able to use those abilities to obtain higher lifestyles?

1372

5.

Today there are websites that provide road maps of most cities. These sites assist in finding particular addresses and provide zooming capabilities for
view- ing the layout of small neighborhoods. Starting with this reality, consider the following fictitious sequence. Suppose these map sites were
enhanced with satellite photographs with similar zooming capabilities. Suppose these zooming capabilities were increased to give a more detailed
image of individual build- ings and the surrounding landscape. Suppose these images were enhanced to include real-time video. Suppose these video
images were enhanced with infrared technology. At this point others could watch you inside your own home 24 hours a day. At what point in this
progression were your privacy rights first violated? At what point in this progression do you think we moved

beyond the capabilities of current spy-satellite technology? To what degree is this scenario fictitious?

1373

6. Suppose a company develops and patents an encryption system. Should the national government of the company have the right to use the system

as it sees fit in the name of national security? Should the national government of the company have the right to restrict the company’s commercial use of the
system in the name of national security? What if the company is a multina- tional organization?

1374

7. Suppose you buy a product whose internal structure is encrypted. Do you have the right to decrypt the underlying structure? If so, do you have the

right to use that information in a commercial manner? What about a noncommer- cial manner? What if the encryption was done using a secret encryption system, and you discover the secret. Do you have the right to share that secret?

1375

8. Some years ago the philosopher John Dewey (1859–1952) introduced the term “responsible technology.” Give some examples of what you would

con- sider to be “responsible technology.” Based on your examples, formulate your own definition of “responsible technology.” Has society practiced “responsible
technology” over the last 100 years? Should actions be taken to ensure that it does? If so, what actions? If not, why?

1376

1. As demonstrated in Section 11.2, humans might use a question for a purpose other than asking. Another example is “Do you know that your tire is

flat?” which is used to inform rather than to ask. Give examples of questions used to reassure, to warn, and to criticize.

1377

2.

Analyze a soda dispensing machine as an agent. What are its sensors? What are its actu- ators? What level of response (reflex, knowl- edge based,
goal based) does it exhibit?

2.

1378

Identify each of the following responses as being reflex, knowledge based, or goal based. Justify your answers.

1.

A computer program translating text from German to English

2.

A thermostat turning on the furnace when the temperature in a house drops below the current setting

3.

A pilot landing a plane safely on a runway

If a researcher uses computer models for studying the memorization capabilities of the human mind, do the programs developed for the machine

necessarily memorize to the best of the machine’s abilities? Explain.

1379

5.

Give some examples of declarative knowledge. Give some examples of procedural knowledge.

*6. In the context of object-oriented program- ming, what parts of an object are used to store declarative knowledge? What parts are used to store procedural
knowledge?

1379

Which of the following activities do you expect to be performance oriented and which are simulation oriented?

1.

The design of an automated shuttle system (often used at airports between terminals)

2.

The design of a model predicting the path of a hurricane

3.

The design of a Web search database used to derive and maintain indices for docu- ments stored on the World Wide Web

4.

The design of a model of a nation’s econ- omy for testing theories

5.

The design of a program for monitoring a patient’s vital signs

1380

Today, some telephone calls to businesses are handled by automated answering sys- tems that use speech and voice recognition to converse with

the caller. Do these systems pass the Turing test? Explain your answer.

1381

7.

Identify a small set of geometric properties that can be used to distinguish between the symbols F, E, L, and T.

*10. Describe the similarities between the tech- nique of identifying characteristics by compar- ing them to templates and the error-correcting codes discussed in
Chapter 1.

1382

11.

Compare the roles of the prepositional phrases in the following two sentences (which differ by only one word). How could a machine be pro- grammed
to make such distinctions?

The pigpen was built by the barn. The pigpen was built by the farmer.

1383

11.

How do the results of parsing the following two sentences differ? How do the results of semantic analysis differ?

An awesome sunset was seen by Andrea. Andrea saw an awesome sunset.

1384

11.

How do the results of parsing the following two sentences differ? How do the results of semantic analysis differ?

If X

If X > 10 then add 1 to X else subtract 1 from X.

1385

In the text we briefly discussed the problems of understanding natural languages as opposed to formal programming languages. As an example of the

complexities involved in the case of nat- ural languages, identify situations in which the question “Do you know what time it is?” has different meanings.

1386

Changes in the context of a sentence can change the significance of the sentence as well as its meaning. In the context of Figure 11.3, how would the

significance of the sentence “Mary hit John” change if the birth dates were in the late 2000s? What if one were in the 1980s and the other in the late 2000s?

1387

11.

Draw a semantic net representing the infor- mation in the following paragraph.

Donna threw the ball to Jack, who hit it into center field. The center fielder tried to catch it, but it bounced off the wall instead.

1388

Sometimes the ability to answer a question depends as much on knowing the limits of knowledge as it does on the facts themselves. For example,

suppose databases A and B both contain a complete list of employees who belong to the company’s health insurance pro- gram, but only database A is aware that
the list is complete. What could database A con- clude about a member who was not on its list that database B could not?

1389

11.

Give an example in which the closed-world assumption leads to a contradiction.

11.

Give two examples where the closed-world assumption is commonly used.

11.

In the context of a production system, what is the difference between a state graph and a search tree?

11.

Analyze the task of solving the Rubik’s cube in terms of a production system. (What are the states, the productions, and so on?)

11.

a. Suppose a search tree is a binary tree and reaching the goal requires eight produc- tions. What is the largest number of nodes that could be in the

1390

tree when the goal state is reached if the tree is constructed with a breadth-first manner?

b. Explain how the total number of nodes con- sidered during the search could be reduced by conducting two searches at the same time—one beginning at the
initial state while the other searches backward from the goal— until the two meet. (Assume that the search tree recording the states found in the back- ward
search is also a binary tree and that both searches progress at the same rate.)

1391

In the text we mentioned that a production system is often used as a technique for draw- ing conclusions from known facts. The states of the system

are the facts known to be true at each stage of the reasoning process, and the productions are the rules of logic for manipu- lating the known facts. Identify some
rules of logic that allow the conclusion “John is tall” to be obtained from the facts that “John is a bas- ketball player,” “Basketball players are not short,” and “John is
either short or tall.”

1392

Draw the search tree that is generated by the best-fit algorithm of Figure 11.10 in an attempt to solve the eight-puzzle from the start state in Problem

28 if the number of tiles out of place is used as a heuristic.

1393

29.

Draw the search tree that is generated by the best-fit algorithm of Figure 11.10 in an attempt to solve the eight-puzzle from the following start state,
assuming the heuristic used is the same as that developed in Section 11.3.

1

2

3

5

7

4

6
8

1394

What is the distinction between the technique of deciding which half of the list to consider when performing a binary search (Section 5.5) and deciding

which branch to pursue when performing a heuristic search?

1395

29.

Note that if a state in the state graph of a pro-

26.

Analyze the game of checkers as a production system and describe a heuristic that could be used to determine which of two states is
closer to the goal. How would the control system in this setting differ from that of a one-person game such as the eight-puzzle?

1396

By considering the manipulation rules of alge- bra as productions, problems involving the sim- plification of algebraic expressions can be solved in the

context of a production system. Identify a set of algebraic productions that allow the equation 3/(2 x - 1) = 6/(3 x + 1) to be reduced to the form x = 3. What are
some rules of thumb (that is, heuristic rules) used when performing such algebraic simplifications?

1397

26.

Draw the search tree that is generated by a breadth-first search in an attempt to solve the eight-puzzle from the following start

duction system has an extremely low heuristic value in comparison to the other states and if there is a production from that state to itself, the algorithm in Figure
11.10 can get caught in the loop of considering that state over and over again. Show that if the cost of executing any production in the system is at least one, then
by computing the projected cost to be the sum of the heuristic value plus the cost of reaching the state along the path being traversed, this endless looping
process will be avoided.

1398

The A* algorithm modifies the best-fist algo- rithm in two significant ways. First, it records the actual cost to reach a state. In the case of a route on a

map, the actual cost is the dis- tance traveled. Second, when selecting a node to expand, it chooses the node whose sum of the actual cost plus heuristic value is
the smallest. Draw the search tree of Problem 35 that would result from these two modifica- tions. Record in each node the distance trav- eled to the city, the
heuristic value to reach the goal, and their sum. What is the found path from Dearborn to Wildwood?

1399

29.

List two properties that a heuristic should have if it is to be useful in a production system.

29.

Suppose you have two buckets. One has a capacity of exactly three liters; the other has a capacity of five liters. You can pour water from one bucket
to another, empty a bucket, or fill a bucket at any time. Your problem is to place exactly four liters of water in the five- liter bucket. Describe how this
problem could be framed as a production system.

1400

Suppose your job is to supervise the loading of two trucks, each of which can carry at most fourteen tons. The cargo is a variety of crates whose total

weight is twenty-eight tons but whose individual weights vary from crate to crate. The weight of each crate is marked on its side. What heuristic would you use for
dividing the crates between the two trucks?

1401

29.

Which of the following are examples of meta-reasoning?

1.

He has been gone long so he must have gone far.

2.

Since I usually make the wrong decision and the last two decisions I made were cor- rect, I will reverse my next decision.

3.

I am getting tired so I am probably not thinking clearly.

4.

I am getting tired so I think I will take a nap.

29.

Describe how a human’s ability to solve the frame problem helps the human find lost articles.

29.

a. In what sense is learning by imitation simi- lar to learning by supervised training?

1402

b. In what sense is learning by imitation dif- ferent from learning by supervised training?

1403

Design an artificial neural network for an asso- ciative memory (as discussed in Section 11.5) consisting of a rectangular array of neurons that tries to

move toward stable patterns in which a single vertical column of neurons is excited.

1404

Adjust the weights and threshold values in the artificial neural network in Figure 11.18 so that its output is 1 when both inputs are the same (both 0 or

both 1) and 0 when the inputs are different (one being 0 while the other is 1).

1405

29.

Draw a diagram similar to Figure 11.5 repre- senting the process of simplifying the alge- braic expression 7 x + 3 = 3 x - 5 to the expression x = -2.

29.

Expand your answer to the previous problem to show other paths that a control system might pursue when attempting to solve the problem.

1406

Draw a diagram similar to Figure 11.5 repre- senting the reasoning process involved when concluding that “Polly can fly” from the initial facts “Polly is

a parrot,” “A parrot is a bird,” and “All birds can fly.”

1407

In contrast to the statement in the preceding problem, some birds, such as an ostrich or a robin with a broken wing, cannot fly. However, it would not

seem reasonable to construct a deductive reasoning system in which all the exceptions to the statement “All birds can fly” are explicitly listed. How then do we as
humans decide whether a particular bird can or cannot fly?

1408

29.

Explain how the meaning of the sentence “I read the new tax law” depends on the context.

29.

Describe how the problem of traveling from one city to another could be framed as a pro- duction system. What are the states? What are the
productions?

1409

29.

Suppose you must perform three tasks, A, B, and C, that can be performed in any order

(but not simultaneously). Describe how this problem can be framed as a production sys- tem and draw its state graph.

1410

29.

How does the state graph in the previous problem change if task C must be performed before task B?

29.

a. If the notation ( i, j ), where i and j are posi- tive integers, is used to mean “if the entry in the i th position in the list is greater than the entry in the j th
position, interchange the two entries,” which of the following two sequences does a better job of sorting a list of length three?

(1, 3) (3, 2)

(1, 2) (2, 3) (1, 2)

b. Note that by representing sequences of interchanges in this manner, sequences can be broken into sub-sequences that can then be reconnected to form new
sequences. Use this approach to describe a genetic algorithm for developing a program that sorts lists of length ten.

1411

Suppose each member in a group of robots is to be equipped with a pair of sensors. Each sensor can detect an object directly in front of it within a

range of two meters. Each robot is shaped like a round trash can and can move in any direction. Design a sequence of experi- ments to determine where the
sensors should be placed to produce a robot that successfully pushes a basketball in a straight line. How does your sequence of experiments compare to an
evolutionary system?

1412

29.

Do you tend to make decisions in a reactive or plan-based mode? Does your answer depend on whether you are deciding on what to have for lunch
or making a

career decision?

1413

To what extent should researchers in nuclear power, genetic engineering, and artificial intelligence be held responsible for the way the results of their

work

are used? Is a scientist responsible for the knowledge revealed by his or her research? What if the resulting knowledge was an unexpected consequence?

1414

1.

How would you distinguish between intelligence and simulated intelli- gence? Do you believe there is a difference?

2.

Suppose a computerized medical expert system gains a reputation within the medical community for giving sound advice. To what extent should a
physi- cian allow that system to alter his or her decisions regarding the treatment of patients? If the physician applies a treatment contrary to that proposed by
the expert system and the system turns out to be right, is the physician guilty of malpractice? In general, if an expert system becomes well-known within a
field, to what degree could it hamper, rather than enhance, the abil- ity of human experts when making their own judgments?

1415

Many would argue that a computer’s actions are merely consequences of how it was programmed, and thus a computer cannot possess free will. In

turn, a computer should not be held responsible for its actions. Is a human’s mind a computer? Are humans preprogrammed at birth? Are humans pro- grammed
by their environments? Are humans responsible for their actions?

1416

Are there avenues that science should not pursue even though it might be capable of doing so? For instance, if it becomes possible to construct a

machine with perception and reasoning skills comparable to those of humans, would the construction of such a machine be appropriate? What issues could the
existence of such a machine raise? What are some of the issues being raised today by advancements in other scientific fields?

1417

History abounds with instances in which the work of scientists and artists was affected by the political, religious, or other social influences of their

times. In what ways are such issues affecting current scientific efforts? What about computer science in particular?

1418

Many cultures today take at least some responsibility toward helping to retrain those whose jobs have been made redundant by advancing technol-

ogy. What should/can society do as technology makes more and more of our capabilities redundant?

1419

7.

Suppose you receive a computer-generated bill for $0.00. What should you do? Suppose you do nothing and 30 days later you receive a second
notice of

$0.00 due in your account. What should you do? Suppose you do nothing and 30 days later you receive another notice of $0.00 due in your account along with a
note stating that, unless the bill is paid promptly, legal action will be taken. Who is in charge?

1420

Are there times when you associate personalities with your personal com- puter? Are there times when it seems vindictive or stubborn? Do you ever

get mad at your computer? What is the difference between being mad at your computer and being mad as a result of your computer? Does your com- puter ever
get mad at you? Do you have similar relationships with other objects such as cars, televisions, and ball-point pens?

1421

On the basis of your answers to Question 9, to what extent are humans will- ing to associate an entity’s behavior with the presence of intelligence and

awareness? To what extent should humans make such associations? Is it pos- sible for an intelligent entity to reveal its intelligence in some way other than its
behavior?

1422

Many feel that the ability to pass the Turing test does not imply that a machine is intelligent. One argument is that intelligent behavior does not, in

itself, imply intelligence. Yet the theory of evolution is based on the survival of the fittest, which is a behavior-based test. Does the theory of evolution imply that
intelli- gent behavior is a predecessor to intelligence? Would the ability to pass the Turing test imply that machines were on their way to becoming intelligent?

1423

Medical treatment has advanced to the point that numerous parts of the human body can now be replaced with artificial parts or parts from human

donors. It is conceivable that this might someday include parts of the brain. What ethical problems would such capabilities raise? If a patient’s neurons were
replaced one at a time with artificial neurons, would the patient remain the same person? Would the patient ever notice a difference? Would the patient remain
human?

1424

A GPS in an automobile provides a friendly voice notifying the driver of upcoming turns and other actions. In the event the driver makes a mistake, it

will automatically make adjustments and provide directions to get back on route without undue emotion. Do you feel that a GPS reduces a driver’s stress when
driving to a new destination? In what ways does a GPS con- tribute to stress?

1425

Suppose your smartphone provided voice-to-voice language translation, would you feel comfortable using this feature? Would you trust it to convey

the correct meaning? Would you have any concerns?

1426

Could any four points in three-dimensional space be the vertices of a patch in a polygonal mesh? Explain your answer.

11.

1427

Each collection that follows represents the vertices (using the traditional rectangular coordinate system) of a patch in a polygonal mesh.

Describe the shape of the mesh.

Patch

Patch

Patch

Patch

Patch

1: (0,

0,

0)

(0,

2,

0)

(2,

2,

0)

(2,

0,

0)

2: (0,

0,

0)

(1,

1,

1)

(2,

0,

0)

3: (2,

0,

0)

(1,

1,

1)

(2,

2,

0)

4: (2,

2,

0)

(1,

1,

1)

(0,

2,

0)

5: (0,

2,

0)

(1,

1,

1)

(0,

0,

0)

Q

1428

Each collection that follows represents the vertices (using the traditional rectangular coordinate system) of a patch in a polygonal mesh. Describe the

shape of the mesh.

Patch

Patch

1: (0,

0,

0)

(0,

4,

0)

(2,

4,

0)

(2,

0,

0)

2: (0,

0,

0)

(0,

4,

0)

Patch

Patch

Patch

12.

(1,

4,

1)

(1,

0,

1)

3: (2,

0,

0)

(1,

0,

1)

(1,

4,

1)

(2,

4,

0)

4: (0,

0,

0)

(1,

0,

1)

(2,

0,

0)

5: (2,

4,

0)

(1,

4,

1)

(0,

4,

0)

Design a polygonal mesh representing a rectangular solid. Use the traditional rectangular coordinate system to encode the vertices and draw a sketch
representing your solution.

1429

Using no more than eight triangular patches, design a polygonal mesh to approximate the shape of a sphere with radius one. (With only eight patches,

your mesh will be a very rough approximation of a sphere, but the goal is for you to display an understanding of what a polygonal mesh is rather than to produce a
precise representation of a sphere.) Represent the vertices of your patches using the tradi- tional rectangular coordinate system and draw a sketch of your mesh.

13.

Why would the following four points not be the vertices of a planar patch?

(0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0)

(0, 1, 0) (0, 0, 1)

1430

17. Suppose the points (1, 0, 0), (1, 1, 1), and (1, 0, 2) are the vertices of a planar patch. Which of the following line segments is/are normal to the

surface of the patch?

1.

The line segment from (1, 0, 0) to (1, 1, 0)

2.

The line segment from (1, 1, 1) to (2, 1, 1)

3.

The line segment from (1, 0, 2) to (0, 0, 2)

4.

The line segment from (1, 0, 0) to (1, 1, 1)

1431

18.

Identify two “types” of procedure models.

18.

Between the processes of modeling and rendering, which is the more

1.

standardized task?

2.

computationally intense task?

3.

creative task? Justify your answers.

1432

18.

Which of the following might be represented in a scene graph?

1.

Light sources

2.

Inanimate props

3.

Characters/actors

4.

Camera

18.

In what sense is the creation of a scene graph a pivotal step in the 3D graphics process?

18.

What complications are introduced by the fact that the camera in a scene graph may change locations and orientations?

18.

Suppose the surface of the planar patch with vertices (0, 0, 0), (0, 2, 0), (2, 2, 0), and (2, 0, 0) is smooth and shiny. If a light ray originates at the point

1433

(0, 0, 1) and strikes the surface at

(1, 1, 0), through which of the following points will the reflected ray pass?

a. (0, 0, 1)

b. (1, 1, 1)

c. (2, 2, 1)

d. (3, 3, 1)

1434

18.

Suppose a buoy supports a light ten feet above the surface of still water. At what point on

the water’s surface will an observer see the reflection of the light if the observer is fifteen feet from the buoy and five feet above the water’s surface?

1435

If a fish is swimming below the surface of still water and an observer is viewing the fish from above the water, where will the fish appear to be from the

observer’s position?

1.

Above and toward the background of its true position

2.

At the true position

3.

Below and toward the foreground of its true position

1436

26. Suppose the points (1, 0, 0), (1, 1, 1), and (1, 0, 2) are the vertices of a planar patch and the vertices are listed in a counter-clockwise order as

seen from outside the object. In each case that follows, indicate whether a ray of light originating at the given point would strike the surface of the patch from
outside or inside the object.

a. (0, 0, 0)

b. (2, 0, 0)

c. (2, 1, 1)

d. (3, 2, 1)

27.

Give an example in which an object outside the view volume could still appear in the final image. Explain your answer.

27.

Describe the contents and purpose of a z-buffer.

1437

27.

In our discussion of hidden-surface removal, we described the procedure for solving the “foreground/background” problem with the aid of a z-buffer.
Express that procedure using the pseudocode introduced in Chapter 5.

1438

27.

Suppose the surface of an object is covered by alternating orange and blue vertical stripes, each of which is one centimeter wide. If the object is
positioned in a scene so that the pixel positions are associated with points on the object spaced at two-centimeter intervals, what would be the
possible appearances of the object in the final image? Explain your answer.

27.

Although texture mapping and bump mapping are means of associating “texture” with a surface, they are considerably different techniques. Write a
short paragraph comparing the two.

1439

27.

List four steps in the rendering pipeline and give a brief definition of each.

27.

What are some advantages to using a hard- ware/firmware implementation of the render- ing pipeline?

27.

In what way does the hardware in a computer designed for interactive video games differ from that of a general-purpose PC?

27.

What is a significant limitation of the tradi- tional rendering pipeline?

27.

What is the distinction between a local light- ing model and a global lighting model?

27.

What advantage does ray tracing have over the traditional rendering pipeline? What disadvan- tage does it have?

1440

1441

27.

What advantage does distributed ray tracing have over traditional ray tracing? What disad- vantage does it have?

27.

What advantage does radiosity have over the traditional rendering pipeline? What disadvan- tage does it have?

27.

If an image of a scene produced by traditional ray tracing were compared to a similar image of the same scene produced by radiosity, how would the

1442

two images compare?

27.

How many frames would be required to pro- duce a ninety-minute animated production to be shown in a motion picture theater?

27.

Describe how a particle system might be used to produce an animation of flickering fire flames.

27.

Explain how the use of a z-buffer could assist when creating an animation sequence depicting a single object moving within a scene.

27.

What are some distinctions between the tasks of human animators today and human anima- tors in the past?

1443

1444

Suppose computer animation reaches the point that real actors are no longer needed in the motion picture and television industries. What would the

conse- quences be? What would be the ripple effect of no longer having “movie stars”?

1445

With the development of digital cameras and related software, the ability to alter or fabricate photographs has been placed within the capabilities of

the general public. What changes will this bring to society? What ethical and legal issues could arise?

1446

To what extent should photographs be owned? Suppose a person places his or her photograph on a Web site and someone else downloads that

photograph, alters it so that the subject is in a compromising situation, and circulates the altered version. What recourse should the subject of the photograph
have?

1447

To what extent is a programmer who helps develop a violent video game responsible for any consequences of that game? Should children’s access to

video games be restricted? If so, how and by whom? What about other groups in society, such as convicted criminals?

1448

Which of the following are applications of 2D graphics and which are applications of 3D graphics?

1.

Designing the layout of magazine pages

2.

Drawing an image using Microsoft Paint

3.

Producing images from a virtual world for a video game

1449

In the context of 3D graphics, what corresponds to each of the following items from traditional photography? Explain your answers.

1.

Film

2.

Rectangle in viewfinder

3.

Scene being photographed

3.

When using a perspective projection, under what conditions will a sphere in the scene not produce a circle on the projection plane?

3.

When using a perspective projection, can the image of a straight line segment ever be a curved line segment on the projection plane? Justify your

1450

answer.

1451

Suppose one end of an eight-foot straight pole is four feet from the center of projection. Moreover, suppose that a straight line from the center of

projection to one end of the pole intersects the projection plane at a point that is one foot from the center of projection. If the pole is parallel to the projection plane,
how long is the image of the pole in the projection plane?

1452

6.

Explain the distinction between a parallel projection and a perspective projection.

6.

Explain the relationship between the image window and the frame buffer.

6.

What is a significant difference between applying 3D graphics to produce a motion picture and applying 3D graphics to produce the animation for an
interactive video game? Explain your answer.

1453

Identify some properties of an object that might be incorporated in a model of that object for use in a 3D graphics scene. Identify some properties that

would probably not be represented in the model. Explain your answer.

1454

Identify some physical properties of an object that are not captured by a model containing only a polygonal mesh. (Thus, a polygonal mesh alone does

not constitute a complete model of the object.) Explain how one of those properties could be added to the object’s model.

1455

Summarize the distinction between a flat file and a database.

1.

What is meant by data independence?

2.

What is the role of a DBMS in the layered approach to a database implementation?

3.

What is the difference between a schema and a subschema?

4.

Identify two benefits of separating application software from the DBMS.

5.

Describe the similarities between an abstract data type (Chapter 8) and a database model.

1456

Identify the level within a database system (user, programmer of application software, designer of the DBMS software) at which each of the following

concerns or activities occur:

1457

1.

How should data be stored on a disk to maximize efficiency?

2.

Is there a vacancy on flight 243?

3.

How should a relation be organized in mass storage?

4.

How many times should a user be allowed to mistype a password before the conversa- tion is terminated?

5.

How can the PROJECT operation be imple- mented?

Which of the following tasks are handled by a DBMS?

1.

Ensure that a user’s access to the database is restricted to the appropriate subschema.

2.

Translate commands stated in terms of the database model into actions compatible with the actual data storage system.

3.

Disguise the fact that the data in the data- base is actually scattered among many computers in a network.

7.

Describe how the following information about airlines, flights (for a particular day), and pas- sengers would be represented in a relational database:

1458

parts and their manufacturers in terms of the following database:

Airlines: Clear Sky, Long Hop, and Tree Top Flights for Clear Sky: CS205, CS37, and CS102 Flights for Long Hop: LH67 and LH89

Flights for Tree Top: TT331 and TT809

Smith has reservations on CS205 (seat 12B), CS37 (seat 18C), and LH 89 (seat 14A).

Baker has reservations on CS37 (seat 18B) and LH89 (seat 14B).

Clark has reservations on LH67 (seat 5A) and TT331 (seat 4B).

1459

To what extent is the order in which SELECT and PROJECT operations are applied to a relation significant? That is, under what conditions will

SELECTing and then PROJECTing produce the same results as first PROJECTing and then SELECTing?

1460

Give an argument showing that the “where” clause in the JOIN operation as described in Section 9.2 is not necessary. (That is, show that any query

that uses a “where” clause could be restated using a JOIN operation that concatenated every tuple in one relation with every tuple in the other.)

1461

11.

Using the commands SELECT, PROJECT, and JOIN, write a sequence of instructions to answer each of the following questions about

MANUFACTURER relation
Company Name Part Name Cost
Company X

Bolt 2Z

.03

Company X

Nut V5

.01

Company Y

Bolt 2X

.02

Company Y

Nut V5

.01

Company Y

Bolt 2Z

.04

Nut V5

.01

Company Z

1463

1.

Which companies make Bolt 2Z?

2.

Obtain a list of the parts made by Company X along with each part’s cost.

3.

Which companies make a part with weight 1?

Using the commands SELECT, PROJECT, and JOIN, write sequences to answer the follow- ing questions about the information in the EMPLOYEE,

JOB, and ASSIGNMENT relations in Figure 9.5:

1.

Obtain a list of the names and addresses of the company’s employees.

2.

Obtain a list of the names and addresses of those who have worked or are working in the personnel department.

3.

Obtain a list of the names and addresses of those who are working in the personnel department.

1464

13.

Design a relational database containing infor- mation about music composers, their lives, and their compositions. (Avoid redundancies similar to those
in Figure 9.4.)

13.

Design a relational database containing infor- mation about music performers, their record- ings, and the composers of the music they recorded.
(Avoid redundancies similar to those in Figure 9.4.)

1465

15.

Design a relational database containing infor- mation about manufacturers of computing equipment and their products. (Avoid redun- dancies similar
to those in Figure 9.4.)

15.

Design a relational database containing infor- mation about publishers, magazines, and sub- scribers. (Avoid redundancies similar to those in Figure
9.4.)

1466

Design a relational database containing infor- mation about parts, suppliers, and customers. Each part might be supplied by several suppli- ers and

ordered by many customers. Each supplier might supply many parts and have many customers. Each customer might order many parts from many suppliers; in
fact, the same part might be ordered from more than one supplier. (Avoid redundancies similar to those in Figure 9.4.)

1467

18.

Write a sequence of instructions (using the operations SELECT, PROJECT and JOIN) to retrieve the JobId, StartDate, and TermDate for each job in
the accounting department from the relational database described in Figure 9.5.

18.

Answer the previous problem using SQL.

20.

Write a sequence of instructions (using the operations SELECT, PROJECT and JOIN) to retrieve the Name, Address, JobTitle, and Dept of every

1468

current employee

from the relational database described in Figure 9.5.

21.

1469

Answer the previous problem using SQL.

Write a sequence of instructions (using the operations SELECT, PROJECT and JOIN) to retrieve the Name and JobTitle of each cur- rent employee

from the relational database described in Figure 9.5.

1470

Design a relational database containing infor- mation about automobile parts and their sub- parts. Be sure to allow for the fact that one part might

contain smaller parts and at the same time be contained in still larger parts.

1471

26.

Pick a popular website such as www.google.com, www.amazon.com, or www.ebay.com and design a relational database that you would pro- pose to
serve as the site’s supporting database.

26.

On the basis of the database represented in Figure 9.5, state the question that is answered by the following program segment:

TEMP d SELECT from ASSIGNMENT

where TermDate = “*”

RESULT d PROJECT JobId, StartDate from TEMP

1472

28.

Translate the query in the previous problem into SQL.

28.

On the basis of the database represented in Figure 9.5, state the question that is answered by the following program segment:

TEMP1 d JOIN EMPLOYEE and ASSIGNMENT

where EMPLOYEE.EmplId = ASSIGNMENT.EmplId

TEMP2 d SELECT from TEMP1 where TermDate = “*”

RESULT d PROJECT name, StartDate from TEMP2

1473

30.

Translate the query in the previous problem into SQL.

30.

On the basis of the database represented in Figure 9.5, state the question that is answered by the following program segment:

TEMP1 d JOIN EMPLOYEE and JOB

where EMPLOYEE.EmplId = JOB.EmplId

TEMP2 d SELECT from TEMP1 where Dept = “SALES”

RESULT d PROJECT Name from TEMP2

1474

32.

Translate the query in the previous problem into SQL.

32.

Translate the SQL statement

select JOB.JobTitle from ASSIGNMENT, JOB

where ASSIGNMENT.JoblId = JOB.JobId and ASSIGNMENT.EmplId = “34Y70”

into a sequence of SELECT, PROJECT, and JOIN operations

1475

34.

Translate the SQL statement

select ASSIGNMENT.StartDate from ASSIGNMENT, EMPLOYEE

where ASSIGNMENT.EmplId =

EMPLOYEE.EmplId

and EMPLOYEE.Name = “Joe E. Baker”

into a sequence of SELECT, PROJECT, and JOIN operations.

1476

35.

Describe the effect that the following SQL statement would have on the database in Problem 13.

insert into MANUFACTURER

values (‘Company Z’, ‘Bolt 2X’, .03)

1477

36.

Describe the effect that the following SQL statement would have on the database in Problem 13.

update MANUFACTURER set Cost = .03

where CompanyName = ‘Company Y’ and PartName = ‘Bolt 2X’

*41. Identify some of the objects that you would expect to find in an object-oriented database used to maintain a grocery store’s inventory. What methods would
you expect to find within each of these objects?

1478

*42. Identify some of the objects that you would expect to find in an object-oriented database used to maintain records of a library’s hold- ings. What

methods would you expect to find within each of these objects?

Q6

*43. What incorrect information is generated by the following schedule of transactions T1 and T2?

T1 is designed to compute the sum of accounts A and B; T2 is designed to transfer

$100 from account A to account B. T1 begins by retrieving the balance of account A; then, T2 performs its transfer; and finally, T1 retrieves the balance of account
B and reports the sum of the values it has retrieved.

Q7

*44. Explain how the locking protocol described in the text would resolve the error produced in Problem 43.

*45. What effect would the wound-wait protocol have on the sequence of events in Problem 43 if T1 was the younger transaction? If T2 was the younger
transaction?

Q8

*46. Suppose one transaction tries to add $100 to an account whose balance is $200 while another tries to withdraw $100 from the same account. Describe an
interweaving of these transactions that would lead to a final balance of $100. Describe an interweaving of these transactions that would lead to a final balance of
$300.

Q9

*47. What is the difference between a transaction having exclusive access or shared access to an item in a database and why is the distinction important?

Q10

*48. The problems discussed in Section 9.4 involv- ing concurrent transactions are not limited to database environments. What similar prob- lems would arise
when accessing a document with word processors? (If you have a PC with a word processor, try to access the same docu- ment with two activations of the word
proces- sor and see what happens.)

Q11

*49. Suppose a sequential file contains 50,000 records and 5 milliseconds is required to inter- rogate an entry. How long should we expect to wait when retrieving
a record from the middle of the file?

*50. List the steps that are executed in the merge algorithm in Figure 9.15 if one of the input files is empty at the start.

Q12

*51. Modify the algorithm in Figure 9.15 to handle the case in which both input files contain a record with the same key field value. Assume that these records are
identical and that only one should appear in the output file.

Q13

Design a system by which a file stored on a disk can be processed as a sequential file with either of two different orderings.

Describe how a sequential file containing information about a magazine’s subscribers could be constructed using a text file as the underlying structure.

Q14

Design a technique by which a sequential file whose logical records are not a consistent size could be implemented as a text file. For exam- ple, suppose you
wanted to construct a sequential file in which each logical record contained information about a novelist as well as a list of that author’s works.

*55. What advantages does an indexed file have over a hash file? What advantages does a hash file have over an indexed file?

Q15

*56. The chapter drew parallels between a tradi- tional file index and the file directory system maintained by an operating system. In what ways does an operating
system’s file directory differ from a traditional index?

*57. If a hash file is partitioned into 10 buckets, what is the probability of at least two of three arbitrary records hashing to the same bucket?

(Assume the hash function gives no bucket priority over the others.) How many records must be stored in the file until it is more likely for collisions to occur than
not?

Q16.

Solve the previous problem, assuming that the file is partitioned into 100 buckets instead of 10.

*59. If we are using the division technique dis- cussed in this chapter as a hash function and the file storage area is divided into 23 buckets, which section should
we search to find the record whose key, when interpreted as a binary value, is the integer 124?

Q17

*60. Compare the implementation of a hash file to that of a homogeneous two-dimensional array. How are the roles of the hash function and the address
polynomial similar?

Q18

*61. Give one advantage that

1.a sequential file has over an indexed file.

2.a sequential file has over a hash file.

3.an indexed file has over a sequential file.

4.an indexed file has over a hash file.

5.a hash file has over a sequential file.

6.a hash file has over an indexed file.

*62. In what way is a sequential file similar to a linked list?

Q19

1.

In the United States, DNA records of all federal prisoners are now stored in a database for use in criminal investigations.
Would it be ethical to release this information for other purposes—for example, for medical research? If so, for what purposes? If not, why not? What are the
pros and cons in each case?

Q20

2.

To what extent should a university be allowed to release information about its students? What about their names and
addresses? What about grade dis- tributions without identifying the students? Is your answer consistent with your answer to
Question 1?

Q21

3.

What restrictions are appropriate regarding the construction of databases about individuals? What information does a
government have a right to hold regarding its citizens? What information does an insurance company have a right to hold
regarding its clients? What information does a company have a

right to hold regarding its employees? Should controls in these settings be implemented and, if so, how?

Q22

4.

Is it proper for a credit card company to sell the purchasing patterns of its clients to marketing firms? Is it acceptable for a
sports car mail order business to sell its mailing list to a sports car magazine? Is it acceptable for the Internal Revenue
Service in the United States to sell the names and addresses of those taxpayers with significant capital gains to
stockbrokers? If you cannot answer with an unqualified yes or no, what would you propose as an acceptable policy?

4.

To what extent is the designer of a database responsible for how the infor- mation in that database is used?

6.

Suppose a database mistakenly allows unapproved access to information in the database. If that information is obtained and

Q23

used adversely, to what degree do the database designers share responsibility for the misuse of the information? Does your
answer depend on the amount of effort required by the perpetrator to discover the flaw in the database design and obtain the
unauthorized information?

Q24

7.

The prevalence of data mining raises numerous issues of ethics and privacy. Is your privacy infringed if data mining reveals
certain characteristics about the overall population of your community? Does the use of data mining pro- mote good business
practice or bigotry? To what extent is it proper to force citizens to participate in a census, knowing that more information will
be extracted from the data than is explicitly requested by the individual ques- tionnaires? Does data mining give marketing
firms an unfair advantage over unsuspecting audiences? To what extent is profiling good or bad?

Q25

8.

To what extent should a person or corporation be allowed to collect and hold information about individuals? What if the
information collected is already publicly available although scattered among several sources? To what extent should a person
or company be expected to protect such information?

1479

Many libraries offer a reference service so that patrons can enlist the assistance of a librarian when searching for information. Will the existence of the

Internet and database technology render this service obsolete? If so, would that be a step forward or backward? If not, why not? How will the existence of the
Internet and database technology affect the existence of libraries themselves?

1480

To what extent are you exposed to the possibility of identity theft? What steps can you take to minimize that exposure? How could you be damaged if

you were the victim of identity theft? Should you be liable when identity theft occurs?

1481

Suppose the machine language described in Appendix C has been extended as suggested at the end of this section. Moreover, suppose register 8

contains the pattern DB, the memory cell at address DB contains the pattern CA, and the cell at address CA contains the pattern A5. What bit pattern will be in
register 5 immediately after executing each of the following instructions?

1.

25A5

2.

15CA

3.

1482

D508

Using the extensions described at the end of this section, write a com- plete machine language routine to perform a pop operation. Assume that the

stack is implemented as shown in Figure 8.12, the stack pointer is in register F, and the top of the stack is to be popped into register 5.

1483

Using the extensions described at the end of this section, write a pro- gram to copy the contents of five contiguous memory cells starting at address

A0 to the five cells starting at address B0. Assume your program starts at address 00.

1484

In the chapter, we introduced a machine instruction of the form DR0S. Suppose we extended this form to DRXS, meaning “Load register R with the

data pointed to by the value in register S plus the value X.” Thus the pointer to the data is obtained by retrieving the value in register S and then incre- menting that
value by X. The value in register S is not altered. (If register F contained 04, then the instruction DE2F would load register E with the con- tents of the memory cell
at address 06. The value of register F would remain 04.) What advantages would this instruction have? What about an instruction of the form DRTS—meaning
“Load register R with the data pointed to by the value in register S incremented by the value in register T”?

1.

1485

Draw pictures showing how the array below appears in a machine’s memory when stored in row major order and in column major order:

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

J

K

L

I
2.

Suppose a homogeneous array with six rows and eight columns is stored in row major

order starting at address 20 (base ten). If each entry in the array requires only one memory cell, what is the address of the entry in the third row and fourth
column? What if each entry requires two memory cells?

1486

3.

Rework Problem 2 assuming column major order rather than row major order.

3.

What complications are imposed if one tries to implement a dynamic list using a traditional one-dimensional homogeneous array?

5.

Describe a method for storing three-dimen- sional homogeneous arrays. What address polynomial would be used to locate the entry in the i th
plane, j th row, and the k th column?

1487

Suppose the list of letters A, B, C, E, F, and G is stored in a contiguous block of memory cells. What activities are required to insert the letter D in the

list, assuming that the list’s alphabetical order is to be maintained?

1488

7.

The following table represents the contents of some cells in a computer’s main memory along with the address of each cell represented. Note that
some of the cells contain letters of the alphabet, and each such cell is followed by an empty cell. Place addresses in these empty cells so that each
cell containing a letter together with the following cell form an entry in a linked list in which the letters appear in alphabetical order. (Use zero for the
NIL pointer.) What address should the head pointer contain?

Address Contents

11 C

12

13 G

14

15 E

16

17 B

18

19 U

20

21 F

22

1489

8.

The following table represents a portion of a linked list in a computer’s main memory. Each entry in the list consists of two cells: The first contains a
letter of the alphabet; the second contains a pointer to

the next list entry. Alter the pointers so that the letter N is no longer in the list. Then replace the letter N with the letter G and alter the pointers so that the new letter
appears in the list in its proper place in alphabetical order.

Address Contents

30 J

31 38

32 B

33 30

34 X

35 46

36 N

37 40

38 K

39 36

40 P

41 34

1490

9.

The table below represents a linked list using the same format as in the preceding problems. If the head pointer contains the value 44, what name is
represented by the list? Change the pointers so that the list contains the

name Jean.

Address Contents

40 N

41 46

42 I

43 40

44 J

45 50

46 E

47 00

48 M

49 42

50 A

51 40

1491

10.

Which of the following routines correctly inserts NewEntry immediately after

the entry called PreviousEntry in a

linked list? What is wrong with the other routine?

Routine 1:

1.

Copy the value in the pointer field of PreviousEntry into the pointer field of NewEntry.

2.

Change the value in the pointer field of PreviousEntry to the address of NewEntry.

Routine 2:

1.

Change the value in the pointer field of PreviousEntry to the address of NewEntry.

2.

Copy the value in the pointer field of PreviousEntry into the pointer field of NewEntry.

1492

11.

Design a procedure for concatenating two linked lists (that is, placing one before the other to form a single list).

11.

Design a procedure for combining two sorted contiguous lists into a single sorted contiguous list. What if the lists are linked?

11.

Design a procedure for reversing the order of a linked list.

11.

a. Design an algorithm for printing a linked list in reverse order using a stack as an auxiliary storage structure.

b. Design a recursive procedure to perform this same task without making explicit use of a stack. In what form is a stack still involved in your recursive solution?

15.

1493

Sometimes a single linked list is given two different orders by attaching two pointers to each entry rather than one. Fill in the table below

so that by following the first pointer after each letter one finds the name Carol, but by following the second pointer after each let- ter one finds the
letters in alphabetical order. What values belong in the head pointer of each of the two lists represented?

Address Contents

60 O

61

62

63 C

64

65

66 A

67

68

69 L

70

71

72 R

73

74

1494

16.

The table below represents a stack stored in a contiguous block of memory cells, as dis- cussed in the text. If the base of the stack is at address 10
and the stack pointer contains the value 12, what value is retrieved by a pop instruction? What value is in the stack pointer after the pop operation?

Address Contents

10.

F

10.

C

10.

A

10.

B

10.

E

1495

Draw a table showing the final contents of the memory cells if the instruction in Problem 16 had been to push the letter D on the stack rather than to

pop a letter. What would the value in the stack pointer be after the push instruction?

1496

Design a procedure to remove the bottom entry from a stack so that the rest of the stack is retained. You should access the stack using only push and

pop operations. What auxiliary storage structure should be used to solve this problem?

1497

19.

Design a procedure to compare the contents of two stacks.

19.

Suppose you were given two stacks. If you were only allowed to move entries one at a time from one stack to another, what rearrangements of the
original data would be possible? What arrangements would be possi- ble if you were given three stacks?

1498

21.

Suppose you were given three stacks and you were only allowed to move entries one at a time from one stack to another. Design an algorithm for
reversing two adjacent entries on one of the stacks.

21.

Suppose we want to create a stack of names that vary in length. Why is it advantageous to store the names in separate areas of memory and then
build the stack out of pointers to these names rather than allowing the stack to contain the names themselves?

1499

23.

Does a queue crawl through memory in the direction of its head or its tail?

23.

Suppose you wanted to implement a “queue” in which new entries had priorities associated with them. Thus a new entry should be placed in front of
those entries with lower priorities. Describe a storage system for imple- menting such a “queue” and justify your decisions.

1500

25.

Suppose the entries in a queue require one memory cell each, the head pointer contains the value 11, and the tail pointer contains the value

17. What are the values of these pointers after one entry is inserted and two are removed?

1501

27.

Describe how an array could be used to imple- ment a queue in a program written in a high- level language.

27.

Suppose you were given two queues and you were only allowed to move one entry at a time from the head of a queue to the tail of either. Design an
algorithm for reversing two adjacent entries in one of the queues.

1502

29.

contains a pointer to the node’s left child, and the third contains a pointer to the node’s right child. A value of 0 represents a NIL pointer. If the value of
the root pointer is 55, draw a picture of the tree.

Address Contents

43 X

44 0

45 0

46 J

47 49

48 0

49 M

50 0

51 0

52 F

53 43

54 40

55 W

56 46

57 52

1503

30.

The table below represents the contents of a block of cells in a computer’s main memory. Note that some of the cells contain letters of the alphabet,
and each of those cells is followed by two blank cells. Fill in the blank cells so that the memory block represents the tree that follows. Use the first cell
following a letter as the pointer to that node’s left child and the next cell as the pointer to the right child. Use 0 for NIL point- ers. What value should be
in the root pointer?

Address Contents

30 C

31

32

33 H

34

35

36 K

37

38

39 E

40

41

42 G

43

44

45 P

46

47

Address Contents

40 G

41 0

42 0

1504

31.

Design a nonrecursive algorithm to replace the recursive one represented in Figure 8.21.

31.

Design a nonrecursive algorithm to replace the recursive one represented in Figure 8.24. Use a stack to control any backtracking that might be
necessary.

31.

Apply the recursive tree-printing algorithm of Figure 8.24. Draw a diagram representing the

1505

While keeping the root node the same and without changing the physical location of the data elements, change the pointers in the tree of Problem 29

so the tree-printing algorithm of Figure 8.24 prints the nodes alphabetically.

1506

34.

Suppose the contiguous cells representing a binary tree as described in Section 8.3 con- tained the values A, B, C, D, E, F, and F, respectively. Draw
a picture of the tree.

34.

Give an example in which you might want to implement a list (the conceptual struc- ture) as a tree (the actual underlying struc- ture). Give an example
in which you might want to implement a tree (the conceptual structure) as a list (the actual underlying structure).

1507

34.

The linked tree structures discussed in the text contained pointers that allowed one to move down the tree from parents to chil- dren. Describe a
pointer system that would allow movement up the tree from children to parents. What about movement among siblings?

41.

Modify the procedure in Figure 8.24 to print

the “list” in reverse order.

1508

Describe a tree structure that can be used to store the genealogical history of a family. What operations are performed on the tree? If the tree is

implemented as a linked structure, what pointers should be associated with each node? Design procedures to perform the oper- ations you identified above,
assuming that the tree is implemented as a linked structure with the pointers you just described. Using your storage system, explain how one could find all the
siblings of a person.

1509

41.

Design a procedure for finding and deleting a given value from a tree stored in the fashion of Figure 8.20.

41.

In the traditional implementation of a tree, each node is constructed with a separate pointer for each possible child. The number of such pointers is a
design decision and represents the maximum number of children any node can have. If a node has fewer children than pointers, some of its pointers
are simply set to NIL. But such a node can never have more children than pointers. Describe how a tree could be implemented without limiting the
number of children a node could have.

1510

Using the define type pseudocode state- ment introduced in Section 8.5, define a user- defined data type representing data regarding an employee of

a company (such as name, address, job assignment, pay scale, and so on).

1511

Using the define type pseudocode state- ment introduced in Section 8.5, sketch a defini- tion of an abstract data type representing a list of names. In

particular, what structure would contain the list and what procedures would be provided to manipulate the list? (You do not need to include detailed descriptions of
the procedures.)

1512

41.

Using the define type pseudocode state- ment introduced in Section 8.5, sketch a defi- nition of an abstract data type representing a queue. Then give
pseudocode statements showing how instances of that type could be created and how entries could be inserted in and deleted from those instances.

41.

a. What is the difference between a user- defined data type and a primitive data type?

b. What is the difference between an abstract data type and a user-defined data type?

1513

41.

Identify the data structures and procedures that might appear in an abstract data type representing an address book.

41.

Identify the data structures and procedures that might appear in an abstract data type rep- resenting a simple spacecraft in a video game.

1514

*51. Modify Figure 8.27 so that the class defines a queue rather than a stack.

*52. In what way is a class more general than a traditional abstract data type?

1515

*53. Using instructions of the form DR0S and ER0S as described at the end of Section 8.7, write a complete machine language routine to push an

entry onto a stack implemented as shown in Figure 8.12. Assume that the stack pointer is in register F and that the entry to be pushed is in register 5.

1516

*54. Suppose each entry in a linked list consists of one memory cell of data followed by a pointer to the next list entry. Moreover, suppose that a new

entry located at

memory address A0 is to be inserted between the entries at locations B5 and C4. Using the language described in Appendix C and the additional op-codes D and
E as described at the end of Section 8.7, write a machine-language routine to perform the insertion.

1517

*55. What advantages does an instruction of the form DR0S as described in Section 8.7 have over an instruction of the form DRXY? What advantage

does the form DRXS as described in Question/Exercise 4 of Section 8.7 have over the form DR0S?

1518

Suppose a software analyst designs a data organization that allows for efficient manipulation of data in a particular application. How can the rights to

that data structure be protected? Is a data structure the expression of an idea (like a poem) and therefore protected by copyright or do data structures fall through
the same legal loopholes as algorithms? What about patent law?

1519

2.

To what extent is incorrect data worse than no data?

2.

In many application programs, the size to which a stack can grow is determined by the amount of memory available. If the available space is
consumed, then the software is designed to produce a message such as “stack overflow” and ter- minate. In most cases this error never occurs, and
the user is never aware of it. Who is liable if such an error occurs and sensitive information is lost? How could the software developer minimize his or
her liability?

1520

In a data structure based on a pointer system, the deletion of an item usually consists of changing a pointer rather than erasing memory cells. Thus

when an entry in a linked list is deleted, the deleted entry actually remains in memory until its memory space is required by other data. What ethical and security
issues result from this persistence of deleted data?

1521

It is easy to transfer data and programs from one computer to another. Thus it is easy to transfer the knowledge held by one machine to many

machines. In contrast, it sometimes takes a long time for a human to transfer knowledge to another human. For example, it takes time for a human to teach
another human a new language. What implications could this contrast in knowledge transfer rate have if the capabilities of machines begin to challenge the capabilities of humans?

1522

The use of pointers allows related data to be linked in a computer’s memory in a manner reminiscent of the way many believe information is

associated in the human mind. How are such links in a computer’s memory similar to links in a brain? How are they different? Is it ethical to attempt to build computers that more closely mimic the human mind?

1523

Has the popularization of computer technology produced new ethical issues or simply provided a new context in which previous ethical theories are

applicable?

1524

Suppose the author of an introductory computer science textbook wants to include program examples to demonstrate concepts in the text. However,

to obtain clarity many of the examples must be simplified versions of what would actually be used in professional quality software. The author knows that the
examples could be used by unsuspecting readers and ultimately could find their way into significant software applications in which more robust techniques would
be more appropriate. Should the author use the simplified examples, insist that all examples be robust even if doing so decreases their demonstrative value, or
refuse to use such examples unless clarity and robustness can both be obtained?

1525

1.

Give an example of how efforts in the develop- ment of software can pay dividends later in software maintenance.

2.

What is evolutionary prototyping?

3.

Explain how the lack of metrics for measuring certain software properties affects the soft- ware engineering discipline.

1526

Would you expect that a metric for measuring the complexity of a software system would be cumulative in the sense that the complexity of a complete

system would be the sum of the complexities of its parts? Explain your answer.

1527

5.

Would you expect that a metric for measuring the complexity of a software system would

be commutative in the sense that the complexity of a complete system would be the same if it were originally developed with feature X and had feature Y added
later or if it were originally developed with feature Y and had feature X added later? Explain your answer.

1528

6.

How does software engineering differ from other, more traditional fields of engineering such as electrical and mechanical engineering?

6.

a. Identify a disadvantage of the traditional waterfall model for software development.

b. Identify an advantage of the traditional waterfall model for software development.

1529

8.

Is open-source development a top-down or bottom-up methodology? Explain your answer.

8.

Describe how the use of constants rather than literals can simplify software maintenance.

8.

What is the difference between coupling and cohesion? Which should be minimized and which should be maximized? Why?

11.

Select an object from everyday life and ana- lyze its components in terms of functional or logical cohesion.

11.

Contrast the coupling between two program units obtained by a simple goto statement with the coupling obtained by a procedure call.

1530

1531

13.

In Chapter 6 we learned that parameters can be passed to procedures by value or by refer- ence. Which provides the more complex form of data
coupling? Explain your answer.

13.

What problems could arise during mainte- nance if a large software system were designed in such a way that all of its data elements were global?

15.

In an object-oriented program, what does declaring an instance variable to be public or private indicate about data coupling? What would be the

1532

rationale behind a preference toward declaring instance variables as private?

*16. Identify a problem involving data coupling that can occur in the context of parallel processing.

1533

17.

Answer the following questions in relation to the accompanying structure chart:

1.

To which module does module Y return control?

2.

To which module does module Z return control?

3.

Are modules W and X linked via control coupling?

4.

Are modules W and X linked via data coupling?

1534

4.

What data is shared by both module W and module Y?

4.

In what way are modules W and Z related?

Give an example of a one-to-many relationship that is not mentioned in this chapter. Give an example of a many-to-many relationship that is not

mentioned in this chapter.

1535

Using a structure chart, represent the proce- dural structure of a simple inventory/account- ing system for a small store (perhaps a privately owned

curio shop in a resort com- munity). What modules in your system must be modified because of changes in sales tax laws? What modules would need to be
changed if the decision is made to maintain a record of past customers so that advertising can be mailed to them?

1536

17.

Using a class diagram, design an object- oriented solution for the previous problem.

17.

Draw a simple class diagram representing the relationships between magazine publishers, magazines, and subscribers. It is sufficient to depict only
the class name within each box representing a class.

1537

17.

What is UML and what is it used for? Elaborate on the word corresponding to the “M.”

17.

Draw a simple use case diagram depicting the ways in which a library patron uses a library.

17.

Draw a sequence diagram representing the interaction sequence that would ensue when a utility company sends a bill to a customer.

17.

Draw a simple dataflow diagram depicting the flow of data that occurs in an automated inventory system when a sale is made.

17.

Contrast the information represented in a class diagram with that represented in a sequence diagram.

17.

What is the difference between a one-to-many relationship and a many-to-many relationship?

1538

1539

Extend the “sequence diagram” in Figure 7.5 to show the interaction sequence that would occur if PlayerA successfully returns PlayerB’s volley, but

PlayerB fails to return that volley.

1540

In each of the following cases, identify whether the activity relates to a sequence dia- gram, a use case diagram, or a class diagram.

1.

Represents the way in which users will interact with the system

2.

Represents the relationship between classes in the system

3.

Represents the manner in which objects will interact to accomplish a task

31.

Draw a sequence diagram indicating that object A calls the method bb in object B,

1541

B performs the requested action and returns control to A, and then A calls the method cc in object B.

31.

Extend your solution to the previous problem to indicate that A calls the method bb only if the variable “continue” is true and continues calling bb as
long as “continue” remains true after B returns control.

1542

31.

Draw a class diagram depicting the fact that the classes Truck and Automobile are general- izations of the class Vehicle.

31.

Based on Figure 7.12, what additional instance variables would be contained in an object of “type” SurgicalRecord? Of “type” OfficeVisitRecord?

31.

Explain why inheritance is not always the best way to implement class generalizations.

31.

Identify some design patterns in fields other than software engineering.

31.

Summarize the role of design patterns in soft- ware engineering.

1543

1544

31.

To what extent are the control structures in a typical high-level programming language (if-then-else, while, and so on) small- scale design patterns?

Which of the following involve the Pareto principle? Explain your answers.

1.

One obnoxious person can spoil the party for everyone.

2.

Each radio station concentrates on a particular format such as hard rock music, classical music, or talk.

3.

In an election, candidates are wise to focus their campaigns on the segment of the elec- torate that has voted in the past.

31.

Do software engineers expect large software systems to be homogeneous or heterogeneous in error content? Explain your answer.

31.

What is the difference between black-box test- ing and glass-box testing?

31.

Give some analogies of black-box and glass- box testing that occur in fields other than soft- ware engineering.

31.

How does open-source development differ from beta testing? (Consider glass-box testing versus black-box testing.)

31.

Suppose that 100 errors were intentionally placed in a large software system before the system was subjected to final testing. Moreover, suppose that

1445

200 errors were dis- covered and corrected during this final test- ing, of which 50 errors were from the group intentionally placed in the system. If the
remaining 50 known errors are then cor- rected, how many unknown errors would you estimate are still in the system? Explain why.

1546

31.

What is ergonomics? What is cognetics?

31.

One difference between the human-computer interface of a smartphone and that of a desk- top computer involves the technique used to alter the
scale of an image on the display screen to obtain more or less detail (a process called “zooming”). On a desktop, zooming is typically achieved by
dragging a slider that is separate from the area being displayed, or by using a menu or toolbar item. On a smart- phone, zooming is performed by
simultane- ously touching the display screen with the thumb and index finger and then modifying the space between both touch points (a process
called “double touch—spread” to “zoom in” or “double touch—pinch” to “zoom out”).

1.

Based on ergonomics, what arguments can be made in support of this difference?

2.

Based on cognetics, what arguments can be made in support of this difference?

1547

31.

In what way do traditional copyright laws fail to safeguard the investments of software developers?

31.

In what ways can a software developer be unsuccessful in obtaining a patent?

1548

a. Mary Analyst has been assigned the task of implementing a system with which medical records will be stored on a computer that is connected to a

large network. In her opinion the design for the system’s security is flawed but her concerns have been overruled for financial reasons. She has been told to
proceed with the project using the security system that she feels is inadequate. What should she do? Why?

2.

Suppose that Mary Analyst implemented the system as she was told, and now she is aware that the medical records are being observed by unauthorized personnel. What should she do? To what extent is she liable for the breach of security?

2.

Suppose that instead of obeying her employer, Mary Analyst refuses to proceed with the system and blows the whistle by making the flawed design
public, resulting in a financial hardship for the company and the loss of many innocent employees’ jobs. Were Mary Analyst’s actions cor- rect? What if
it turns out that, being only a part of the overall team, Mary Analyst was unaware that sincere efforts were being made elsewhere within the company
to develop a valid security system that would be applied to the system on which Mary was working. How does this change your judgment of Mary’s
actions? (Remember, Mary’s view of the situa- tion is the same as before.)

1549

2.

When large software systems are developed by many people, how should lia- bilities be assigned? Is there a hierarchy of responsibility? Are there
degrees of liability?

2.

We have seen that large, complex software systems are often developed by many individuals, few of which may have a complete picture of the entire
project. Is it ethically proper for an employee to contribute to a project with- out full knowledge of its function?

1550

4.

To what extent is someone responsible for how his or her accomplishments are ultimately applied by others?

4.

In the relationship between a computer professional and a client, is it the professional’s responsibility to implement the client’s desires or to direct the
client’s desires? What if the professional foresees that a client’s desires could lead to unethical consequences? For example, the client may wish to
cut cor- ners for the sake of efficiency, but the professional may foresee a potential source of erroneous data or misuse of the system if those
shortcuts are taken. If the client insists, is the professional free of responsibility?

6.

What happens if technology begins to advance so rapidly that new inven- tions are superseded before the inventor has time to profit from the invention? Is profit necessary to motivate inventors? How does the success of open-source development relate to your answer? Is free quality software a
sustainable reality?

1551

Is the computer revolution contributing to, or helping to solve, the world’s energy problems? What about other large-scale problems such as hunger

and poverty?

1552

Will advances in technology continue indefinitely? What, if anything, would reverse society’s dependency on technology? What would be the result of

a society that continues to advance technology indefinitely?

1553

If you had a time machine, in which period of history would you like to live? Are there current technologies that you would like to take with you? Can

one technology be separated from another? Is it realistic to protest against global warming yet accept modern medical treatment?

1554

Many applications on a smartphone automatically integrate with services provided by other applications. This integration may share information

entered to one application with another. What are the benefits of this inte- gration? Are there any concerns with “too much” integration?

1555

1.

What does it mean to say that a programming language is machine independent?

2.

Translate the following pseudocode program into the machine language described in Appendix C.

x ← 0;

while (x

(x ← x + 1)

1556

3.

Translate the statement

Halfway ← Length + Width

into the machine language of Appendix C, assuming that Length, Width, and Halfway are all represented in floating-point

notation.

1557

Translate the high-level statement

if (X equals 0) then Z ← Y + W else Z ← Y + X

into the machine language of Appendix C, assuming that W, X, Y, and Z are all values represented in two’s complement notation, each using one byte of memory.

1558

Why was it necessary to identify the type of data associated with the variables in Prob- lem 4 in order to translate the statements? Why do many high-

level programming lan- guages require the programmer to identify the type of each variable at the beginning of a program?

1559

Name and describe four different program- ming paradigms.

5.

Suppose the function f expects two numeric values as its inputs and returns the smaller of the two values as its output value. If w , x , y ,
and z represent numeric values, what is the result returned by f(f(w,x), f(y,z)) ?

1560

Suppose f is a function that returns the result of reversing the string of symbols given as its input, and g is a function that returns the concatenation of

the two strings given as its input. If x is the string abcd, what is returned by g(f(x),x) ?

1561

Suppose you are going to write an object- oriented program for maintaining your finan- cial records. What data should be stored inside the object

representing your checking account? To what messages should that object be able to respond? What are other objects that might be used in the program?

1562

Summarize the distinction between a machine language and an assembly language.

8.

Design an assembly language for the machine described in Appendix C.

8.

John Programmer argues that the ability to declare constants within a program is not nec- essary because variables can be used instead. For
example, our example of AirportAlt in Section 6.2 could be handled by declaring AirportAlt to be a variable and then assign- ing it the required value at
the beginning of the program. Why is this not as good as using a constant?

1563

10.

Summarize the distinction between declara- tive statements and imperative statements.

15.

a. What is operator precedence?

b. Depending on operator precedence, what values could be associated with the expres- sion 6 + 2 × 3?

1564

15.

What is structured programming?

15.

What is the difference between the meaning of the “equals” symbol in the statement

if (X = 5) then ( . . . )

as opposed to the assignment statement

X=2+Y

1565

15.

Draw a flowchart representing the structure expressed by the following for statement.

for (int x = 2; x

{...}

15.

Translate the following for statement into an equivalent program segment using the while statement in our pseudocode of Chapter 5.

for (int x = 2; x

{...}

1566

If you are familiar with written music, analyze musical notation as a programming language. What are the control structures? What is the syntax for

inserting program comments? What music notation has semantics similar to the for statement in Figure 6.7?

1567

15.

Draw a flowchart representing the structure expressed by the following statement.

switch (suit)

{case “clubs”: bid(1); case “diamonds”: bid(2); case “hearts”: bid(3); case “spades”: bid(4);

}

1568

15.

Rewrite the following program segment using a single case statement instead of nested

if-then-else statements.

if (W = 5)

then (Z ← 7)

else (if (W = 6)

then (Y ← 7)

else (if (W = 7)

then (X ← 7)

1569

Explain the differences between a literal, a constant, and a variable. )

15.

Summarize the following rat’s-nest routine with a single if-then-else statement:

if X > 5 then goto 80 X = X + 1

goto 90

80 X = X + 2

90 stop

1570

Summarize the basic control structures found in imperative and object-oriented programming languages for performing each of the following activities:

1.

Determining which command should be executed next

2.

Repeating a collection of commands

3.

Changing a variable’s value

15.

1571

Summarize the distinction between a transla- tor and an interpreter.

15.

Suppose the variable X in a program was declared to be of type integer. What error would occur when executing the program statement

X ← 2.5

1572

What does it mean to say that a programming language is strongly typed?

15.

Why would a large array probably not be passed to a procedure by value?

15.

Suppose the procedure Modify is defined in our pseudocode of Chapter 5 by

procedure Modify (Y) Y ← 7;

print the value of Y.

If parameters are passed by value, what will be printed when the following program seg- ment is executed? What if parameters are passed by reference?

X ← 5;

apply the procedure Modify to X; print the value of X;

1573

15.

Suppose the procedure Modify is defined in our pseudocode of Chapter 5 by

procedure Modify (Y) Y ← 9;

print the value of X; print the value of Y.

Also suppose that X is a global variable. If parameters are passed by value, what will be

printed when the following program segment is executed? What if parameters are passed by reference?

X ← 5;

apply the procedure Modify to X; print the value of X;

1574

Sometimes an actual parameter is passed to a procedure by producing a duplicate to be used by the procedure (as when the parameter is passed by

value), but when the procedure is completed the value in the procedure’s copy is transferred to the actual parameter before the calling procedure continues. In
such cases the parameter is said to be passed by value-result. What would be printed by the program segment in Problem 30 if parameters were passed by valueresult?

1575

15.

a. What is an advantage of passing parameters by value as opposed to passing them by reference?

b. What is an advantage of passing parameters by reference as opposed to passing them by value?

15.

What ambiguity exists in the statement

X←3+2×5

1576

15.

Suppose a small company has five employees and is planning to increase the number to six. Moreover, suppose one of the company’s pro- grams
contained the following assignment statements.

DailySalary = TotalSal/5; AvgSalary = TotalSal/5; DailySales = TotalSales/5; AvgSales = TotalSales/5;

How would the task of updating the program be simplified if the program had originally been written using constants named Num- berOfEmp and WorkWeek (both
set to the value 5) so that the assignment statements could be expressed as

DailySalary = TotalSal/DaysWk; AvgSalary = TotalSal/NumEmpl; DailySales = TotalSales/DaysWk; AvgSales = TotalSales/NumEmpl;

1577

15.

a. What is the distinction between a formal language and a natural language?

2.

Give an example of each.

15.

Draw a syntax diagram representing the struc- ture of the while statement in the pseudocode of Chapter 5.

1578

Design a set of syntax diagrams to describe the syntax of telephone numbers in your locality. For instance, in the United States tele- phone numbers
consist of an area code, fol- lowed by a regional code, followed by a

four-digit number such as (444) 555–1234.

1579

15.

Design a set of syntax diagrams to describe simple sentences in your native language.

15.

Design a set of syntax diagrams to describe different ways of representing dates such as month/day/year ormonth day, year .

1580

Design a set of syntax diagrams that describes the grammatical structure of “sentences” that consist of occurrences of the word yes fol- lowed by the

same number of the word no . For example, “yes yes no no” would be such a sentence, whereas “no yes,” “yes no no,” and “yes no yes” would not.

1581

Give an argument to the effect that a set of syntax diagrams cannot be designed that describes the grammatical structure of “sen- tences” that consist

of occurrences of the word yes , followed by the same number of occurrences of the word no , followed by the same number of occurrences of the word maybe .
For example, “yes no maybe” and “yes yes no no maybe maybe” would be such sentences, whereas “yes maybe,” “yes no no maybe maybe,” and “maybe no”
would not.

1582

15.

Write a sentence describing the structure of a string as defined by the following syntax diagram. Then, draw the parse tree for the string xxyxx.

1583

15.

Add syntax diagrams to those in Question 5 of Section 6.4 to obtain a set of diagrams that defines the structure Dance to be either a Chacha or a
Waltz, where a Waltz consists of one or more copies of the pattern forward diagonal close or backward diagonal close

15.

Draw the parse tree for the expression x × y + y --- x

based on the syntax diagrams in Figure 6.15.

1584

15.

What code optimization could be performed by a code generator when building the machine code representing the statement

if (X = 5) then (Z ← X + 2)

else (Z ← X + 4)

1585

15.

Simplify the following program segment

Y ← 5;

if (Y = 7)

then (Z ← 8)

else (Z ← 9)

1586

15.

Simplify the following program segment

while (X not equal to 5) do

(X ← 5)

15.

In an object-oriented programming environ- ment, how are types and classes similar? How are they different?

15.

Describe how inheritance might be used to develop classes describing various types of buildings.

15.

What is the difference between the public and private parts of a class?

1587

1588

15.

a. Give an example of a situation in which an instance variable should be private.

2.

Give an example of a situation in which an instance variable should be public.

1589

2.

Give an example of a situation in which a method should be private.

2.

Give an example of a situation in which a method should be public.

Describe some objects that might be found in a program for simulating the pedestrian traffic in a hotel lobby. Include explanations of the actions some
of the objects should be able to perform.

*53. What does the term “monitor” mean in the context of a programming language?

*54. What properties of concurrent processing make it desirable to use a programming lan- guage with concurrency support?

1590

*55. Draw a diagram (similar to Figure 6.25) repre- senting the resolutions needed to show that the collection of statements ( Q OR ¬ R ),

( T OR R ), ¬ P , ( P OR ¬ T ), and ( P OR ¬ Q ) are

inconsistent.

*56. Is the collection of statements ¬ R , ( T OR R ), ( P OR ¬ Q ), ( Q OR ¬ T ), and ( R OR ¬ P ) con- sistent? Explain your answer.

1591

*57. Extend the Prolog program outlined in Ques- tions 3 and 4 of Section 6.7 to include the additional family relationships of uncle, aunt, grandparent,

and cousin. Also add a rule that defines parents (X, Y, Z) to mean that X and Y are Z’s parents.

1592

*58. Assuming that the first statement in the following Prolog program is intended to mean

“Alice likes sports,” translate the last two statements of the program. Then, list all the things that, based on this program, Prolog would be able conclude that Alice
likes.

Explain your list.

likes(alice, sports). likes(alice, music). likes(carol, music).

likes(david, X) :- likes(X, sports). likes(alice, X) :- likes(david, X).

1593

What problem would be encountered if the following program segment was executed on a computer in which values are represented in the eight-bit

floating-point format described in Section 1.7?

X ← 0.01;

while (X not equal to 1.00) do

(print the value of X; X ← X + 0.01)

1594

In general, copyright laws support ownership rights associated with the expression of an idea but not for the idea itself. As a result, a paragraph in a

book is copyrightable but the ideas expressed in the paragraph are not. How should this right extend to source programs and the algorithms they express? To what

extent should a person who knows the algorithms used in a com- mercial software package be allowed to write his or her own program expressing those same
algorithms and market this version of the software?

1595

By using a high-level programming language a programmer is able to ex- press algorithms using words such as if , then , and while . To what extent

does the computer understand the meaning of those words? Does the ability to respond correctly to the use of words imply an understanding of the words? How
do you know when another person has understood what you said?

1596

Should a person who develops a new and useful programming language have a right to profit from the use of that language? If so, how can that right

be protected? To what extent can a language be owned? To what extent should a company have the right to own the creative, intellectual accomplishments of its
employees?

1597

Suppose you are going to write an object- oriented program for maintaining your finan- cial records. What data should be stored inside the object

representing your checking account? To what messages should that object be able to respond? What are other objects that might be used in the program?

1598

Summarize the distinction between a machine language and an assembly language.

8.

Design an assembly language for the machine described in Appendix C.

8.

John Programmer argues that the ability to declare constants within a program is not nec- essary because variables can be used instead. For
example, our example of AirportAlt in Section 6.2 could be handled by declaring AirportAlt to be a variable and then assign- ing it the required value at
the beginning of the program. Why is this not as good as using a constant?

1599

10.

Summarize the distinction between declara- tive statements and imperative statements.

15.

a. What is operator precedence?

b. Depending on operator precedence, what values could be associated with the expres- sion 6 + 2 × 3?

1600

15.

What is structured programming?

15.

What is the difference between the meaning of the “equals” symbol in the statement

if (X = 5) then ( . . . )

as opposed to the assignment statement

X=2+Y

1601

15.

Draw a flowchart representing the structure expressed by the following for statement.

for (int x = 2; x

{...}

15.

Translate the following for statement into an equivalent program segment using the while statement in our pseudocode of Chapter 5.

for (int x = 2; x

{...}

1602

5.

The following program segment is an attempt to compute the quotient (forgetting any remainder) of two positive integers (a dividend and a di- visor) by
counting the number of times the divisor can be subtracted from the dividend before what is left becomes less than the divisor. For instance, 7 ⁄3
should produce 2 because 3 can be subtracted from 7 twice. Is the program correct? Justify your answer.

Count ← 0;

Remainder ← Dividend;

repeat (Remainder ← Remainder – Divisor; Count ← Count + 1)

until (Remainder

1603

5.

The following program segment is designed to compute the product of two nonnegative integers X and Y by accumulating the sum of X copies of Y—
that is, 3 times 4 is computed by accumulating the sum of three 4s. Is the program correct? Justify your answer.

Product ← Y; Count ← 1;

while (Count do (Product ← Product + Y; Count ← Count + 1)

1604

5.

Assuming the precondition that the value associated with N is a posi- tive integer, establish a loop invariant that leads to the conclusion that if the
following routine terminates, then Sum is assigned the value 0 + 1 + . . . + N .

Sum ← 0;

K ← 0;

while (K do

(K ← K + 1;

Sum ← Sum + K)

Provide an argument to the effect that the routine does in fact terminate.

1605

5.Suppose that both a program and the hardware that executes it have been formally verified to be accurate. Does this ensure accuracy?

Q4

1.

Give an example of a set of steps that con- forms to the informal definition of an algo- rithm given in the opening paragraph of Section 5.1
but does not conform to the formal definition given in Figure 5.1.

2.

Explain the distinction between an ambiguity in a proposed algorithm and an ambiguity in the representation of an algorithm.

1606

3.

Describe how the use of primitives helps remove ambiguities in an algorithm’s representation.

3.

Select a subject with which you are familiar and design a pseudocode for giving directions in that subject. In particular, describe the primitives you
would use and the syntax you would use to represent them. (If you are having trouble thinking of a subject, try sports, arts, or crafts.)

1607

5.

Does the following program represent an algo- rithm in the strict sense? Why or why not?

Count ← 0;

while (Count not 5) do

(Count ← Count + 2)

1608

6.

In what sense do the following three steps not constitute an algorithm?

Step 1: Draw a straight line segment between the points with rectangular coordinates (2,5) and (6,11).

Step 2: Draw a straight line segment between the points with rectangular coordinates (1,3) and (3,6).

Step 3: Draw a circle whose center is at the intersection of the previous line segments and whose radius is two.

1609

7.

Rewrite the following program segment using a repeat structure rather than a while struc- ture. Be sure the new version prints the same
values as the original.

Count ← 2;

while (Count do

(print the value assigned to Count and Count ← Count + 1)

1610

8.

Rewrite the following program segment using a while structure rather than a repeat struc- ture. Be sure the new version prints the same
values as the original.

Count ← 1;

repeat

(print the value assigned to Count and Count ← Count + 1)

until (Count = 5)

1611

9.

What must be done to translate a posttest loop expressed in the form

repeat (. . .) until (. . .)

into an equivalent posttest loop expressed in the form

do (. . .) while (. . .)

1612

Design an algorithm that, when given an arrangement of the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, rearranges the digits so that the new arrangement

represents the next larger value that can be represented by these digits (or reports that no such rearrangement exists if no rearrangement produces a larger
value). Thus 5647382901 would produce 5647382910.

1613

11.

Design an algorithm for finding all the factors of a positive integer. For example, in the case of the integer 12, your algorithm should report the values
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12.

11.

Design an algorithm for determining the day of the week of any date since January 1, 1700. For example, August 17, 2001 was a Friday.

1614

13.

What is the difference between a formal pro- gramming language and a pseudocode?

13.

What is the difference between syntax and semantics?

13.

The following is an addition problem in tradi- tional base ten notation. Each letter represents a different digit. What digit does each letter
rep- resent? How did you get your foot in the door?

XYZ

+ YWY ZYZW

1615

16.

The following is a multiplication problem in traditional base ten notation. Each letter rep- resents a different digit. What digit does each
letter represent? How did you get your foot in the door?

XY

× YX

XY

YZ WVY

1616

17.

The following is an addition problem in binary notation. Each letter represents a unique binary digit. Which letter represents 1 and which
represents 0? Design an algorithm for solving problems like this.

YXX

+ XYX XYYY

1617

Four prospectors with only one lantern must walk through a mine shaft. At most, two prospectors can travel together and any prospector in the shaft

must be with the lantern. The prospectors, named Andrews, Blake, Johnson, and Kelly, can walk through the shaft in one minute, two minutes, four min- utes, and
eight minutes, respectively. When two walk together they travel at the speed of the slower prospector. How can all four prospectors get through the mine shaft in
only 15 minutes? After you have solved this prob- lem, explain how you got your foot in the door.

1618

Starting with a large wine glass and a small wine glass, fill the small glass with wine and then pour that wine into the large glass. Next, fill the small

glass with water and pour some of that water into the large glass. Mix the con- tents of the large glass, and then pour the mix- ture back into the small glass until
the small glass is full. Will there be more water in the large glass than there is wine in the small glass? After you have solved this problem, explain how you got
your foot in the door.

1619

Two bees, named Romeo and Juliet, live in dif- ferent hives but have met and fallen in love. On a windless spring morning, they simulta- neously leave

their respective hives to visit each other. Their routes meet at a point 50 meters from the closest hive, but they fail to see each other and continue on to their destinations. At their destinations, they spend the same amount of time to discover that the other is not home and begin their return trips. On their return trips, they
meet at a point that is 20 meters from the closest hive. This time they see each other and have a picnic lunch before returning home. How far apart are the two
hives? After you have solved this problem, explain how you got your foot in the door.

1620

1621

Design an algorithm that, given two strings of characters, tests whether the first string appears as a substring somewhere in the second.

22.

The following algorithm is designed to print the beginning of what is known as the Fibonacci sequence. Identify the body of the loop.
Where is the initialization step for the loop control? The modification step? The test step? What list of numbers is produced?

Last ← 0;

Current ← 1;

while (Current do

(print the value assigned to Current; Temp ← Last;

Last ← Current; and Current ← Last + Temp)

1622

23.

What sequence of numbers is printed by the following algorithm if it is started with input values 0 and 1?

procedure MysteryWrite (Last, Current)

if (Current then

(print the value assigned to Current; Temp ← Current + Last;

apply MysteryWrite to the values Cur- rent and Temp)

1623

24.

Modify the procedure MysteryWrite in the preceding problem so that the values are printed in reverse order.

25.

What letters are interrogated by the binary search (Figure 5.14) if it is applied to the list A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O when
searching for the value J? What about search- ing for the value Z?

1624

After performing many sequential searches on a list of 6,000 entries, what would you expect to be the average number of times that the tar- get value

would have been compared to a list entry? What if the search algorithm was the binary search?

1625

27.

Identify the termination condition in each of the following iterative statements.

1.

while (Count do ( )

2.

repeat ( )

until (Count = 1)

3.

while ((Count

do ( )

1626

28.

Identify the body of the following loop struc- ture and count the number of times it will be executed. What happens if the test is changed to
read “(Count not 6)”?

Count ← 1;

while (Count not 7) do

(print the value assigned to Count and Count ← Count + 3)

1627

29.

What problems do you expect to arise if the following program is implemented on a computer? ( Hint:Remember the problem of round-off
errors associated with floating-point arithmetic.)

Count ← one-tenth;

repeat

(print the value assigned to Count and Count ← Count + one-tenth)

until (Count equals 1)

1628

30.

Design a recursive version of the Euclidean algorithm (Question 3 of Section 5.2).

30.

Suppose we apply both Test1 and Test2 (defined below) to the input value 1. What is the difference in the printed output of the two
routines?

procedure Test1 (Count)

if (Count not 5)

then (print the value assigned to Count;

apply Test1 to the value Count + 1)

procedure Test2 (Count)

if (Count not 5)

then (apply Test2 to the value Count + 1;

print the value assigned to Count)

1629

Identify the important constituents of the con- trol mechanism in the routines of the previous problem. In particular, what condition causes the process

to terminate? Where is the state of the process modified toward this termination condition? Where is the state of the control process initialized?

1630

33.

Identify the termination condition in the fol- lowing recursive procedure.

procedure XXX (N)

if (N = 5) then (apply the procedure XXX

to the value N + 1)

1631

34.

Apply the procedure MysteryPrint (defined below) to the value 3 and record the values that are printed.

procedure MysteryPrint (N)

if (N > 0) then (print the value of N and

apply the procedure MysteryPrint to the value N – 2)

Print the value of N + 1.

1632

35.

Apply the procedure MysteryPrint (defined below) to the value 2 and record the values that are printed.

procedure MysteryPrint (N)

if (N > 0)

then (print the value of N and

apply the procedure MysteryPrint to the value N – 2)

else (print the value of N and

if (N > –1)

then (apply the procedure MysteryPrint

to the value N + 1))

1633

Design an algorithm to generate the sequence of positive integers (in increasing order) whose only prime divisors are 2 and 3; that is, your program

should produce the sequence 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 16, 18, 24, 27, . . . . Does your program represent an algorithm in the strict sense?

1634

Answer the following questions in terms of the list: Alice, Byron, Carol, Duane, Elaine, Floyd, Gene, Henry, Iris.

1.

Which search algorithm (sequential or binary) will find the name Gene more quickly?

2.

Which search algorithm (sequential or binary) will find the name Alice more quickly?

3.

Which search algorithm (sequential or binary) will detect the absence of the name Bruce more quickly?

4.

Which search algorithm (sequential or binary) will detect the absence of the name Sue more quickly?

5.

How many entries will be interrogated when searching for the name Elaine when using the sequential search? How many will be interrogated when
using the binary search?

1635

The factorial of 0 is defined to be 1. The facto- rial of a positive integer is defined to be the product of that integer times the factorial of the next smaller

nonnegative integer. We use the notation n! to express the factorial of the integer n. Thus the factorial of 3 (written 3!) is 3 × (2!) = 3 × (2 × (1!)) = 3 × (2 × (1 × (0!)))
= 3 × (2 × (1 × (1))) = 6. Design a recursive algo- rithm that computes the factorial of a given value.

1636

39.

a. Suppose you must sort a list of five names, and you have already designed an algo- rithm that sorts a list of four names. Design an
algorithm to sort the list of five names by taking advantage of the previously designed algorithm.

b. Design a recursive algorithm to sort arbi- trary lists of names based on the technique used in (a).

1637

40.

The puzzle called the Towers of Hanoi con- sists of three pegs, one of which contains sev- eral rings stacked in order of descending
diameter from bottom to top. The problem is to move the stack of rings to another peg. You are allowed to move only one ring at a time,
and at no time is a ring to be placed on top of a smaller one. Observe that if the puzzle involved only one ring, it would be extremely easy.
Moreover, when faced with the problem

of moving several rings, if you could move all but the largest ring to another peg, the largest ring could then be placed on the third peg, and then the problem
would be to move the remaining rings on top of it. Using this obser- vation, develop a recursive algorithm for solv- ing the Towers of Hanoi puzzle for an arbitrary
number of rings.

1638

41.

Another approach to solving the Towers of Hanoi puzzle (Problem 40) is to imagine the pegs arranged on a circular stand with a peg
mounted at each of the positions of 4, 8, and 12 o’clock. The rings, which begin on one of the pegs, are numbered 1, 2, 3, and so on,
starting with the smallest ring being 1. Odd- numbered rings, when on top of a stack, are allowed to move clockwise to the next peg;
likewise, even-numbered rings are allowed to move counterclockwise (as long as that move does not place a ring on a smaller one).
Under this restriction, always move the largest-numbered ring that can be moved. Based on this observation, develop a nonre- cursive
algorithm for solving the Towers of Hanoi puzzle.

1639

Develop two algorithms, one based on a loop structure and the other on a recursive struc- ture, to print the daily salary of a worker who each day is

paid twice the previous day’s salary (starting with one penny for the first day’s work) for a 30-day period. What prob- lems relating to number storage are you likely
to encounter if you implement your solutions on an actual machine?

1640

Design an algorithm to find the square root of a positive number by starting with the num- ber itself as the first guess and repeatedly pro- ducing a new

guess from the previous one by averaging the previous guess with the result of dividing the original number by the previous guess. Analyze the control of this
repetitive process. In particular, what condition should terminate the repetition?

1641

44.

Design an algorithm that lists all possible rearrangements of the symbols in a string of five distinct characters.

44.

Design an algorithm that, given a list of names, finds the longest name in the list. Determine what your solution does if there are several “longest”
names in the list. In par- ticular, what would your algorithm do if all the names had the same length?

1642

Design an algorithm that, given a list of five or more numbers, finds the five smallest and five largest numbers in the list without sorting the entire list.

1643

47.

Arrange the names Brenda, Doris, Raymond, Steve, Timothy, and William in an order that requires the least number of comparisons when sorted by
the insertion sort algorithm (Figure 5.11).

47.

What is the largest number of entries that are interrogated if the binary search algorithm (Figure 5.14) is applied to a list of 4000 names? How does
this compare to the sequen- tial search (Figure 5.6)?

1644

Use big-theta notation to classify the tradi- tional grade school algorithms for addition and multiplication. That is, if asked to add two numbers each

having n digits, how many individual additions must be per- formed. If requested to multiply two n - digit numbers, how many individual multiplica- tions are
required?

1645

50.

Sometimes a slight change in a problem can significantly alter the form of its solution. For example, find a simple algorithm for solving the
following problem and classify it using big- theta notation:

Divide a group of people into two disjoint sub- groups (of arbitrary size) such that the difference in the total ages of the members of the two subgroups is as large
as possible.

Now change the problem so that the desired difference is as small as possible and classify your approach to the problem.

1646

51.

From the following list, extract a collection of numbers whose sum is 3165. How efficient is your approach to the problem?

26, 39, 104, 195, 403, 504, 793, 995, 1156, 1677

1647

52.

Does the loop in the following routine termi- nate? Explain your answer. Explain what might happen if this routine is actually exe- cuted by
a computer (refer to Section 1.7).

X ← 1;

Y ← 1/2;

while (X not equal 0) do

(X ← X – Y; Y ← Y ÷ 2)

1648

53.

The following program segment is designed to compute the product of two nonnegative integers X and Y by accumulating the sum of X
copies of Y; that is, 3 times 4 is com- puted by accumulating the sum of three 4s. Is the program segment correct? Explain your answer.

Product ← 0;

Count ← 0;

repeat (Product ← Product + Y, Count ← Count + 1)

until (Count = X)

1649

54.

The following program segment is designed to report which of the positive integers X and Y is larger. Is the program segment correct?
Explain your answer.

Difference ← X – Y;

if (Difference is positive)

then (print “X is bigger than Y”)

else (print “Y is bigger than X”)

1650

55.

The following program segment is designed to find the largest entry in a nonempty

list of integers. Is it correct? Explain your answer.

TestValue ← first list entry; CurrentEntry ← first list entry; while (CurrentEntry is not the last

entry) do

( if (CurrentEntry > TestValue)

then (TestValue ← CurrentEntry) CurrentEntry ← the next list entry)

1651

56.

a. Identify the preconditions for the sequen- tial search as represented in Figure 5.6. Establish a loop invariant for the while structure in
that program that, when com- bined with the termination condition, implies that upon termination of the loop, the algorithm will report
success or failure correctly.

b. Give an argument showing that the while

loop in Figure 5.6 does in fact terminate.

1652

57.

Based on the preconditions that X and Y are assigned nonnegative integers, identify a

loop invariant for the following while struc- ture that, when combined with the termina- tion condition, implies that the value associated with Z upon loop termination
must be X– Y.

Z ← X; J ← 0;

while (J do

(Z ← Z – 1; J ← J + 1)

1653

As it is currently impossible to verify completely the accuracy of complex programs, under what circumstances, if any, should the creator of a program

be liable for errors?

1654

2.

Suppose you have an idea and develop it into a product that many people can use. Moreover, it has required a year of work and an investment of

$50,000 to develop your idea into a form that is useful to the general public. In its final form, however, the product can be used by most people without buying
anything from you. What right do you have for compensation? Is it ethical to pirate computer software? What about music and motion pictures?

1655

Suppose a software package is so expensive that it is totally out of your price range. Is it ethical to copy it for your own use? (After all, you are not

cheat- ing the supplier out of a sale because you would not have bought the package anyway.)

1656

Ownership of rivers, forests, oceans, and so on has long been an issue of debate. In what sense should someone or some institution be given

ownership of an algorithm?

1657

Some people feel that new algorithms are discovered, whereas others feel that new algorithms are created. To which philosophy do you subscribe?

Would the different points of view lead to different conclusions regarding ownership of algorithms and ownership rights?

1658

Is it ethical to design an algorithm for performing an illegal act? Does it mat- ter whether the algorithm is ever executed? Should the person who

creates such an algorithm have ownership rights to that algorithm? If so, what should those rights be? Should algorithm ownership rights be dependent on the
purpose of the algorithm? Is it ethical to advertise and circulate tech- niques for breaking security? Does it matter what is being broken into?

1659

An author is paid for the motion picture rights to a novel even though the story is often altered in the film version. How much of a story has to change

before it becomes a different story? What alterations must be made to an algorithm for it to become a different algorithm?

1660

Educational software is now being marketed for children in the 18 months or younger age group. Proponents argue that such software provides sights

and sounds that would otherwise not be available to many children. Opponents argue that it is a poor substitute for personal parent/child interaction. What is your
opinion? Should you take any action based on your opinion without knowing more about the software? If so, what action?

1661

1.

What is a protocol? Identify three protocols introduced in this chapter and describe the purpose of each.

2.

Describe the client/server model.

3.

Describe the peer-to-peer model.

1662

4.

Describe the three kinds of distributed com- puting systems.

4.

What is the difference between an open net- work and a closed network?

4.

Why is the CSMA/CD protocol not applicable in a wireless network?

4.

Describe the steps followed by a machine that wants to transmit a message in a network using the CSMA/CD protocol.

8.

What is the hidden terminal problem? Describe a technique for solving it.

8.

How does a hub differ from a repeater?

8.

How does a router differ from such devices as repeaters, bridges, and switches?

1663

1664

11.

What is the distinction between a network and an internet?

11.

Identify two protocols for controlling the right to transmit a message in a network.

11.

Using 32-bit Internet addresses was originally thought to provide ample room for expansion, but that conjecture is not proving to be accu- rate. IPv6
uses 128-bit addressing. Will that prove to be adequate? Justify your answer. (For example, you might compare the number of possible addresses to
the population of the world.)

1665

14.

Encode each of the following bit patterns using dotted decimal notation.

a. 000001010001001000100011

b. 1000000000100000

c. 0011000000011000

1666

15.

What bit pattern is represented by each of the following dotted decimal patterns?

a. 0.0

b. 26.19.1

c. 8.12.20.13

16.

Suppose the address of an end system on the Internet is quoted as 134.48.4.122. What is the 32-bit address in hexadecimal notation?

16.

What is a DNS lookup?

1667

18.

If a computer’s mnemonic Internet address is

batman.batcave.metropolis.gov

what might you conjecture about the structure of the domain containing the machine?

19.

Explain the components of the email address

[emailprotected]

20.

In the context of VoIP, what is the difference between an analog telephone adapter and an embedded phone?

21.

What is the role of a mail server?

21.

What is the distinction between N-unicast and multicast?

21.

Define each of the following:

1668

1.

Name server

2.

Access ISP

3.

Gateway

4.

End system

1669

24.

Define each of the following:

1.

Hypertext

2.

HTML

3.

Browser

24.

1670

Many “lay users” of the Internet interchange the terms Internet and World Wide Web . To what do each of the terms correctly refer?

When viewing a simple Web document, ask your browser to display the source version of the document. Then identify the basic structure of the

document. In particular, identify the head and the body of the document and list some of the statements you find in each.

1671

27.

List five HTML tags and describe their meaning.

27.

Modify the HTML document below so that the word “Rover” is linked to the document whose URL is http://animals.org/pets/ dogs.html.

Example

My Pet Dog

My dog’s name is Rover.

1672

29.

Draw a sketch showing how the following HTML document would appear when dis- played on a computer screen.

Example

My Pet Dog

1673

30.

Using the informal XML style presented in the text, design a markup language for representing simple algebraic expressions as text files.

30.

Using the informal XML style presented in the text, design a set of tags that a word processor might use for marking the underlying text. For example,
how would a word processor indicate what text should be bold, italic, underlined, and so on?

1674

32.

Using the informal XML style presented in the text, design a set of tags that could be used to mark motion picture reviews accord- ing to the way the
text items should appear on a printed page. Then design a set of tags that could be used to mark the reviews according to the meaning of the items in

the text.

Q5

33.

Using the informal XML style presented in the text, design a set of tags that could be used to mark articles about sporting events according to the way
the text items should appear on a printed page. Then design a set of tags that could be used to mark the articles according to the meaning of the
items in the text.

1675

34.

Identify the components of the following URL and describe the meaning of each.

http://lifeforms.com/animals/ moviestars/kermit.html

35.

Identify the components of each of the follow- ing abbreviated URLs.

1.

http://www.farmtools.org/ windmills.html

2.

http://castles.org/

3.

www.coolstuff.com

1676

36.

How would the action of a browser differ if you asked it to “find the document” at the URL http://stargazer.universe.org

as opposed to

https://stargazer.universe.org?

37.

Give two examples of client-side activities on the Web. Give two examples of server-side activities on the Web.

1677

*38. What is the OSI reference model?

*39. In a network based on the bus topology, the bus is a nonshareable resource for which the machines must compete in order to transmit messages. How is
deadlock (see the optional Section 3.4) controlled in this context?

1678

*40. List the four layers in the Internet software hierarchy and identify a task performed by each layer.

*41. Why does the transport layer chop large mes- sages into small packets?

*42. When an application asks the transport layer to use TCP to transmit a message, what additional messages will be sent by the trans- port layer in order to fulfill
the application layer’s request?

1679

*43. In what way could TCP be considered a better protocol for implementing the transport layer than UDP? In what way could UDP be consid- ered

better than TCP?

*44. What does it mean to say that UDP is a con- nectionless protocol?

1680

*45. At what layer in the TCP/IP protocol hierar- chy could a firewall be placed to filter incom- ing traffic by means of

1.Message content

2.Source address

3.Type of application

46.

Suppose you wanted to establish a firewall to filter out email messages containing

certain terms and phrases. Would this firewall be placed at your domain’s gateway or at the domain’s mail server? Explain your answer.

1681

46.

What is a proxy server and what are its benefits?

46.

Summarize the principles of public-key encryption.

46.

In what way is an unprotected idle PC a danger to the Internet?

46.

In what sense does the global nature of the Internet limit legal solutions to Internet problems?

1682

The ability to connect computers via networks has popularized the concept of working at home. What are some pros and cons of this movement? Will

it affect the consumption of natural resources? Will it strengthen families? Will it reduce “office politics”? Will those who work at home have the same career
advancement opportunities as those who work on site? Will community ties be weakened? Will reduced personal contact with peers have a positive or negative
effect?

1683

Ordering merchandise over the Internet is becoming an alternative to “hands on” shopping. What effect will such a shift in shopping habits have on

commu- nities? What about shopping malls? What about small shops, such as bookstores and clothing stores, in which you like to browse without buying? To what
extent is buying at the lowest possible price good or bad? Is there any moral obligation to pay more for an item in order to support a local business? Is it ethical to
com- pare products at a local store and then order your selection at a lower price via the Internet? What are the long-term consequences of such behavior?

1684

To what extent should a government control its citizens’ access to the Internet (or any international network)? What about issues that involve national

security? What are some security issues that might occur?

1685

Electronic bulletin boards allow users of networks to post messages (often anonymously) and read messages posted by others. Should the manager

of such a bulletin board be held responsible for its contents? Should a tele- phone company be held responsible for the contents of telephone conversa- tions?
Should the manager of a grocery store be held responsible for the contents of a community bulletin board located in the store?

1685

Should the use of the Internet be monitored? Should it be regulated? If so, by whom and to what extent?

1686

How much time do you spend using the Internet? Is that time well spent? Has Internet access altered your social activities? Do you find it easier to talk

to people via the Internet than in person?

7.

1687

When you buy a software package for a personal computer, the developer usually asks you to register with the developer so

that you can be notified of

future upgrades. This registration process is increasingly being handled via the Internet. You are usually asked to give such things as your name, address, and
perhaps how you learned of the product, and then the developer’s soft- ware automatically transfers this data to the developer. What ethical issues would be
raised if the developer designed the registration software so that it sent additional information to the developer during the registration process? For example, the
software might scan the contents of your system and report the other software packages found.

When you visit a Web site, that site has the capability of recording data, called cookies, on your computer indicating that you have visited that site. These cookies
can then be used to identify return visitors and to record their previous activities so that future visits to the site can be handled more effi- ciently. The cookies on
your computer also provide a record of the sites you have visited. Should a Web site have the capability to record cookies on your computer? Should a Web site
be allowed to record cookies on your computer without your knowledge? What are possible benefits of cookies? What prob- lems could arise from the use of
cookies?

9.

1688

If corporations are required to register their encryption keys with a govern- ment agency, will they be safe?

9.

In general, etiquette tells us to avoid calling a friend at his or her place of work for personal or social matters such as making arrangements for a
weekend outing. Likewise, most of us would hesitate to call a customer at his or her home to describe a new product. In a similar manner, we mail
wedding invita- tions to the guests’ residences, whereas we mail announcements of business conferences to the attendees’ work addresses. Is it
proper to send personal email to a friend via the mail server at the friend’s place of employment?

1689

Suppose a PC owner leaves the PC connected to the Internet where it ulti- mately is used by another party to implement a denial of service attack. To

what extent should the PC owner be liable? Does your answer depend on whether the owner installed proper firewalls?

1690

Is it ethical for companies that produce candy or toys to provide games on their company Web sites that entertain children while promoting the com-

pany’s products? What if the game is designed to collect information from the children? What are the boundaries between entertaining, advertising, and
exploitation?

1691

List four activities of a typical operating system.

Summarize the distinction between batch pro- cessing and interactive processing.

1692

Suppose three items R, S, and T are placed in a queue in that order. Then one item is removed from the queue before a fourth item, X, is placed in the

queue. Then one item is removed from the queue, the items Y and Z are placed in the queue, and then the queue is emptied by removing one item at a time. List
all the items in the order in which they were removed.

1693

2.

What is the difference between embedded sys- tems and PCs?

2.

What is a multitasking operating system?

2.

If you have a PC, identify some situations in which you can take advantage of its multitask- ing capabilities.

5.

On the basis of a computer system with which you are familiar, identify two units of application software and two units of utility software. Then explain

1694

why you classified them as you did.

5.

a. What is the role of the user interface of an operating system?

b. What is the role of the kernel of an operat- ing system?

1695

7.

What directory structure is described by the path X/Y/Z?

7.

Define the term “process” as it is used in the context of operating systems.

7.

What information is contained in a process table within an operating system?

7.

What is the difference between a process that is ready and a process that is waiting?

11.

What is the difference between virtual mem- ory and main memory?

11.

Suppose a computer contained 512MB (MiB) of main memory, and an operating system needed to create a virtual memory of twice that size using

1696

pages of 2KB (KiB). How many pages would be required?

1697

What complications could arise in a time-sharing/ multitasking system if two processes require access to the same file at the same time? Are there

cases in which the file manager should grant such requests? Are there cases in which the file manager should deny such requests?

1698

1699

14.

What is the distinction between application software and system software? Give an exam- ple of each.

14.

Define load balancing and scaling in the con- text of multiprocessor architectures.

14.

Summarize the booting process.

14.

Why is the booting process necessary?

If you have a PC, record the sequence activities that you can observe when you turn it on. Then determine what messages appear on the com- puter

screen before the booting process actually begins. What software writes these messages?

1700

Suppose a multiprogramming operating system allocated time slices of 10 milliseconds and the machine executed an average of five instruc- tions per

nanosecond. How many instructions could be executed in a single time slice?

1701

20.

If a typist types sixty words per minute (where a word is considered five characters), how much time would pass between typing each character? If a
multiprogramming oper- ating system allocated time slices in

10 millisecond units and we ignore the time required for process switches, how many time slices could be allocated between characters being typed?

1702

21.

Suppose a multiprogramming operating sys- tem is allotting time slices of 50 milliseconds. If it normally takes 8 milliseconds to position a disk’s
read/write head over the desired track and another 17 milliseconds for the desired data to rotate around to the read/write head, how much of a
program’s time slice can be spent waiting for a read operation from a disk to take place? If the machine is capable of exe- cuting ten instructions each
nanosecond, how many instructions can be executed during this

waiting period? (This is why when a process performs an operation with a peripheral device, a multiprogramming system terminates that process’s time slice and
allows another process to run while the first process is waiting for the services of the peripheral device.)

1703

22.

List five resources to which a multitasking oper- ating system might have to coordinate access.

22.

A process is said to be I/O-bound if it requires a lot of I/O operations, whereas a process that consists of mostly computations within the CPU/memory
system is said to be compute- bound. If both a compute-bound process and an I/O-bound process are waiting for a time slice, which should be given
priority? Why?

1704

24.

Would greater throughput be achieved by a system running two processes in a multi- programming environment if both processes were I/O-bound
(refer to Problem 25) or if one were I/O-bound and the other were compute- bound? Why?

24.

Write a set of directions that tells an operating system’s dispatcher what to do when a process’s time slice is over.

1705

26.

What information is contained in the state of a process?

26.

Identify a situation in a multiprogramming system in which a process does not consume the entire time slice allocated to it.

28.

List in chronological order the major events that take place when a process is interrupted.

28.

Answer each of the following in terms of an operating system that you use:

1706

1707

1708

1.

How do you ask the operating system to copy a file from one location to another?

2.

How do you ask the operating system to show you the directory on a disk?

3.

How do you ask the operating system to execute a program?

Answer each of the following in terms of an operating system that you use:

1.

How does the operating system restrict access to only those who are approved users?

2.

How do you ask the operating system to show you what processes are currently in the process table?

3.

How do you tell the operating system that you do not want other users of the machine to have access to your files?

*33. Explain an important use for the test-and-set instruction found in many machine languages. Why is it important for the entire test-and-set process

to be implemented as a single instruction?

1709

*34. A banker with only $100,000 loans $50,000 to each of two customers. Later, both customers return with the story that before they can repay their

loans they must each borrow another

$10,000 to complete the business deals in which their previous loans are involved. The banker resolves this deadlock by borrowing the addi- tional funds from
another source and passing on this loan (with an increase in the interest rate) to the two customers. Which of the three condi- tions for deadlock has the banker
removed?

1710

*35. Students who want to enroll in Model Railroad- ing II at the local university are required to obtain permission from the instructor and pay a

laboratory fee. The two requirements are ful- filled independently in either order and at different locations on campus. Enrollment is limited to twenty students; this
limit is main- tained by both the instructor, who will grant permission to only twenty students, and the financial office, which will allow only twenty students to pay
the laboratory fee. Suppose that this registration system has resulted in nineteen students having successfully registered for the course, but with the final space
being claimed by two students—one who has only obtained permission from the instructor and another who has only paid the fee. Which requirement for deadlock
is removed by each of the follow- ing solutions to the problem?

1.

Both students are allowed in the course.

2.

The class size is reduced to nineteen, so neither of the two students is allowed to register for the course.

3.

The competing students are both denied entry to the class and a third student is given the twentieth space.

4.

It is decided that the only requirement for entry into the course is the payment of the fee. Thus the student who has paid the fee gets into the course,
and entry is denied to the other student.

1711

*36. Since each area on a computer’s display can be used by only one process at a time (other- wise the image on the screen would be unreadable),

these areas are nonshareable resources that are allocated by the window manager. Which of the three conditions neces- sary for deadlock does the window
manager remove in order to avoid deadlock?

1712

*37. Suppose each nonshareable resource in a com- puter system is classified as a level 1, level 2, or level 3 resource. Moreover, suppose each

process in the system is required to request the resources it needs according to this classifi- cation. That is, it must request all the required level 1 resources at
once before requesting any level 2 resources. Once it receives the level 1 resources, it can request all the required level 2 resources, and so on. Can deadlock
occur in such a system? Why or why not?

1713

*38. Each of two robot arms is programmed to lift assemblies from a conveyor belt, test them for tolerances, and place them in one of two bins

depending on the results of the test. The assem- blies arrive one at a time with a sufficient inter- val between them. To keep both arms from trying to grab the same
assembly, the comput- ers controlling the arms share a common mem- ory cell. If an arm is available as an assembly approaches, its controlling computer reads
the value of the common cell. If the value is nonzero, the arm lets the assembly pass. Other- wise, the controlling computer places a nonzero value in the memory
cell, directs the arm to pick up the assembly, and places the value 0 back into the memory cell after the action is complete. What sequence of events could lead to
a tug-of-war between the two arms?

1714

*39. Identify the use of a queue in the process of spooling output to a printer.

*40. A process that is waiting for a time slice is said to suffer starvation if it is never given a time slice.

1.The pavement in the middle of an intersec- tion can be considered as a nonshareable resource for which cars approaching the intersection compete. A traffic light
rather than an operating system is used to control the allocation of the resource. If the light is able to sense the amount of traffic arriving

from each direction and is programmed to give the green light to the heavier traffic, the lighter traffic might suffer from starva- tion. How is starvation avoided?

2.

In what sense can a process starve if the dis- patcher always assigns time slices according to a priority system in which the priority of each process
remains fixed? ( Hint: What is the priority of the process that just com- pleted its time slice in comparison to the processes that are waiting, and conse- quently
which routine gets the next time slice?) How, would you guess, do many operating systems avoid this problem?

1715

*41. What is the similarity between deadlock and starvation? (Refer to Problem 40.) What is the difference between deadlock and starvation?

*42. The following is the “dining philosophers” prob- lem that was originally proposed by E. W. Dijkstra and is now a part of computer science folklore.

Five philosophers are sitting at a round table. In front of each is a plate of spaghetti. There are five forks on the table, one between each plate. Each philosopher
wants to alternate between thinking and eating. To eat, a philoso- pher requires possession of both the forks that are adjacent to the philosopher’s plate.

Identify the possibilities of deadlock and star- vation (see Problem 40) that are present in the dining philosophers problem.

1716

*43. What problem arises as the lengths of the time slices in a multiprogramming system are made shorter and shorter? What about as they become

longer and longer?

*44. As computer science has developed, machine languages have been extended to provide specialized instructions. Three such machine instructions were
introduced in Section 3.4 that are used extensively by operating sys- tems. What are these instructions?

1717

45.

Identity two activities that can be performed by an operating system’s administrator but not by a typical user.

45.

How does an operating system keep a process from accessing another process’s memory space?

45.

Suppose a password consisted of a string of nine characters from the English alphabet

(twenty-six characters). If each possible pass- word could be tested in a millisecond, how long would it take to test all possible passwords?

1718

45.

Why are CPUs that are designed for multitask- ing operating systems capable of operating at different privilege levels?

45.

Identify two activities that are typically requested by privileged instructions.

45.

Identify three ways in which a process could challenge the security of a computer system if not prevented from doing so by the operating system.

45.

What is a multi-core operating system?

45.

(Video) How to Share Google Docs With Others

What is the difference between a firmware update and an operating system update?

45.

How is the window manager related to the operating system?

45.

Is Internet Explorer a part of Microsoft’s Windows operating system?

45.

What special issues might an embedded operating system address?

1719

1720

Suppose you are using a multiuser operating system that allows you to view the names of the files belonging to other users as well as to view the

contents of those files that are not otherwise protected. Would viewing such informa- tion without permission be similar to wandering through someone’s unlocked home without permission, or would it be more like reading materials placed in a common lounge such as a physician’s waiting room?

1721

When you have access to a multiuser computer system, what responsibilities do you have when selecting your password?

1.

If a flaw in an operating system’s security allows a malicious programmer to gain unauthorized access to sensitive data, to what extent
should the devel- oper of the operating system be held responsible?

1722

Is it your responsibility to lock your house in such a way that intruders can- not get in, or is it the public’s responsibility to stay out of your house unless

invited? Is it the responsibility of an operating system to guard access to a computer and its contents, or is it the responsibility of hackers to leave the machine
alone?

1723

In Walden, Henry David Thoreau argues that we have become tools of our tools; that is, instead of benefiting from the tools that we have, we spend

our time obtaining and maintaining our tools. To what extent is this true with regard to computing? For example, if you own a personal computer, how much time do
you spend earning the money to pay for it, learning how to use its operating system, learning how to use its utility and application software, maintaining it, and
downloading upgrades to its software in comparison to the amount of time you spend benefiting from it? When you use it, is your time well spent? Are you more
socially active with or without a personal computer?

1724

Referring back to Question 3 of Section 2.3, if the machine used the pipeline technique discussed in the text, what will be in “the pipe” when the

instruction at address AA is executed? Under what conditions would pipelining not prove beneficial at this point in the program?

1725

2.

What conflicts must be resolved in running the program in Question 4 of Section 2.3 on a pipeline machine?

2.

Suppose there were two “central” processing units attached to the same memory and executing different programs. Furthermore, suppose that one of
these processors needs to add one to the contents of a memory cell at roughly the same time that the other needs to subtract one from the same cell.
(The net effect should be that the cell ends up with the same value with which it started.)

1.

Describe a sequence in which these activities would result in the cell ending up with a value one less than its starting value.

2.

Describe a sequence in which these activities would result in the cell ending up with a value one greater than its starting value.

1726

1.

a. In what way are general-purpose registers and main memory cells similar?

1.In what way do general-purpose registers and main memory cells differ?

1727

Answer the following questions in terms of the machine language described in Appendix C.

1.

Write the instruction 2304 (hexadecimal) as a string of 16 bits.

2.

Write the op-code of the instruction B2A5 (hexadecimal) as a string of 4 bits.

3.

Write the operand field of the instruction B2A5 (hexadecimal) as a string of 12 bits.

2.

Suppose a block of data is stored in the mem- ory cells of the machine described in Appendix C from address 98 to A2, inclusive. How many memory

1728

cells are in this block? List their addresses.

2.

What is the value of the program counter in the machine described in Appendix C immedi- ately after executing the instruction B0CD?

4.

1729

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 05 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the

following bit patterns:

Address

Contents

00

22

01

11

02

32

03

02

04

C0

05

00

Assuming that the program counter initially contained 00, record the contents of the pro- gram counter, instruction register, and memory cell at address 02 at the
end of each fetch phase of the machine cycle until the machine halts.

1730

Suppose three values x, y, and z are stored in a machine’s memory. Describe the sequence of events (loading registers from memory, saving values

in memory, and so on) that leads to the computation of x + y + z. How about (2 x ) + y ?

1731

6.

The following are instructions written in the machine language described in Appendix C. Translate them into English.

a. 7123 b. 40E1 c. A304

d. B100 e. 2BCD

1732

7.

Suppose a machine language is designed with an op-code field of 4 bits. How many different instruction types can the language contain? What if the
op-code field is increased to 6 bits?

7.

Translate the following instructions from English into the machine language described in Appendix C.

1.

LOAD register 6 with the hexadecimal value 77.

2.

LOAD register 7 with the contents of mem- ory cell 77.

3.

JUMP to the instruction at memory loca- tion 24 if the contents of register 0 equals the value in register A.

4.

ROTATE register 4 three bits to the right.

5.

AND the contents of registers E and 2 leav- ing the result in register 1.

1733

Rewrite the program in Figure 2.7 assuming that the values to be added are encoded using floating-point notation rather than two’s com- plement

notation.

1734

10.

Classify each of the following instructions (in the machine language of Appendix C) in terms of whether its execution changes
the contents of the memory cell at location 3B, retrieves the contents of the memory cell at location 3C, or is independent of
the contents of the memory cell at location 3C.

a. 353C b. 253C c. 153C

d. 3C3C e. 403C

1735

11.

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 03 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents 00 26

01 55

02 C0

03 00

1.

Translate the first instruction into English.

2.

If the machine is started with its program counter containing 00, what bit pattern is in register 6 when the
machine halts?

1736

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 02 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents 00 12

01 21

02 34

3.

What would be the first instruction exe- cuted if we started the machine with its program counter containing 00?

3.

1737

What would be the first instruction exe- cuted if we started the machine with its program counter containing 01?

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 05 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents 00 12

01 02

02 32

03 42

04 C0

05 00

When answering the following questions, assume that the machine starts with its pro- gram counter equal to 00.

5.

Translate the instructions that are executed into English.

5.

What bit pattern is in the memory cell at address 42 when the machine halts?

5.

What bit pattern is in the program counter when the machine halts?

1738

12.

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 09 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents

00 1C

01 03

02 2B

03 03

4.

5A

4.BC

4.

3A

07 00

08 C0

09 00

Assume that the machine starts with its pro- gram counter containing 00.

1739

1.

What will be in the memory cell at address 00 when the machine halts?

2.

What bit pattern will be in the program counter when the machine halts?

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 07 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents

00 2B

01 07

02 3B

03 06

04 C0

05 00

06 00

07 23

3.

List the addresses of the memory cells that contain the program that will be executed if we start the machine
with its program counter containing 00.

3.

1740

List the addresses of the memory cells that are used to hold data.

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 0D in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address

Contents

00

20

01

04

02

21

03

01

04

40

05

12

06 51
07 12
8.

B1

8.0C
0A B0
0B 06
0C C0
0D 00
Assume that the machine starts with its pro- gram counter containing 00.
5.

What bit pattern will be in register 0 when the machine halts?

1741

5.

What bit pattern will be in register 1 when the machine halts?

5.

What bit pattern is in the program counter when the machine halts?

Suppose the memory cells at addresses F0 through FD in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following (hexadeci- mal) bit patterns:

Address Contents F0 20

F1 00

F2 22

F3 02

F4 23

F5 04

F6 B3

F7 FC

F8 50

F9 02

FA B0

FB F6

FC C0

FD 00

If we start the machine with its program counter containing F0, what is the value in register 0 when the machine finally executes the halt instruction at location FC?

1742

If the machine in Appendix C executes an instruction every microsecond (a millionth of a second), how long does it take to complete the program in

Problem 18?

1743

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 20 through 28 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents 20 12

21 20

22 32

23 30

24 B0

25 21

26 24

27 C0

28 00

Assume that the machine starts with its pro- gram counter containing 20.

1744

1.

What bit patterns will be in registers 0, 1, and 2 when the machine halts?

2.

What bit pattern will be in the memory cell at address 30 when the machine halts?

3.

What bit pattern will be in the memory cell at address B0 when the machine halts?

Suppose the memory cells at addresses AF through B1 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the following bit patterns:

Address Contents AF B0

B0 B0

B1 AF

What would happen if we started the machine with its program counter containing AF?

13.

1745

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 05 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the

following (hexadeci- mal) bit patterns:

Address Contents 00 25

01 B0

02 35

03 04

04 C0

05 00

If we start the machine with its program counter containing 00, when does the machine halt?

1746

In each of the following cases, write a short program in the machine language described in Appendix C to perform the requested activi- ties. Assume

that each of your programs is placed in memory starting at address 00.

1747

1.

Move the value at memory location D8 to memory location B3.

2.

Interchange the values stored at memory locations D8 and B3.

3.

If the value stored in memory location 44 is 00, then place the value 01 in memory loca- tion 46; otherwise, put the value FF in memory location 46.

15.

A game that used to be popular among com- puter hobbyists is core wars—a variation of battleship. (The term core originates from an early memory
technology in which 0s and 1s were represented as magnetic fields in little rings of magnetic material. The rings were called cores.) The game is played
between two opposing programs, each stored in different locations of the same computer’s memory. The computer is assumed to alternate between the two
programs, executing an instruction from one followed by an instruc- tion from the other. The goal of each program

is to cause the other to malfunction by writing extraneous data on top of it; however, neither program knows the location of the other.

1.

Write a program in the machine language of Appendix C that approaches the game in a defensive manner by
being as small as possible.

2.

Write a program in the language of Appendix C that tries to avoid any attacks from the opposing program by
moving to different locations. More precisely, begin- ning at location 00, write a program that will copy itself to
location 70 and then jump to location 70.

3.

Extend the program in (b) to continue relo- cating to new memory locations. In particu- lar, make your program
move to location 70, then to E0 (= 70 + 70), then to 60 (= 70 + 70 + 70), etc.

1748

Write a program in the machine language of Appendix C to compute the sum of floating- point values stored at memory locations A0, A1, A2, and A3.

Your program should store the total at memory location A4.

16.

1749

Suppose the memory cells at addresses 00 through 05 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the

following (hexadeci- mal) bit patterns:

Address Contents 00 20

01 C0

02 30

03 04

04 00

05 00

What happens if we start the machine with its program counter containing 00?

1750

What happens if the memory cells at addresses 08 and 09 of the machine described in Appendix C contain the bit patterns B0 and 08, respectively,

and the machine is started with its program counter containing the value 08?

1751

Suppose the following program, written in the machine language of Appendix C, is stored in main memory beginning at address 30 (hexa- decimal).

What task will the program perform when executed?

2003

2101

2200

2310

1400

3410

5221

5331

3239

333B B248 B038 C000

1752

Summarize the steps involved when the machine described in Appendix C performs an instruction with op-code B. Express your answer as a set of

directions as though you were telling the CPU what to do.

1753

Summarize the steps involved when the machine described in Appendix C performs an instruction with op-code 5. Express your answer as a set of

directions as though you were telling the CPU what to do.

1754

Summarize the steps involved when the machine described in Appendix C performs an instruction with op-code 6. Express your answer as a set of

directions as though you were telling the CPU what to do.

1755

Suppose the registers 4 and 5 in the machine described in Appendix C contain the bit pat- terns 3A and C8, respectively. What bit pat- tern is left in

register 0 after executing each of the following instructions:

a. 5045 b. 6045 c. 7045

d. 8045 e. 9045

1756

Using the machine language described in Appendix C, write programs to perform each of the following tasks:

1.

Copy the bit pattern stored in memory location 44 into memory location AA.

2.

Change the least significant 4 bits in the memory cell at location 34 to 0s while leaving the other bits unchanged.

3.

Copy the least significant 4 bits from memory location A5 into the least signifi- cant 4 bits of location A6 while
leaving the other bits at location A6 unchanged.

4.

Copy the least significant 4 bits from memory location A5 into the most signifi- cant 4 bits of A5. (Thus, the first 4
bits in A5 will be the same as the last 4 bits.)

1757

Perform the indicated operations:

a. 111001 b. 000101

AND 101001 AND 101010

c. 001110 d. 111011 AND 010101 AND 110111

e. 111001 f. 010100 OR 101001 OR 101010

g. 000100 h. 101010 OR 010101 OR 110101

i. 111001 j. 000111

XOR 101001 XOR 101010

k. 010000 l. 111111 XOR 010101 XOR 110101

1758

Identify both the mask and the logical opera- tion needed to accomplish each of the follow- ing objectives:

1.Put 1s in the upper4 bits of an 8-bit pat- tern without disturbing the other bits.

2.Complement the most significant bit of an

8-bit pattern without changing the other bits.

3.

Complement a pattern of 8 bits.

1759

3.

Put a 0 in the least significant bit of an 8-bit pattern without disturbing the other bits.

3.

Put 1s in all but the most significant bit of an 8-bit pattern without disturbing the most significant bit.

Identify a logical operation (along with a corre- sponding mask) that, when applied to an input string of 8 bits, produces an output string of all 0s if and

only if the input string is 10000001. Describe a sequence of logical operations (along with their corresponding masks) that, when applied to an input string of 8 bits,
pro- duces an output byte of all 0s if the input string both begins and ends with 1s. Otherwise, the output should contain at least one 1.

1760

What would be the result of performing a 4-bit left circular shift on the following bit patterns?

a. 10101

b. 11110000

d. 101000

e. 00001

1761

c. 001

What would be the result of performing a 2-bit right circular shift on the following bytes represented in hexadecimal notation

(give your answers in hexadecimal notation)?

1.

c. FF d. 77

3F b. 0D

1762

a. What single instruction in the machine language of Appendix C could be used to

accomplish a 5-bit right circular shift of register B?

2.

What single instruction in the machine lan- guage of Appendix C could be used to accom- plish a 2-bit left circular shift of register B?

1763

Write a program in the machine language of Appendix C that reverses the contents of the memory cell at address 8C. (That is, the final bit pattern at

address 8C when read from left to right should agree with the original pat- tern when read from right to left.)

1764

Write a program in the machine language of Appendix C that subtracts the value stored at A1 from the value stored at address A2 and places the

result at address A0. Assume that the values are encoded in two’s complement notation.

1765

High definition video can be delivered at a rate of 30 frames per second (fps) where each frame has a resolution of 1920 X 1080 pixels using 24 bits

per pixel. Can an uncompressed video stream of this format be sent over a USB 1.1 serial port? USB 2.0 serial port?

USB 3.0 serial port? (Note: The maximum speeds of USB 1.1, USB 2.0, and USB 3.0 serial ports are 12Mbps, 480Mbps, and 5Gbps respectively.)

1766

Suppose a person is typing forty words per minute at a keyboard. (A word is considered to be five characters.) If a machine executes 500 instructions

every microsecond (millionth of a second), how many instructions does the machine execute during the time between the typing of two consecutive characters?

1767

How many bits per second must a keyboard transmit to keep up with a typist typing forty words per minute? (Assume each character is encoded in

ASCII and each word consists of six characters.)

1768

Suppose the machine described in Appendix C communicates with a printer using the technique of memory-mapped I/O. Suppose also that address

FF is used to send characters to the printer, and address FE is used to receive information about the printer’s status. In particular, suppose the least significant bit
at the address FE indicates whether the printer is ready to receive another character (with a 0 indicating “not ready” and a 1 indi- cating “ready”). Starting at

address 00, write a machine language routine that waits until the printer is ready for another character and then sends the character represented by the bit pattern
in register 5 to the printer.

1769

Write a program in the machine language described in Appendix C that places 0s in all the memory cells from address A0 through C0 but is small

enough to fit in the memory cells from address 00 through 13 (hexadecimal).

1770

Suppose a machine has 200 GB of storage space available on a hard disk and receives data over a broadband connection at the rate of 15 Mbps. At

this rate, how long will it take to fill the available storage space?

1771

Suppose a satellite system is being used to receive a serial data stream at 250 Kbps. If a burst of atmospheric interference lasts 6.96 sec- onds, how

many data bits will be affected?

1772

Suppose you are given 32 processors, each capable of finding the sum of two multidigit numbers in a millionth of a second. Describe how parallel

processing techniques can be applied to find the sum of 64 numbers in only six-millionths of a second. How much time does a single processor require to find this
same sum?

1773

Summarize the difference between a CISC architecture and a RISC architecture.

Identify two approaches to increasing throughput.

Describe how the average of a collection of numbers can be computed more rapidly with a multiprocessor machine than a single- processor machine.

1774

Suppose a computer manufacturer develops a new machine architecture. To what extent should the company be allowed to own that architecture?

What policy would be best for society?

1775

In a sense, the year 1923 marked the birth of what many now call planned obsolescence. This was the year that General Motors, led by Alfred Sloan,

introduced the automobile industry to the concept of model years. The idea was to increase sales by changing styling rather than necessarily introducing a better
automobile. Sloan is quoted as saying, “We want to make you dissat- isfied with your current car so you will buy a new one.” To what extent is this marketing ploy
used today in the computer industry?

1776

We often think in terms of how computer technology has changed our society. Many argue, however, that this technology has often kept changes from

occur- ring by allowing old systems to survive and, in some cases, become more entrenched. For example, would a central government’s role in society have
survived without computer technology? To what extent would centralized authority be present today had computer technology not been available? To what extent
would we be better or worse off without computer technology?

1777

Is it ethical for an individual to take the attitude that he or she does not need to know anything about the internal details of a machine because

someone else will build it, maintain it, and fix any problems that arise? Does your answer depend on whether the machine is a computer, automobile, nuclear
power plant, or toaster?

1778

Suppose a manufacturer produces a computer chip and later discovers a flaw in its design. Suppose further that the manufacturer corrects the flaw in

future production but decides to keep the original flaw a secret and does not recall the chips already shipped, reasoning that none of the chips already in use are
being used in an application in which the flaw will have conse- quences. Is anyone hurt by the manufacturer’s decision? Is the manufac- turer’s decision justified if
no one is hurt and the decision keeps the manufacturer from loosing money and possibly having to layoff employees?

1779

Does advancing technology provide cures for heart disease or is it a source of a sedentary life style that contributes to heart disease?

1780

It is easy to imagine financial or navigational disasters that may occur as the result of arithmetic errors due to overflow and truncation problems. What

con- sequences could result from errors in image storage systems due to loss of image details (perhaps in fields such as reconnaissance or medical diagnosis)?

1781

ARM Holdings is a small company that designs the processors for a wide vari- ety of consumer electronic devices. It does not manufacture any of the

proces- sors; instead the designs are licensed to semiconductor vendors (such as Qualcomm, Samsung, and Texas Instruments) who pay a royalty for each unit
produced. This business model spreads the high cost of research and develop- ment of computer processors across the entire consumer electronic market. Today,
over 95 percent of all cellular phones (not just smartphones), over 40 percent of all digital cameras, and 25 percent of Digital TVs use an ARM processor.
Furthermore, ARM processors are found in mini-notebooks, MP3 players, game controllers, electronic book readers, navigation systems, and the list goes on.

Given this, do you consider this company to be a monopoly? Why or why not? As consumer devices play an ever increasing role in today’s society, is the
dependency on this little known company good, or does it raise concerns?

1782

a. If we were to purchase a flip-flop circuit from an electronic component store, we may find that it has an additional input called flip .

When this input changes from a 0 to 1, the output flips state (if it was 0 it is now 1 and vice versa). However, when the flip input changes from 1 to a 0, nothing
happens.

Even though we may not know the details of the circuitry needed to accomplish this behavior, we could still use this device as an abstract tool in other circuits.
Consider the circuitry using two of the following flip-flops. If a pulse were sent on the circuit’s input, the bottom flip-flop would change state.

However, the second flip-flop would not change, since its input (received from the output of the NOT gate) went from a 1 to a 0. As a result, this circuit would now
produce the outputs 0 and 1. A second pulse would

flip the state of both flip-flops, producing an output of 1 and 0. What would be the output after a third pulse? After a fourth pulse?

some cells in a machine’s main memory. Starting with this memory arrangement, follow the sequence of instructions and record the Output final contents of each
of these memory cells: Address Contents

00 AB

01 53

02 D6

03 02

Step 1. Move the contents of the cell whose address is 03 to the cell at address 00.

Step 2. Move the value 01 into the cell at

b. It is often necessary to coordinate activities

of various components within a computer. This is accomplished by connecting a pul- sating signal (called a clock ) to circuitry similar to part a. Additional gates (as
shown) will then send signals in a coordi- nated fashion to other connected circuits. On studying this circuit you should be able to confirm that on the 1 st , 5 th ,
9 th . . . pulses of the clock, a 1 will be sent on output A. On what pulses of the clock will a 1 be sent on output B? On what pulses of the clock will a 1 be sent on
output C? On which out- put is a 1 sent on the 4 th pulse of the clock?

address 02.

Step 3. Move the value stored at address 01 into the cell at address 03.

1783

How many cells can be in a computer’s main memory if each cell’s address can be repre- sented by two hexadecimal digits? What if four hexadecimal

digits are used?

1784

What bit patterns are represented by the fol- lowing hexadecimal notations?

a. CD

b. 67

d. FF

e. 10

1785

c. 9A

What is the value of the most significant bit in the bit patterns represented by the following hexadecimal notations?

1786

6.Express the following bit patterns in hexadeci- mal notation:

a. 101000001010

4.

Assume that both of the inputs in the follow-

ing circuit are 1. Describe what would happen if the upper input were temporarily changed to 0. Describe what would happen if the lower input were temporarily
changed to 0. Redraw the circuit using NAND gates.

4.

The following table represents the addresses and contents (using hexadecimal notation) of

b. 110001111011

c. 000010111110

1787

Suppose a digital camera has a storage capac- ity of 256MB. How many photographs could be stored in the camera if each consisted of 1024 pixels

per row and 1024 pixels per column if each pixel required three bytes of storage?

1788

6.

Suppose a picture is represented on a display screen by a rectangular array containing 1024 columns and 768 rows

of pixels. If for each pixel, 8 bits are required to encode the color and another 8 bits to encode the intensity, how many byte-size memory cells are required to hold
the

entire picture?

1790

6.

a. Identify two advantages that main memory has over magnetic disk storage.

b. Identify two advantages that magnetic disk storage has over main memory.

1790

Suppose that only 50GB of your personal com- puter’s 120GB hard-disk drive is empty. Would it be reasonable to use CDs to store all the material

you have on the drive as a backup? What about DVDs?

1791

If each sector on a magnetic disk contains 1024 bytes, how many sectors are required to store a single page of text (perhaps 50 lines of 100

characters) if each character is repre- sented in Unicode?

1792

How many bytes of storage space would be required to store a 400-page novel in which each page contains 3500 characters if ASCII were used?

How many bytes would be required if Unicode were used?

1793

6.

How long is the latency time of a typical hard-disk drive spinning at 360 revolutions per second?

6.

What is the average access time for a hard disk spinning at 360 revolutions per second with a seek time of 10 milliseconds?

1794

Suppose a typist could type 60 words per minute continuously day after day. How long would it take the typist to fill a CD whose capacity is 640MB?

Assume one word is five characters and each character requires one byte of storage.

1795

6.

Here is a message in ASCII. What does it say? 01010111 01101000 01100001 01110100 00100000 01100100 01101111 01100101

01110011 00100000 01101001 01110100

00100000 01110011 01100001 01111001

00111111

1796

6.

The following is a message encoded in ASCII using one byte per character and then repre- sented in hexadecimal notation. What is the
message?

68657861646563696D616C

1797

6.

Encode the following sentences in ASCII using one byte per character.

a. Does 100 / 5 = 20?

b. The total cost is $7.25.

6.

1798

Express your answers to the previous prob- lem in hexadecimal notation.

List the binary representations of the inte- gers from 8 to 18.

a. Write the number 23 by representing the 2 and 3 in ASCII.

b. Write the number 23 in binary representation.

1799

What values have binary representations in which only one of the bits is 1? List the binary representations for the smallest six values with this

property.

1800

Convert each of the following binary represen- tations to its equivalent base ten representation: a. 1111 b. 0001 c. 10101

d. 1000 e. 10011 f. 000000

g. 1001 h. 10001 i. 100001

j. 11001 k. 11010 l. 11011

1801

Convert each of the following base ten represen- tations to its equivalent binary representation: a. 7 b. 11 c. 16

d. 17 e. 31

*28. Convert each of the following excess 16 representations to its equivalent base ten representation:

a. 10001 b. 10101 c. 01101

d. 01111 e. 11111

1802

Convert each of the following base ten representations to its equivalent excess four representation:

a. 0 b. 3 c. -2

d. -1 e. 2

Convert each of the following two’s comple- ment representations to its equivalent base ten representation:

a. 01111 b. 10100 c. 01100

d. 10000 e. 10110

1803

Convert each of the following base ten repre- sentations to its equivalent two’s comple- ment representation in which each value is represented in 7

bits:

a. 13 b. -13 c. -1

d. 0 e. 16

1804

Perform each of the following additions assuming the bit strings represent values in two’s complement notation. Identify each

case in which the answer is incorrect because of overflow.

a. 00101 b. 11111 c. 01111

+01000 +00001 +00001

d. 10111 e. 11111 f. 00111

+11010 +11111 +01100

1805

Solve each of the following problems by trans- lating the values into two’s complement nota- tion (using patterns of 5 bits), converting any subtraction

problem to an equivalent addition problem, and performing that addition. Check your work by converting your answer to base ten notation. (Watch out for
overflow.)

a. 5

b. 5

+1

c. 12

-1

d. 8

-5

e. 12

-7

f. 5

+5

1806

Convert each of the following binary representations into its equivalent base ten representation:

a. 11.11

b. 100.0101

d. 1.0

e. 10.01

1807

c. 0.1101

Express each of the following values in binary notation:

a. 5 3 ⁄4

b. 15 1 5 ⁄16

d. 1 1 ⁄4

e. 6 5 ⁄8

1808

-11

c. 5 3 ⁄8

Decode the following bit patterns using the floating-point format described in Figure 1.26: a. 01011001 b. 11001000

c. 10101100 d. 00111001
Encode the following values using the 8-bit floating-point format described in Figure 1.26. Indicate each case in which a truncation error occurs.
a. -7 1 ⁄2
7

d. ⁄32

b. 1 ⁄2
e.

31

⁄32

c. -3 3 ⁄4

1809

Assuming you are not restricted to using nor- malized form, list all the bit patterns that could be used to represent the value

3

⁄8 using the floating-

point format described in Figure 1.26.

1810

What is the best approximation to the square root of 2 that can be expressed in the 8-bit floating-point format described in Figure 1.26? What value is

actually obtained if this approxi- mation is squared by a machine using this floating-point format?

What is the best approximation to the value one- tenth that can be represented using the 8-bit floating-point format described in Figure 1.26?

1811

Explain how errors can occur when measure- ments using the metric system are recorded in floating-point notation. For example, what if 110 cm was

recorded in units of meters?

1812

One of the bit patterns 01011 and 11011 repre- sents a value stored in excess 16 notation and the other represents the same value stored in two’s

complement notation.

1.

What can be determined about this com- mon value?

2.

What is the relationship between a pattern representing a value stored in two’s com- plement notation and the pattern representing the same value stored in excess notation when both systems use the same bit pattern length?

1813

The three bit patterns 10000010, 01101000, and 00000010 are representations of the same value in two’s complement, excess, and the

8-bit floating-point format presented in Figure 1.26, but not necessarily in that order. What is the common value, and which pat- tern is in which notation?

1814

Which of the following values cannot be rep- resented accurately in the floating-point for- mat introduced in Figure 1.26?

a. 6 1 ⁄2 b. 1 3 ⁄16 c. 9

d. 1 7 ⁄32 e. 1 5 ⁄16

1815

If you changed the length of the bit strings being used to represent integers in binary from 4 bits to 6 bits, what change would be made in the value of

the largest integer you could represent? What if you were using two’s complement notation?

1816

What would be the hexadecimal representa- tion of the largest memory address in a mem- ory consisting of 4MB if each cell had a

one-byte capacity?

1817

What would be the encoded version of the message

xxy yyx xxy xxy yyx

if LZW compression, starting with the diction- ary containing x , y , and a space (as described in Section 1.8), were used?

1818

The following message was compressed using LZW compression with a dictionary whose first, second, and third entries are x , y , and space,

respectively. What is the decompressed message?

22123113431213536

1819

If the message

xxy yyx xxy xxyy

were compressed using LZW with a starting dictionary whose first, second, and third entries were x , y , and space, respectively, what would be the entries in the
final dictionary?

1820

As we will learn in the next chapter, one means of transmitting bits over traditional telephone systems is to convert the bit pat- terns into sound,

transfer the sound over the telephone lines, and then convert the sound back into bit patterns. Such techniques are limited to transfer rates of 57.6 Kbps. Is this
sufficient for teleconferencing if the video is compressed using MPEG?

1821

Encode the following sentences in ASCII using even parity by adding a parity bit at the high-order end of each character code:

a. Does 100/5 = 20?

b. The total cost is $7.25.

Q

Using the error-correcting code described in Figure 1.30, decode the following words:

a. 111010 110110

b. 101000 100110 001100

c. 011101 000110 000000 010100

d. 010010 001000 001110 101111

000000 110111 100110

e. 010011 000000 101001 100110

1822

Suppose a 24-bit code is generated by repre- senting each symbol by three consecutive copies of its ASCII representation (for example, the symbol A

is represented by the bit string 010000010100000101000001). What error-

correcting properties does this new code have?

1823

The following message was originally transmit- ted with odd parity in each short bit string. In which strings have errors definitely occurred?

11001 11011 10110 00000 11111 10001

10101 00100 01110

1824

A truncation error has occurred in a critical situation, causing extensive dam- age and loss of life. Who is liable, if anyone? The designer of the

hardware? The designer of the software? The programmer who actually wrote that part of the program? The person who decided to use the software in that
particu- lar application? What if the software had been corrected by the company that originally developed it, but that update had not been purchased and applied
in the critical application? What if the software had been pirated?

1825

Is it acceptable for an individual to ignore the possibility of truncation errors and their consequences when developing his or her own applications?

1826

Was it ethical to develop software in the 1970s using only two digits to repre- sent the year (such as using 76 to represent the year 1976), ignoring the

fact that the software would be flawed as the turn of the century approached? Is it ethical today to use only three digits to represent the year (such as 982 for 1982
and 015 for 2015)? What about using only four digits?

1827

Many argue that encoding information often dilutes or otherwise distorts the information, since it essentially forces the information to be quantified.

They argue that a questionnaire in which subjects are required to record their opin- ions by responding within a scale from one to five is inherently flawed. To what
extent is information quantifiable? Can the pros and cons of different locations for a waste disposal plant be quantified? Is the debate over nuclear power and
nuclear waste quantifiable? Is it dangerous to base decisions on averages and other statistical analysis? Is it ethical for news agencies to report polling results
without including the exact wording of the questions? Is it possible to quantify the value of a human life? Is it acceptable for a company to stop investing in the
improvement of a product, even though additional investment could lower the possibility of a fatality relating to the product’s use?

1828

Should there be a distinction in the rights to collect and disseminate data depending on the form of the data? That is, should the right to collect and

disseminate photographs, audio, or video be the same as the right to collect and disseminate text?

1829

Whether intentional or not, a report submitted by a journalist usually reflects that journalist’s bias. Often by changing only a few words, a story can be

given either a positive or negative connotation. (Compare, “The majority of those surveyed opposed the referendum.” to “A significant portion of those surveyed
supported the referendum.”) Is there a difference between altering a story (by leaving out certain points or carefully selecting words) and alter- ing a photograph?

1830

Suppose that the use of a data compression system results in the loss of sub- tle but significant items of information. What liability issues might be

raised? How should they be resolved?

1831

The premise that our society is different from what it would have been with- out the computer revolution is generally accepted. Is our

society better than it would have been without the revolution? Is our society worse? Would your answer differ if your position within society were different?

1832

Is it acceptable to participate in today’s technical society without making an effort to understand the basics of that technology? For instance, do

members of a democracy, whose votes often determine how technology will be sup- ported and used, have an obligation to try to understand that technology?
Does your answer depend on which technology is being considered? For example, is your answer the same when considering nuclear technology as when
considering computer technology?

1833

By using cash in financial transactions, individuals have traditionally had the option to manage their financial affairs without service charges. However,

as more of our economy is becoming automated, financial institutions are implementing service charges for access to these automated systems. Is there a point at
which these charges unfairly restrict an individual’s access to the economy? For example, suppose an employer pays employees only by check, and all financial
institutions were to place a service charge on check cashing and depositing. Would the employees be unfairly treated? What if an employer insists on paying only
via direct deposit?

1834

In the context of interactive television, to what extent should a company be allowed to retrieve information from children (perhaps via an interactive

game format)? For example, should a company be allowed to obtain a child’s report on his or her parents’ buying patterns? What about information about the
child?

1835

To what extent should a government regulate computer technology and its applications? Consider, for example, the issues mentioned in Questions 3

and 4. What justifies governmental regulation?

1836

To what extent will our decisions regarding technology in general, and com- puter technology in particular, affect future generations?

1837

As technology advances, our educational system is constantly challenged to reconsider the level of abstraction at which topics are presented. Many

ques- tions take the form of whether a skill is still necessary or whether students should be allowed to rely on an abstract tool. Students of trigonometry are no
longer taught how to find the values of trigonometric functions using tables. Instead, they use calculators as abstract tools to find these values. Some argue that
long division should also give way to abstraction. What other sub- jects are involved with similar controversies? Do modern word processors eliminate the need to
develop spelling skills? Will the use of video technol- ogy someday remove the need to read?

1838

The concept of public libraries is largely based on the premise that all citi- zens in a democracy must have access to information. As more information

is stored and disseminated via computer technology, does access to this tech- nology become a right of every individual? If so, should public libraries be the
channel by which this access is provided?

1839

What ethical concerns arise in a society that relies on the use of abstract tools? Are there cases in which it is unethical to use a product or service

without understanding how it works? Without knowing how it is produced? Or, without understanding the byproducts of its use?

1840

As our society becomes more automated, it becomes easier for governments to monitor their citizens’ activities. Is that good or bad?

1841

Which technologies that were imagined by George Orwell (Eric Blair) in his novel 1984 have become reality? Are they being used in the manner in

which Orwell predicted?

1842

If you had a time machine, in which period of history would you like to live? Are there current technologies that you would like to take with you? Could

your choice of technologies be taken with you without taking others? To what extent can one technology be separated from another? Is it consistent to protest
against global warming yet accept modern medical treatment?

1843

Suppose your job requires that you reside in another culture. Should you continue to practice the ethics of your native culture or adopt the ethics of

your host culture? Does your answer depend on whether the issue involves dress code or human rights? Which ethical standards should prevail if you continue to
reside in your native culture but conduct business with a for- eign culture?

1844

Has society become too dependent on computer applications for commerce, communications, or social interactions? For example, what would be the

consequences of a long-term interruption in Internet and/or cellular tele- phone service?

1845

Most smartphones are able to identify the phone’s location by means of GPS. This allows applications to provide location-specific information (such as

the local news, local weather, or the presence of businesses in the immediate area) based on the phone’s current location. However, such GPS capabilities may
also allow other applications to broadcast the phone’s location to other parties. Is this good? How could knowledge of the phone’s location (thus your location) be
abused?

1846

On the basis of your initial answers to the preceding questions, to which eth- ical theory presented in Section 0.6 do you tend to subscribe?

1847

Consider a software model of an ATM machine that supports the following use cases:

Use Case 1:

1. User swipes his/her debit card, which provides the system with the user’s bank account number.

2. User is asked to provide his/her pin number.

3. User is asked whether he/she wishes to check his balance or withdraw money.

4. User selects to withdraw money.

5. System displays the amount withdrawn and the remaining balance.

6. User is asked whether he/she would like to conduct another transaction.

Use Case 2:

1. User swipes his/her debit card, which provides the system with the user’s bank account number.

2. User is asked to provide his/her pin number.

3. User is asked whether he/she wishes to check his balance or withdraw money.

4. User selects to withdraw money.

5. System displays error message that the amount to be withdrawn exceeds the balance.

6. User is asked whether he/she would like to conduct another transaction.

Use Case 3:

1. User swipes his/her debit card, which provides the system with the user’s bank account number.

2. User is asked to provide his/her pin number.

3. User is asked whether he/she wishes to check his balance or withdraw money.

4. User selects to check balance.

5. System displays the user’s account balance.

6. User is asked whether he/she would like to conduct another transaction.

Use Case 4:

1. User swipes his/her debit card, which provides the system with the user’s bank account number.

2. User is asked to provide his/her pin number.

3. System displays that pin number is incorrect.

4. User is asked to provide his/her pin number up to two more times.

5. System terminates after third failed attempt.

Problem 1:Identify at least three classes that may be required in an object oriented design that supports the above use cases. Generate a CRC card for each
class indicating its responsibilities and collaborators. Hint: One of your classes should beBankAccount.

Problem 2:Generate a UML class diagram showing the classes and any relationships between them. Be sure to include a list of the attributes and methods of
each class in the diagram.

Problem 3:Implement your design in Java. You should have a separate source file for each class as well as a tester class for demoing the functionality of your
design.

1848

I need this done. if you need any name to be written see doc.

Attach 1848

1849

Put yourself in the position of a CIO for a moment. Often, you need to make decisions pertaining to technology: What to purchase, what to build, what

to outsource, etc. In order to aid in such decisions, you measure the value of the IT in question. To do so, you would likely examine several financial elements. This

could include software licence costs, hardware purchases, maintenance and warranty costs, salaries, training costs and more. As you can see, IT can be
extremely expensive, but does that cost alone equate to that IT’s total value? Consider the following statement:

‘The best way to measure IT value is by using financial metrics’.

For this Discussion, your challenge is to debate with your colleagues whether or not this statement has merit. For this debate, your Instructor will assign you to one
side of this statement, meaning you will argue to either support or refute its validity. Your job is to persuade the ‘opposite’ side that your perspective is the correct
one. Remember that persuasion is the art of convincing others to givefavourable attention to your point of view. Thus you must not only grasp your audience’s
attention (e.g. a direct statement of intent, a rhetorical question or a strong quotation), but also support your arguments with techniques and tools such as expert
testimonies, analogies, flow charts and so on.

To complete this Discussion:

Post: Create an initial post in which you refute the validity of the following statement:

‘The best way to measure IT value is by using financial metrics’.

· Evaluate the validity of the statement based on your own analysis of relevant facts, trends and/or news pertaining to the measurement of IT value. Furthermore,
begin your post with a strong statement, rhetorical question, quotation or any other similar method with which to grasp your audience’s attention. Your arguments
must also be adequately supported using one or more of the following methods:

· Examples: flow charts, anecdotes or definitions

· Reiteration and paraphrasing of main points

· Statistics (use sparingly)

· Comparisons/analogies

· Expert testimony

Attach 1849

1850

Exercise 3.3 Write a program to prompt for a score between 0.0 and 1.0. If the score is out of range, print an error message. If the score is between

0.0 and 1.0, print a grade using the following table:

1851

Case Study Instructions

Director’s Request for PCs

Completion of the Case Study will utilize (1) an MS Word Table, (2) an MS Access database, and (3) an MS PowerPoint Presentation

You will meet the Director’s requirements that are described on this page by creating and submitting a Word Table (Part 1), an Access Database (Part
2); and a PowerPoint Presentation (Part 3). These 3 assignments are due on separate dates. See the Course Schedule for due dates.

NOTE: the standard applications to use for these 3 assignments are those within Microsoft Office. MS Access is available only in the Professional
OFFICE package. If you are a MAC user OR if you have absolutely no way to use a machine on which MS Access has been loaded, you may download
and use OpenOffice/Open Libre – for the database project only. Please inform your instructor if you are going to use Open Office for the database
assignment.

Instructions for installing Open Office can be found in "Open Office – Database Alternative for Mac OS X" under the Office Resources topic.

Case Study – Director’s Requirements

Your office has outgrown its old desktop machines and is in the market for new PCs, but would like some guidance on what to purchase. The Director wants to
ensure that the office obtains PC machines that meet the requirements stated below. You, as an employee of a small educational company, have been tasked to
buy 5 PCs and associated equipment for the office. You only need to determine the specifications for ONE PC, not five. The office will likely buy five of the same
computer model/configurations you propose.

The Director has defined some capabilities that the PCs will need to have to ensure optimal performance. These tasks and system needs are collectively the
office’s requirements. The requirements are as follows:

1. Create documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and send and receive email.

2. Participate in online video conferences, web courses and forums (the Director is a part-time professor at a local university).

3. Create and edit audio and video files and share video and audio files via emails, instant messaging, and in chat rooms via mobile devices.

4. Create small databases to manage all audio, video and photo data.

5. Take high quality digital photos and videos and download them to the PC as well as scan and edit the photos and videos. Manipulate/edit various image and
video formats (in the relevant table, please specify at least two image and two video formats that can be accommodated by your solution(s)). .

6. Print documents to include photo quality color printing.

7. Manipulate pdf files, including editing pdfs, conversion from pdf to Word and vice versa.

8. Transfer information (audio, video and photos) between PC machines.

9. Manage the Director’s schedule by using an online calendar and day planner.

10.Utilize the internetto make online purchases, conduct banking services and research new audio, video and photoediting methods using a broadband service (in
the relevant table, please specify service provider).

11.Connect all required peripheral devices you deem necessary to the system unit.

12.Protect the PC and all components from dirty electrical power including under voltage (brownout or blackout) and overvoltage (power surge or spike).

13.Manage and protect the system, data, and information while working on the Internetincluding scanning all incoming emails, email attachments, and files
downloaded from Web-based sources; firewall, virus and spyware (security) protection; and checking websites for phishing and fraudulent activities.

Your specification must address each of the 13 items listed in the requirements.

Attach 1851

1852

Anderson points out that distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks can often be the result of unintended non-malicious interface or appropriate civic

action (2008, pp.641-642). Many people think that DDoS attacks cannot be avoided while using the TCP/IP protocol suite. Your opinion and constructive ideas on
this matter will be needed for this focused debate.

To complete this Discussion:

Evaluate the extent to which DDoS attacks are avoidable or inevitable when using the TCP/IP protocol suite. Within this focused debate, generate and
question some constructive ideas on how to improve the TCP/IP protocol to avoid DDoS attacks.

1853
refer toPPSub040815_285389_12
i need you to do Progress 2 , progress3 and progress 4
pleae find attach files for Progress report1
Document Preview:
COIT20234 Advanced Network Security Project Submission of Periodic Group Progress Report This Project Report number Please tick (only one) Report 1
Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Due date: Friday Weeks 4, 7, 9 and 11 Part: Progress Report Weighting: 12 marksof total assessment (3 marks x 4 progress reports)
Submission: Electronic (see course website for details) This reporting period (e.g. week 4, 7, 9 or 11): Student ID: Name: Group members (Student ID and
names): Schedule review In week 1 and week 2 the planned Golden Bank Network Analysis and Design are done. The detailed analysis has been taken and the
requirement for network components, tools and technologies have been identified according to optimal functional requirements of the banking system. The
analysis of the network and systems for the Golden bank are performed on the basis of basic needs of the online banking systems, Latest requirements of the
functions of online banking system, reviews of the requirements white papers, data speed of the network with different levels, researches reviews for the online
banking system requirements. The analysed documentation has been performed under system and network specification document. The system and network
specification taken for blueprint development of network and system layout for LAN and WAN for the Golden Bank Inland Tivoli. This blueprint is design of the
network and system of the Golden Bank. 2.1 Work completed Activity # Description Date started Assigned to % complete Analysis Detailed analysis for
requirements of systems and Network components, tools and technology are identified. These all identified tools and technologies are taken to further define the
layout and placement under the requirement specification. 27 Jul 2015 Member 1 Name 100% Design Detailed blueprint of layout of Golden Bank Networks and
Systems for LAN, WAN for branch office, head quarter, backup office and operational centre are done. VPN criteria...

Attach 1853

1854

The function remove of the class arrayListType removes only the first occurrence of an element. Add the function removeAll to the class arrayListType

that would remove all occurrences of a given element. Also, write the definition of the function removeAll and a program to test this function.

1855

asdfghjkmhgfdfghlkjhgfdsdfghjklmnbvcxbkuytrertyjkjhgfdfghjmnbgfdfghj,mnbvdnmjhgfhjkuytrtyjkjhgfds

1856

javascript:void(0);

1857

Manage Your Health, Inc. (MYH) is a Fortune 500 company that provides a variety of health care services across the globe. MYH has more than

20,000 full-time employees and more than 5,000 part-time employees. MYH recently updated its strategic plan, and key goals include reducing internal costs,
increasing cross-selling of products, and exploiting new Web-based technologies to help employees, customers, and suppliers work together to improve the
development and delivery of its health care products and services. Below are some ideas the Information Technology department has developed for supporting
these strategic goals: 1. Recreation and Wellness Intranet Project: Provide an application on the current intranet to help employees improve their health. A recent
study found that MYH, Inc. pays 20 percent more than the industry average for employee health care premiums, primarily due to the poor health of its employees.
You believe that this application will help improve employee health within one year of its rollout so that you can negotiate lower health insurance premiums,
providing net savings of at least $30/employee/year for full-time employees over the next four years. This application would include the following capabilities: ?
Allow employees to register for company-sponsored recreational programs, such as soccer, softball, bowling, jogging, walking, and other sports ? Allow employees
to register for company-sponsored classes and programs to help them manage their weight, reduce stress, stop smoking, and manage other healthrelated
issues. ? Track data on employee involvement in these recreational and health-management programs ? Offer incentives for people to join the programs and do
well in them (e.g., incentives for achieving weight goals, winning sports team competitions, etc.). 2. Health Coverage Costs Business Model: Develop an
application to track employee health care expenses and company health care costs. Health care premiums continue to increase, and the company has changed
insurance carriers several times in the past ten years. This application should allow business modeling of various scenarios as well as tracking and analyzing
current and past employee health care expenses and company health care costs. This application must be secure and run on the current intranet so several
managers and analysts could access it and download selective data for further analysis. The new application must also import data from the current systems that
track employee expenses submitted to the company and the company s costs to the insurance provider. You believe that having this data will help you revise
policies concerning employee contributions to health care premiums and help you negotiate for lower premiums with insurance companies. You estimate that this
application would save your company about 1 Kathy Schwalbe, “Information Technology Project Management,” Revised 7e, End of Chapter 4 $20/employee/year
for full-time employees over the next four years and cost about $100,000 to develop. 3. Cross-Selling System: Develop an application to improve cross-selling to
current customers. The current sales management system has separate sections for major product/service categories and different sales reps based on those
products and services. You see great opportunities to increase sales to current customers by providing them discounts when they purchase multiple
products/services. You estimate that this system would increase profits by $1 million each year for the next three years and cost about $800,000 each year for
development and maintenance. 4. Web-Enhanced Communications System: Develop a Web-based application to improve development and delivery of products
and services. There are currently several incompatible systems related to the development and delivery of products and services to customers. This application
would allow customers and suppliers to provide suggestions, enter orders, view the status and history of orders, and use electronic commerce capabilities to
purchase and sell their products. You estimate that this system would save your company about $2 million each year for three years after implementation. You
estimate it will take one year and $3 million to develop and require 20 percent of development costs each year to maintain.

Attach 1857

1858

There are two algorithms called Alg1 and Alg2 for a problem of size n. Alg1 runs in n2 microseconds and Alg2 runs in 100n log n microseconds. Alg1

can be implemented using 4 hours of programmer time and needs 2 minutes of CPU time. On the other hand, Alg2 requires 15 hours of programmer time and 6
minutes of CPU time. If programmers are paid 20 dollars per hour and CPU time costs 50 dollars per minute, how many times must a problem instance of size 500
be solved using Alg2 in order to justify its development cost?

Aug 20 2015 08:14 AM

1859

Assume thatgrade is avariable whosevalue is a letter grade-- any one of the following letters: 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'W', 'I'.Assume further that there

are the followingintvariables ,declared andalready initialized :acount,bcount,ccount,dcount,ecount,fcount,wcount,icount.
Write aswitch statement thatincrements the appropriatevariable (acount, bcount, ccount, etc.) depending on thevalue ofgrade. So ifgrade is 'A'
thenacount isincremented ; ifgrade is'B' thenbcount isincremented , and so on.

1860

Please solve this

Attach 1860

1861

Why is it useful to try to understand an enterprise’s activities at the value system and value chain levels rather than simply beginning with the business

process level?

1862

Why is it useful to try to understand an enterprise’s activities at the value system and value chain levels rather than simply beginning with

the business process level?

1863

disadvantages Of Digital Signal Processing Over Analog Signal Processing

1864
you will find attach file have Q about data mining
I appreciate your help
Thank you
Document Preview:
IT446 Assignment #1 Due Date: Saturday 19th Sep 11:59 PM Note: All questions carry equal marks Q1. Give two examples, apart from those given in the slides,
for each of the following: a) Data mining from the commercial viewpoint b) Data mining from the scientific viewpoint Q2. Differentiate between classification of data
and clustering of data with the help of suitable examples. Q3. Why do we need preprocessing of the data? Explain any 4 data preprocessing techniques. Q4.
Explain in detail the 5 number summary of distribution (i.e. Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum) of a box plot. Q5. Give any two situations in which a distribution
of data is negatively skewed in one and positively skewed in the other. You can think of any real life example.

Attach 1864

1865

Tutorials

1866
hello
you will find attach file have Q about data mining
I appreciate your help
Thank you
Document Preview:
IT446 Assignment #1 Due Date: Saturday 19th Sep 11:59 PM Note: All questions carry equal marks Q1. Give two examples, apart from those given in the slides,
for each of the following: a) Data mining from the commercial viewpoint b) Data mining from the scientific viewpoint Q2. Differentiate between classification of data
and clustering of data with the help of suitable examples. Q3. Why do we need preprocessing of the data? Explain any 4 data preprocessing techniques. Q4.
Explain in detail the 5 number summary of distribution (i.e. Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum) of a box plot. Q5. Give any two situations in which a distribution
of data is negatively skewed in one and positively skewed in the other. You can think of any real life example.

Attach 1866

1867

Start with the grammar G6, repeated here G6: ::= + |

Start with the grammar G6, repeated here
G6: ::= + |
::= * |
::= ( ) | a | b | c
Modify it in the following ways:
a. Add subtraction and division operators (- and /) with the customary precedence and associativity.
b. Then add a left-associative operator % between + and * in precedence.
Give the EBNF of the resulting grammar.

1868

In Multipath inheritance, in order to remove duplicate set of records in child class

1869
method
Task

Assessment item 2The business caseValue:30%Due date:11-Sep-2015Return date:02-Oct-2015Submission method optionsAlternative submission

Further background: Youth assigned to a headspace case worker may subsequently be admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of the local regional hospital.
Currently there is no requirement for the ED staff to notify the headspace case worker when a client has been released. Sometimes case workers are notified, but
often not. It means that days and even weeks can transpire before a case worker becomes aware of that release. In the mean time the young person tends to
return to their previous environment and circles of influence, without the coping and support mechanisms that a case worker can provide.
Outputs should include the following:
• A draft Project Vision.
This sets out the business case, and summarises other aspects of the project, including ‘needs and features’, and other product requirements.
• Functional Requirements Specification.
This should involve a Use Case Model, backed up by short use case descriptions. There should be at least one full use case description for a critical core use
case; this could be an Emergency Department admission, or inter-agency communication, such as between a public hospital psychiatrist and a headspace case
worker. (Identifying critical core use cases allows us to address the issue of project risk).
• Please note: Prior to the mid session break further information will be released in the Interact subject site. This is to mirror what often happens in real life. It will
further build up the case study.

RationaleThis assessment has been designed to allow students to test and demonstrate their topic understanding related to:
describe the context of an information system;

compare the range of requirements gathering techniques;

describe and apply feasibility study methods and approaches;

develop system requirements models
Marking criteria
Criteria

High Distinction (HD)

Distinction (DI)

Credit (CR)

Sets out the business
Sets out the business case,
and summarises other aspects
of the project, including ‘needs
and features’, and other
product requirements, in a way
Draft project
vision

that demonstrates breadth and
depth of understanding and
has insights and awareness of
deeper more subtle aspects of
the topic content. Evidence of
having researched/read more
widely beyond the core
materials.

case, and summarises
other aspects of the
project, including ‘needs
and features’, and other
product requirements, in
a way that demonstrates
breadth and depth of
understanding and has
insights and awareness of
many of the deeper more
subtle aspects of the topic
content.
Evidence of having read
beyond the core

descriptions, including a
critical core use case.
Demonstrates breadth and
Functional

depth of understanding and

Requirements

has insights and awareness of

Specification

deeper more subtle aspects of
the topic content. Evidence of

case, and summarises
other aspects of the
project, including
‘needs and features’,
and other product
requirements, in a way
that demonstrates
thorough
understanding of
material presented in
core texts and
readings.

having researched/read more
widely beyond the core
materials.

Sets out the business case,

other aspects of the

and summarises other

project, including ‘needs

aspects of the project,

and features’, and other

including ‘needs and

product requirements, in a

features’, and other product

way that demonstrates

requirements, in a way that

evidence of having read

demonstrates very little

material presented in core

evidence of having read

texts and readings.

material presented in core

However literature is

texts and readings.

presented uncritically in a

Inaccurate or inconsistent

purely descriptive manner. acknowledgment of sources.
Content acknowledged but Limited knowledge of key
not really taken into

principles and concepts.

Use Case Model and

descriptions, including a
critical core use case.

Use Case Model and

Demonstrates breadth

descriptions, including

and depth of

a critical core use case.

understanding and has

Demonstrates thorough

insights and awareness of understanding of
material presented in

subtle aspects of the topic core texts and
content. Evidence of

case, and summarises

account.

Use Case Model and

many of the deeper more

Fail (FL)

Sets out the business
Sets out the business

materials.

Use Case Model and

Pass (PS)

readings.

having read beyond the

descriptions, including a

Use Case Model and

critical core use case.

descriptions, including a

Demonstrates evidence of

critical core use case.

having read material

Demonstrates very little

presented in core texts

evidence of having read

and readings. However

material presented in core

literature is presented

texts and readings.

uncritically in a purely

Inaccurate or inconsistent

descriptive manner.

acknowledgment of sources.

Content acknowledged but Limited knowledge of key
not really taken into

core materials.

principles and concepts.

account.
Rudimentary skills in

Highly developed skills in
Presentation,
writing style,
grammer and
references

expression and presentation of
response.
Fluent writing style appropriate
to assessment task.
Grammar and spelling
accurate. Well-organised.

Well-developed skills in
expression and
presentation of response.
Fluent writing style
appropriate to
assessment task.
Grammar and spelling
accurate.

Good skills in
expression and clear
presentation of
response.
Mostly fluent writing
style appropriate to
assessment task.
Grammar and spelling
accurate.

Some skills in expression
and presentation of
response.
Meaning apparent but
writing style not always
fluent or well organised.
Grammar and spelling
contain errors.

expression and presentation
of response.
Not all material is relevant
and/or is presented in a
disorganised manner.
Meaning apparent but
writing style not fluent or
well-organised,
Grammar and spelling
contain errors.

1870

difference between conventional and modern software project management

1871

operating system
Please do all tasks

Attach 1871

1872

i need it by 21st

Attach 1872

1873

assume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. the agency wants to keep a database of its own property listings and

also wants to have access to the citywide multiple listings service used by all real estate agents. Which design strategy would you recommend for the constraction
of this system? Why?

1874

Choose one section heading or subheading from our text Bishop, Chapter 18 or 19 and explain the relevance of CMMI to that particular chosen

section.

1875

What is the major difference between Zenmap and OpenVAS

1876

A. Assume that you are developing a new system for a local state agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listings

and also wants to have acces to the citywide multiple listing service use by all real state agents. Which design strategy would you recommend for the
construction of this system? Why?

1877

Do some research on automated backup hardware. Write a short 1 page single spaced report detailing some of the technology that is available, such

as robotic tape silos etc.

1878

This is basically a wireless design for a building floor .Th e assignment should contain 2500 words. due date on 27 th of September 2015

Document Preview:
Updated: 17 Jun 2014 ASSESSMENT COVER SHEET The information on this form is collected for the primary purpose of assessing your assignment and
ensuring the academic integrity requirements of the University are met. Other purposes of collection include recording your plagiarism and collusion declaration,
attending to course and administrative matters and statistical analyses. If you choose not to complete all the questions on this form it may not be possible for
Monash University to assess your assignment. You have a right to access personal information that Monash University holds about you, subject to any exceptions
in relevant legislation. If you wish to seek access to your personal information or inquire about the handling of your personal information, please contact the
University Privacy Officer: [emailprotected] Unit Name and Code: FIT5083 Network infrastructure Campus: Caulfield Assignment Title:
Wireless network design Name of Lecturer: Abdul Khan Name of Tutor: Lawrence Colman Tutorial Day and Time: 10:00-12:00 am Tuesday Phone Number:
0468956564 Email Address: [emailprotected] Has any part of this assignment been previously submitted as part of another unit/course? No Due
Date: 4/9/2015 Date Submitted: 4/9/2015 All work must be submitted by the due date. If an extension of work is granted this must be specified with the signature
of the lecturer/tutor. Extension granted until (date)___________________ Signature of lecturer/tutor __________________________ Please note that it is your
responsibility to retain copies of your assessments. Intentional plagiarism or collusion amounts to cheating under Part 7 of the Monash University (Council)
Regulations Plagiarism: Plagiarism means taking and using another person’s ideas or manner of expressing them and passing them off as one’s own. For
example, by failing to give appropriate acknowledgement. The material used can be from any source (staff, students or the internet, published and...

Attach 1878

1879

Assume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listings and

also wants to have access to the citywide multiple listings service used by all real estate agents. Which design strategy would you recommend for the construction
of this system? Why?

1880

BUILD THE HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM PROJECT

using Concept of Operations (CONOPS)
1. System Overview
a. Background
b. Scope and Objectives
2. Current System
3. Concept of the Proposed System
4. Operational View Diagram (OV-1)
5. Operational Scenarios
6. Analysis of the Proposed System
7. Summary of Impacts
8. References
i have attached the reference file
there is no page limit and word limit
But i want the project in the above format i.e; CONOPS
thank you
Document Preview:
Table of Contents Introduction Concept of Operations. Requirement Analysis & Engineering Cooling System Operation Heating System Operation Home Security
System Technical feasibility Analysis Specification & Design UML Modeling Software UML Models and Diagrams Class & Object Diagrams for Cooling System
Class & Object Diagrams for Heating System Class & Object Diagrams For Security System Use Case Diagram of Operation Panel of House Hold Appliances Use
Case Diagram for Cooling System Use Case Diagram for Heating System Use Case Diagram for Security System State Machine or State Transition Diagrams for
House Hold Appliances Control Systems State Transition Diagram for Cooling System Mobile Application State Transition Diagram for Heating System Mobile
Application State Transition Diagram for Security System Mobile Application Sequence Diagrams for House Hold Appliances Control Systems Sequence Diagram
of Cooling System Control Panel Sequence Diagram of Heating System Control Panel Sequence Diagram for Security System Control Panel List of Figures
Diagram 1. Class Diagram Cooling System Diagram 2. Object Diagram Cooling System. Diagram 3. Class Diagram of Heating System Control Panel Diagram 4.

Object Diagram of Heating System Control Panel Diagram 5. Class Diagram for Security System Operation Panel Diagram 6. Object Diagram for Security System
Control Panel Diagram 7. Use case Diagram of Cooling System Operation panel Diagram 8. Use Case Diagram for Heating System Operation Panel Diagram 9.
Use Case Diagram of Security System Operation Panel Diagram 10. Sate Transition Diagram of Cooling System Operation Panel Diagram 11. State Transition
Diagram of heating System Operation panel. Diagram 12. State Transition Diagram of Security System Control Panel Diagram 13. Sequence Diagram of Cooling
System Control Panel Diagram 14. Sequence Diagram of Heating System Control Panel Diagram 15. Sequence Diagram of Security System Control...

Attach 1880

1881

A. Assume you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listings and also

wants to have access to the citywide multiple listing service used by all real estate agents. Which design strategy would you recommend for the construction of this
system? Why?

1882

What is the maximum size of the data field for a 3-slot Bluetooth frame at basic rate? Explain your answer.

1883

Assume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own property listing and

also wants to have access to the citywide multiple listing service used by all real estate agents Which design strategy would you recommend for the construction of
this system? Why?

1884

Implement the database and populate with sample data for every table

1885

ITSE 1450 - Systems Analysis and Design: Project Management Lab 3 – Project Management of an Information Technology Project In this lab you

need to complete several tasks to provide project scope, time, cost and human resource management of an Information Technology project. SOFTWARE
TRAINING PROGRAM 1 ABC Company has 50,000 employees and wants to increase employee productivity by setting up an internal software applications
training program. The training program will teach employees how to use Microsoft software application programs such as Word 2013, Excel 2013, PowerPoint
2013, Access 2013, and Project 2013. Courses will be offered in the evenings and on Saturdays and taught by qualified volunteer employees. Instructors will be
paid $40 per hour. In the past, employees were sent to courses offered by local vendors during company time. In contrast, this internal training program should
save the company money on training as well as make people more productive. The Human Resources department will manage the program, and any employee
can take the courses. Employees will receive a certificate for completing courses, and a copy will be put in their personnel files. The company is not sure which
vendor s off-the-shelf training materials to use. The company needs to set up a training classroom, survey employees on desired courses, find qualified volunteer
instructors, and start offering courses. The company wants to offer the first courses within six months. One person from Human Resources is assigned full time to
manage this project, and top management has pledged its support. TASKS 1. Project Scope Management a. Create a WBS for this project and enter the tasks in
Project 2013. Create milestones and summary tasks. Assume that some of the project management tasks you need to do are similar to tasks from the Project A+
example. b. Some of the tasks specific to this project will be to: a. Review off-the-shelf training materials from three major vendors and decide which materials to
use. b. Negotiate a contract with the selected vendor for its materials. c. Develop communications information about this new training program. Disseminate the
information via department meetings, e-mail, the company s intranet, and flyers to all employees. d. Create a survey to determine the number and type of courses
needed and employees preferred times for taking courses. e. Administer the survey. f. Solicit qualified volunteers to teach the courses. 1 Kathy Schwalbe,
“Information Technology Project Management,” Revised 6e, Appendix A g. Review resumes, interview candidates for teaching the courses, and develop a list of

preferred instructors. h. Coordinate with the Facilities department to build two classrooms with 20 personal computers each, a teacher station, and an overhead
projection system (assume that Facilities will manage this part of the project). i. Schedule courses. j. Develop a fair system for signing up for classes. k. Develop a
course evaluation form to assess the usefulness of each course and the instructor s teaching ability. l. Offer classes. 2. Project Time Management a. Enter
durations for each task, and then link the tasks as appropriate. Be sure that all tasks are linked (in some fashion) to the start and end of the project. Assume that
you have six months to complete the entire project. Hint: Use the Project files from previous labs as an example. b. Save the Gantt chart view and Network
diagram view for the project. c. Save the Schedule table to see key dates and slack times for each task. 3. Project Cost Management a. Assume that you have
three people working on the project and each of them would charge $20 per hour. Enter this information in the Resource Sheet. b. Estimate that each person will
spend an average of about five hours per week for the four-month period. Assign resources to the tasks, and try to make the final cost in line with this estimate. c.
Save the budget report for your project. 4. Project Human Resource Management a. Assume that you have four people from various departments available part
time to support the full-time Human Resources person, Terry, on the project. Assume that Terry s hourly rate is $40. Two people from the Information Technology
department will each spend up to 25% of their time supporting the project. Their hourly rate is $50. One person from the Marketing department is available 25% of
the time at $40 per hour, and one person from Corporate is available 30% of the time at $35 per hour. Enter this information about time and hourly wages into the
Resource Sheet. Assume that the cost to build the two classrooms will be $100,000, and enter it as a fixed cost. b. Using your best judgment, assign resources to
the tasks. c. View the Resource Graphs for each person. If anyone is overallocated, make adjustments. Turn In All labs will be graded in Blackboard. Once you
have completed the tasks related to this lab, submit solution files on the Lab 3 link (Assignments/Labs/Lab3): 1. Submit all .mpp files created for this lab 2. Gantt
Chart and Network Diagram 3. Time schedule 4. Budget 5. Resource usage view. Has to be done in project 13

1886

I need help in how to work out rational algebra operations.

Attach 1886

1887

tell me about yourself and also about services WHT U DID ??????

1888

i n t *px;

1889

Enter nested functions in the Recommendation column to indicate Need to remodel if the apartment is unoccupied and was last remodeled before

2005. For all other apartments, display No change.

1890

[database] assume thatAssume that you are developing a new system for a local real estate agency. The agency wants to keep a database of its own

property listings and also wants to have access to the citywide multiple listings service used by all real estate agents. Which design strategy would you
recommend for the construction of this system? Why?you are a developing a new system for a local real estate agency.d

1891

Every School has many teachers and many students. Each student is assigned to one school and each teacher works for one school only. Each

teacher teaches more than one subject but a subject may be taught by more than one teacher. The database should store the number of hours a teacher spent
teaching a subject. Information held on each teacher includes his/her tax file number, name (first and last), gender and qualifications. The data held on each
subject includes subject title and type. Each student can study more than one subject and a subject may be studied by more than one student. Data held on each
student includes the student number, name (first and last), gender and date of birth. Each school is managed by one of its teachers. The database should keep
track of the date he/she started managing the school. Data stored on each school includes the school’s code, name, address (town, street and postcode) and
phone. For the above scenario, you need to perform the following tasks: 1. Draw ERD with key attributes. You can use any notation to draw the ERD. Must include
legend. (8 Marks) 2. Data dictionary for the above scenario (7 Marks) 3. Implement the database and populate with sample data for every table. (15 Marks) I need
it to be done in sql

Attach 1891

1892

Every School has many teachers and many students. Each student is assigned to one school and each teacher works for one school only. Each

teacher teaches more than one subject but a subject may be taught by more than one teacher. The database should store the number of hours a teacher spent
teaching a subject. Information held on each teacher includes his/her tax file number, name (first and last), gender and qualifications. The data held on each
subject includes subject title and type. Each student can study more than one subject and a subject may be studied by more than one student. Data held on each
student includes the student number, name (first and last), gender and date of birth. Each school is managed by one of its teachers. The database should keep
track of the date he/she started managing the school. Data stored on each school includes the school’s code, name, address (town, street and postcode) and
phone. For the above scenario, you need to perform the following tasks: 1. Draw ERD with key attributes. You can use any notation to draw the ERD. Must include
legend. (8 Marks) 2. Data dictionary for the above scenario (7 Marks) 3. Implement the database and populate with sample data for every table. (15 Marks) I need
it to be done in sql

1893

: Call a procedure 3-way-merge(A, p, q1, q2, r) to merge three sorted subarrays to a sorted array

1894

Try solving the above problem using the weighted sum method (Use fmincon).

1895

Solve the above optimization problem using fmincon.

1896

Solve the optimization problem using the genetic algorithm solver in MATLAB. Run the program 20 times. Do you obtain the same answer for all the

runs? Explain why or why not?

1897

You may have noticed that for some runs, ga terminates with an error that the nonlinear constraint file is not returning a real value. Determine why that

happens by closely examining your code. How would you fix this issue? Subsequently, re-run the ga routine the number of times needed to ensure the issue has
been fixed.

1898

As we studied in Chapter 7, we need to be careful about numerical scaling issues for the situations you encountered in the previous question.

Examine whether the current problem has such scaling issues. To make our program more robust, fix the scaling issue as discussed in Chapter 7.

1899

How many function evaluations does the genetic algorithm need? How many function evaluations does fmincon need?

1900

Plot this function to study the local/global optima for this problem.

1901

Use fmincon to minimize the function. Do you obtain the global optimum? Try different starting points.

1902

Now try the ga command. Do you obtain the global minima? Note that you need to change the “initial range” option to help the ga command.

1903

Compare the number of function evaluations for each optimization as required by the genetic algorithm and fmincon.

1904

Formulate the optimization problem.

1905

Determine the optimum route for the traveling salesman (using MATLAB GA).

1906

If the salesman has to return to the starting city at the end of his journey, will the optimum route change? (Justify the answer through optimization)

1907

Derive the equations for the stresses S 1 and S 2 for the truss problem shown in Eqs.1 and 16.9.

1908

Using MATLAB, duplicate the deterministic two bar truss results presented in Sec.16.

1909

Duplicate the results found in Fig.16.4 using the normplot and normrnd commands MATLAB.

1910

Consider the results of Sec.16.6.1.

1911

Duplicate the results of the example discussion of Sec.16.6.1.

1912

Now let the number of samples be 10. Estimate the failure probability for this case. Run your program 10 different times and observe the results. Do

all the 10 runs match? Explain.

1913

Increase the number of samples to 1,000, 10,000, and 1,000,000. For each case, run your program 10 times and record the probability of failure

values. As the number of samples increase, report your observations regarding the failure probability values of the multiple runs.

1914

For each case of number of samples given in Problem 16.4, plot the histogram of the stress values and label your plot. Observe the change in the

shape and position of the histogram as you increase the number of samples. Explain your observations.

1915

Where does the maximum allowable stress, S max , lie on the plot? Show the failure region on the plot.

1916

Comment as to why the failure probability in this case appears sensible using the histogram plot and the S max value.

1917

Repeat Parts (2) through (3) of Problem 16.4 with a mean A 1 of 1 . 8 in, and the stand deviation given in Sec.16.6.1. How do the values of the failure

probabilities change when compared to Problem 16.4?

1918

Observe the change in the shape and position of the histogram when compared to those obtained in Problem 16.5. What do you observe? (Hint: Pay

special attention to the tails of the histogram distribution, and compare it with the maximum allowable stress value.)

1919

Identify the failure regions on the plot. Justify the failure probability values for this case using the histogram plot.

1920

In the constraint shown in Eq.16.5, observe that the structural volume is restricted to be 4,000 in

3

. Show this value on your histogram plot. Comment

on the failure region of the constraint.

1921

How does the failure region of the equality constraint differ from that of the inequality constraint studied in the earlier examples?

What can we possibly change in the given data to reduce the failure region for the
equality constraint? How can optimization help in this context?
1922

1.
2.

1923

Perform a literature survey and find at least two examples of discrete optimization problems that were not discussed in the chapter.

1924

Solve the problem presented in Sec. 14.3.2 graphically. In addition, reproduce the d shown in Fig. 14.2. Clearly label your plot.

1925

Solve the following integer problem graphically. Clearly label your plots.

(14.63)

subject to

(14.64)

(14.65)

(14.66)

(14.67)

1926

Solve the following integer problem graphically. Clearly label your plots.

(14.68)

subject to

(14.69)

(14.70)

(14.71)

(14.72)

1927

Solve the integer problem shown in Problem 14.3 using the branch and bound meth Clearly write down the subproblem statement, and the

corresponding optimal solute

1928

Solve the integer problem shown in Problem 14.4 using the branch and bound meth Write down the detailed solutions.

1029

Duplicate the results for the cutting plane method example discussed in Sec. 14.3.5

1930

Solve the integer problem shown in Problem 14.3 using Gomory’s cutting plane met Clearly write down the subproblem statement, and the

corresponding optimal solute

1931

Solve the integer problem shown in Problem 14.4 using Gomory’s cutting plane met Write down the detailed solutions.

1932

Consider the following optimization problem:

(13.139)

subject to

(13.140)

1933

Find all the points that satisfy the KKT condition using Lagrange multipliers.

1934

Use the variable elimination method to solve the problem (eliminate x 1 ). Compare the solutions obtained using the variable elimination method with

those obtained in Question 1.

1935

Consider the following optimization problem:

(13.144)

subject to

(13.145)

(13.146)

(13.147)

(13.148)

(13.149)

(13.150)

1936

Write down the Karush-Kuhn Tucker (KKT) necessary conditions for this problem

1937

You are given that constraints g 1 and g 4 are active, and the other constraints are inactive. Given this information, simplify the KKT conditions found

in No. 1.

1938

Find all the possible KKT points using the simplified KKT conditions from No. 2.

1939

Perform four unconstrained optimizations using the following values for the penalty parameter: R = 1 , 0 . 1 , 0 . 01, and 0 . 001.

1940

For each R , prepare a table that provides the value of the penalty parameter, the values of the design variables, objective function and the constraint.

1941

Can you guess where the constrained minimum might be?

1942

Consider the following problem:

(13.153)

subject to

(13.154)

1943

Determine the minimum of f ( x ) by hand. Report the values of the optimum x

and the function value at this point.

1944

This sub-problem is a simple demonstration of how constrained optimization is sometimes performed. Let us add another component to the above

function. The function now takes the form f ( x ) = 2 x

3

−3x

2

2

− 12 x + 1 + R ( x − 6) , where R is a constant. Plot this new function for R = 0 ,R = 1 ,R = 10 ,R =

100 , and R = 1 , 000 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8 on the same figure. Use different colors for each R . Keep your vertical axis limits between −100 and 800.

1945

By looking at the plot in Part (b), can you tell what the minimum of the new function is for the different values of R ? Indicate these minima on the plot,

and compare them with the minimum of the original function in Part (a). What is the minimum of the new function if R = ∞∞?

1946

Explain how this problem shows you one way to solve constrained optimization problems.

1947

Calculate the Hessian matrix of the function.

1948

Calculate the Hessian at (i)[1 , 1], (ii)[2 , 2], and (iii)[0 , 0].

1949

Use optimality conditions to classify the points in Question (2) as minimum, maximum, or saddle points.

1950

Calculate the gradient vector of the above function by hand.

1951

Calculate the gradient at the following points by hand: (i)[1 , 1], (ii)[2 , 2], and (iii)[0 , 0].

1952

Write a small program in MATLAB that evaluates the gradient at each point in a two-dimensional grid in the space –5 ≤ x 1 ≤ 5. Choose an appropriate

grid spacing (at least 100 points).

1953

Find a way in MATLAB to plot each gradient vector of Question (3) as a small arrow (pointing in the correct direction) at its x 1 , x 2 location; that is, if

you evaluated 1 , 000 gradient vectors in Question 3, then your plot should contain 1, 000 arrows. In addition, plot the contours of f on top of the gradient plot.

1954

Interpret your plot and comment on the likely location of the minimum point by observing the gradient vectors and the contours of f .

1955

Write a program to estimate the minimum of the function using the steepest descent method. Use the starting point [10 , 1].

1956

Compare your optimum results with the results of fmincon. How many function evaluations does your code need? How many function evaluations

does fmincon need?

1957

On the contour plot of the function, plot the sequence of points obtained during the optimization iterations using your steepest descent code.

1958

Using the following listed methods, estimate the minimum of the above function using up to three iterations. Solve Parts (a) through (c) by hand, and

please show your complete work.

1.

Interval Halving Method ( i.e. , Bisection method)

2.

Newton-Raphson Method using x 0 = 1 as the starting point

3.

Golden Section Method

4.

Plot the function f ( x ) using MATLAB, and identify the optimum solution in the range of x . For Parts (a) through
(c), calculate the percentage error between the optimum x value and the value of x after three iterations. Present
your results in a tabular form, as shown below, for methods in Parts (a), (b), and (c).

1959

Write a MATLAB code for the Newton-Raphson method that evaluates the minimum of the function in Problem 1. Use an appropriate stopping

criterion.

1960

Verify your results using fmincon. Make sure your code gives you the same solution as that given by fmincon. You might have to change your stopping

criterion.

1961

How many function evaluations does your code need? How many function evaluations does fmincon need? Use the same starting point for your code

and fmincon.

Table 12.6. Results Summary for Given Search Methods

Iteration (a) (b) (c)

1

2

3

xf(x)xf(x)xf(x)

1962

Using the following methods, estimate the minimum of the above function by implementing up to three iterations. Solve Parts (a) through (c) by hand,

and please show your complete work.

1.

Bisection Method

2.

Secant Method

3.

Successive quadratic estimation Present your results in a tabular form, as shown below, for methods in Parts (a), (b), and (c).

1963

Write a MATLAB code for the above three methods for the given function. Use an appropriate stopping criterion.

Table 12.7. Results Summary for Given Search Methods

Iteration (a) (b) (c)

xf(x)xf(x)xf(x)

1

2

3

1964

Consider the LP problem given in Sec. 11.3.1. Reproduce the results shown in Fig. 11.1(a) using MATLAB. How does the optimal solution change if a

constant is added to the objective function? Run your MATLAB code with five different starting points. Do you observe a change in the optimal results?

1965

Consider the LP problem given in Sec. 11.3.2. Reproduce the results shown in Fig. 11.1(b) using MATLAB. Run your MATLAB code with five different

starting points. Do you observe a change in the optimal results?

1966

How many basic solutions are possible for this set of constraints?

1967

Transform them into the reduced row echelon form with respect to the basic variables x 1 , x 2 , and x 3 .

1968

Solve the LP formulation given in Problem 11.4 using linprog.

1969

Consider the following LP problem from Sec. 11.3.1. Solve it using the Simplex method.

(11.131)

subject to

(11.132)

(11.133)

(11.134)

7.

1970

Solve the following problem using the Simplex method. Verify the correctness of your solution using linprog.

(11.135)

subject to

(11.136)

(11.137)

(11.138)

(11.139)

1971

Formulate a discrete optimization problem based on your real-world engineering design experience. Solve it using the appropriate optimization

method.

 Use exhaustive search to find the optimum for the following discrete optimization problem.
(9.26)

subject to
(9.27)
(9.28)
3.

1972

Consider the two discrete optimization problems given in Sec. 9.4. Reproduce the results of the two problems using the MATLAB function linprog.

Solve the second problem graphically, and show the actual optimum on your figure.

 Reproduce the results for the example given in Sec. 9.5.3. Turn in your M-file and results.

1973

Consider the linear discrete optimization problem given in Sec. 9.5.3. Apply the branch and bound method starting with x 2 .

1974

Use the exhaustive search technique to find the global optimum for the following optimization problem.

(8.12)

subject to

(8.13)

(8.14)

1975

Use the multiple start method to find the global optimum for the following problem.

(8.15)

subject to

(8.16)

1976

Use GA to find the global optimum for the following problem.

(8.17)

subject to

(8.18)

1977

Consider the following optimization problem. Solve it using the GA Solver in MATLAB, using both the m-files and the graphical user interface.

(8.19)
subject to
(8.20)
(8.21)
(8.22)
(8.23)
5.

1978

Give five reasons why we need to pay attention to numerical issues in our engineering activities, which include design, analysis, and optimization. Not

all five should be from the book.

1979

What does it mean for a problem to be (i) well-posed?, (ii) ill-conditioned? Explain each in approximately 200 words.

1980

Provide three important reasons why optimization codes sometimes do not work well. Explain each in detail in approximately 300 words.

1981

Evaluate A 1 in Eq. 7.2, while A is given by Eq. 7.1. Prove that Eq. 7.2 indeed holds true for any positive integer n .

1982

Let α = 0 . 5 in Eq. 7.1. Evaluate A 1 in Eq. 7.2 with n = 2. Perform this calculation without a computer, and show all your intermediate steps. This

problem will also help you recall elementary matrix algebra. Please do a quick review if some related concepts have become a bit rusty in your mind.

1983

How can you evaluate the condition number of a symmetric matrix; and how does this number relate to its numerical conditioning properties?

1984

Use MATLAB to solve the optimization problem defined by Eqs. 7.10, 7.11, and

7.12. Do so without implementing any scaling. Compare the solution you obtained with the solution x = 10 –6 ×{3 .083 , 1 . 541}. Which solution yields a lower value
of the objective function? Explain.

1985

Consider the general optimization problem statement defined by Eqs. 7.13 through

7.18. (a) Provide the mathematical equation for a constraint that can be interchangeably used either in Eq. 7.15 or Eq. 7.17. Explain. Is it computationally more
desirable to use this constraint in Eq. 7.15 or Eq. 7.17? Explain. (b) Provide the mathematical equation for a constraint that can be used in Eq. 7.15, but not in Eq.
7.17. Explain.

1986

What are the most important failure modes in this problem?

1987

Clearly write down the mathematical expressions for your constraints.

1988

Formulate the bi-objective optimization problem, and obtain the Pareto frontier.

1989

Use the default settings for the function fmincon in the MATLAB Optimization Toolbox to obtain an optimal solution, x , to this problem. Was your

*

solution process able to converge?

1990

At what value of x does the maximum deflection occur? At what value of x does the maximum stress occur?

1991

What are your design objectives in this problem? Write down the mathematical expressions for the maximum deflection and the mass of the beam.

1992

What are your design variables in this problem?

1993

Write down the mathematical expressions of the behavioral and side constraints for this problem.

1994

Clearly write down your multiobjective problem formulation.

1995

Obtain the Pareto frontier of the above problem using fmincon.

1996

What does it mean for a problem to be (i) well-posed?, (ii) ill-conditioned? Explain each in approximately 200 words.

1997

Provide three important reasons why optimization codes sometimes do not work well. Explain each in detail in approximately 300 words.

1998

Evaluate A 1 in Eq. 7.2, while A is given by Eq. 7.1. Prove that Eq. 7.2 indeed holds true for any positive integer n .

1999

Let α = 0 . 5 in Eq. 7.1. Evaluate A 1 in Eq. 7.2 with n = 2. Perform this calculation without a computer, and show all your intermediate steps. This

problem will also help you recall elementary matrix algebra. Please do a quick review if some related concepts have become a bit rusty in your mind.

2000

How can you evaluate the condition number of a symmetric matrix; and how does this number relate to its numerical conditioning properties?

2001

Consider the following bi-objective optimization problem. This is a standard single-variable bi-objective problem often used to test multiobjective

optimizers.

μ 1= x 2

(6.29)

μ 2 = ( x – 2) 2

(6.30)

–5 ≤ x ≤ 5

(6.31)
1.

Obtain several optimal points on the Pareto frontier using the weighted sum method. Use the MATLAB function fmincon for
optimization. Plot each design objective as a function of x on the same figure (as shown in Fig. 6.2). Identify on this plot, the
Pareto solutions that you just obtained. Turn in your M-files. (b) Plot the Pareto optimal points in the μ 1 - μ 2 space. Turn in
your M-files and the plot.

2002

Consider the following bi-objective optimization problem.

μ 1 = sin θ

(6.32)

μ 2 = 1 – sin 7 θ

(6.33)

0.5326 ≤ θ ≤ 1.2532

(6.34)
1.

Obtain several optimal points on the Pareto frontier using the weighted sum method. Use the MATLAB function fmincon for
optimization. Plot the points in the μ 1 - μ 2 space. Turn in your M-files and the plot. (b) Do you think that the weighted sum
method performs satisfactorily in obtaining points on the Pareto frontier? (c) Use the compromise programming approach
with an appropriate value for the exponent to obtain the Pareto frontier. Turn in the plot and the M-file that you think yields the
most satisfactory results.

2003

1.

Find the tallest water tower design, h .

2.

Find the largest storage capacity design.

3.

Find four other Pareto solutions that are significantly different from any other design you have obtained. How do you compare your designs to decide
the extent to which they are different?

4.

Plot all your designs from the previous parts in the μ 1 - μ 2 space. Turn in your plot and your M-files.

2004

Generate the Pareto frontier using the weighted sum method. Do you obtain a good representation of the Pareto frontier? Explain why or why not.

2005

Use the compromise programming method to obtain the Pareto frontier. What value of the exponent gives an adequate representation of the Pareto

frontier?

2006

Discuss your ability to generate the Pareto frontier in terms of the exponents you used in the compromise programming formulation. Which exponents

worked satisfactorily for the complete Pareto frontier generation?

2007

Plot the Pareto frontier for this problem using the weighted sum method. Do you obtain a good representation of the Pareto frontier?

2008

Give one possible reason why the weighted sum method does not give all the Pareto points for this problem. Suggest another method that you think

will achieve a good representation of the Pareto frontier.

2009

Solve the above problem using the method you suggested in response to the previous question. Plot at least 50 Pareto points.

2010

Explain why the method you suggested is more suitable than the weighted sum method for solving similar problems.

2011

Find the design that yields the minimum weight for the speed reducer, subject to the constraints discussed above.

2012

Find the design that yields the minimum stress for the gear, subject to the constraints discussed above.

2013

Now, try to minimize the weight and the stress simultaneously. Use the weighted sum method to form the AOF. Minimize the AOF for a set of 10

evenly spaced weights between zero and one. Can a complete representation of the Pareto frontier be obtained?

2014

How can a better representation of the Pareto frontier be obtained? (Hint: Consider a larger set of evenly spaced weights between zero and one when

compared to Part (c). Increase the number of points until you can obtain a complete representation of the Pareto frontier). Discuss the advantages/disadvantages
of using the technique discussed above, especially in large scale problems.

2015

Minimize the total cost of the pressure vessel, which is a combination of the welding, material, and forming costs. The total cost of the system is given

as.

2016

What other design objectives do you think could be considered in this problem? Develop an equation for the hoop stress in the cylindrical section.

2017

Minimize this hoop stress in the pressure vessel. Provide the minimum hoop stress value, as well as the optimal values, for the design variables.

2018

You are now asked to minimize both objectives (cost and hoop stress) simultaneously. Plot the Pareto frontier for this bi-objective problem. Determine

whether and when the solutions you obtained in No. 1 and No. 3 belong to the Pareto frontier of the bi-objective problem.

2019

Modify your code for the bi-objective problem to ensure that the hoop stress does not exceed the maximum stress for carbon steel ( σ max = 35,000

psi). Do you expect the Pareto solutions to be different from those of No. 4 with the inclusion of this additional constraint? To be certain, repeat No. 4 with your
modified code. Is the new Pareto frontier different from the one you obtained in No. 4? Explain why or why not.

2020

Maximize Q for a window with L win = 1 m, satisfying all the conditions previously stated for each TE unit. Can all the TE units satisfy the conditions

imposed? Develop a table that provides the optimum values for the design variables,V te , Q , P , and the COP for the TE units that satisfy the constraints.

2021

If the experts claim that a window with L win = 1 m allows 581 W to enter the building, what conclusions can you draw based on the feasibility of the

Active Window with respect to the TE units?

2022

Remove the constraint for COP and maximize Q for each TE unit. Develop a table similar to that in No. 1 above.

2023

With the constraint for COP removed, plot a Pareto frontier that maximizes Q and minimizes P for each TE unit. Identify the point on each plot that

corresponds to the maximum COP achievable by that TE unit.

2024

Compare the value of Q for TE No. 3 corresponding to the maximum COP with that from No. 1. What observation can be made?

2025

Provide a hand-drawn sketch of a representative table (four-legged with

rectangular table top) and clearly label and list the geometrical design variables. Be as comprehensive as possible.

2026

Identify three differen types of analysis models (analytical, simulation-based, and surrogate models) that can be used to represent the weight-holding

capacity of the table as a function of the geometrical variables. If you are not from the mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, structural engineering or
other related disciplines, feel free to discuss the problem with your peers who are from those disciplines in order to identify the analysis models.

2027

Compare and contrast the process of (i) conceptual design, (ii) preliminary design, and (iii) detailed design in general and in the development of an

automobile. Feel free to refer to the appropriate literature for this purpose.

2028

Give an example of an original engineering design problem and clearly outline the objectives, the constraints, and the design variables.

2029

Outline two advantages and two limitations (each) of experiment-based analysis and simulation-based analysis.

2030

From your current understanding of design, analysis, and optimization, elaborate on the relationship of analysisand optimization in the context

of computational expense (in 200-300 words).

2031

In 300-400 words, discuss the role of simulation software ( e.g. , ANSYS, Abaqus, and Simulink) in engineering analysis and optimization, and

compare and contrast the impact of licensed software and open-source software (e.g. , free codes) in performing engineering design in the 21st century.

2032

Describe a design problem of your interest (in 400-500 words) where optimization can be applied to enrich the design. It could be a problem you are

currently working on ( e.g. , Capstone design) or a problem you plan to work on. Clearly define the scope of applying optimization and the expected improvement
in that context. Doctoral students are strongly recommended to identify a problem that is closely related to their principal area of research.

2033

Conceive a modern real life product ( e.g. , smartphone, solar PV, or PHEV) where optimization can be used to further improve its design. Describe

the scope of applying optimization in that context (in 200-400 words). Specifically state (i) what objectives will need to be maximized and minimized, (ii) what
features of the product could serve as design variables, and (iii) what practical constraints should be taken into consideration during optimization.

2034

Compare and contrast (i) quantitative optimization-based design, and (ii) experience-based design.

2035

From your own standpoint, explain the role of modern day computing (from portable ultrabooks to number-crunching supercomputers) in the

application of optimization to real life design.

2036

Expand on the discussion associated with Fig. 3.4 where the evolutionary transformation of the airplane is briefly discussed. Let your discussion be

guided by your initial understanding of the role of computational optimization in modern engineering and related fields, as well as finance and other quantitative
areas. There is not specific goodanswer to this question, while some may be more thoughtful and imaginative than others. A bit of research and cursory exploration
of this book may be helpful. Limit your discussion to no more than one to two pages.

2037

2.

 (a) Create a folder on your computer and name it after your last name.
Set the Current Directory of MATLAB to the directory created in Part (a).

Create and save an empty M-file in this directory, and name it after your first name.

2.

Undock the Current Directory Window from the MATLAB Desktop and take a screen shot of this directory. Turn in this screen
shot.

2.

Start MATLAB.

2.

Define the array z=[1/6 3/4 2/9] in the Command Window.

2.

Using the help browser, find the command that can be used to change the (1) format, and (2) spacing of the numeric output
of the above array in the Command Window.

2.

Find the commands that can be used to print (1) the complete contents in the Command Window, and (2) a selection of the
contents in the Command Window.

2.

Give at least two examples each for different format and spacing commands available in MATLAB for the array z.

2.

For each example, print z and turn in the output displayed in the Command Window.

2.

(a) Create two arrays A and B (4x2 and 2x4, respectively) in the Command Window You can randomly choose elements in A
and B.

2.

From the Command History browser, create an M-file that includes the definitions of A and B.

2.

In this M-file, compute the following: (1) A*B, (2) B*A (3) Is A*B = B*A? What property of matrix multiplication can be recalled
with the help of this example? Comment on these observations in about two lines.

2.

Change all the values of the array elements of A and B using the Variable Editor in the MATLAB Desktop environment to any
values of your choice.

2.

Repeat Parts (a) through (c) for the new Aand B.

2.

Submit the M files, the output in the Command Window, and screen shots of the Variable Editor before and after modifying
the values.

2.

In the Command Window, create an array, x, such that x ranges from 0 to 10.

2.

Compute four arrays: y1=sin(x), y2=exp(x), y3=x^2+2x+1, and y4=x^3+5 in th Command Window. You need to make sure
that the sizes of x and y are the same.

2.Save all the arrays computed in Parts (a) and (b) on your hard drive as .mat files

2.

2.

Write an M-file that loads these .mat files from your hard drive.

In the same M-file, add a code to plot the arrays y1, y2 y3 and y4 against x, all i the same plot, with different line styles. Make
the plots look professional. Add your name, title, axes legends, and labels to the plot.

2.

Identify which factors impact the smoothness of the above plotted curves. Create four new figures, each showing the plots of
y1, y2, y3, and y4, respectively, as a

function of x. In each figure, show at least three plots with increasing curve smoothness. Discuss your results in three to four lines. The objective here is to develop
your understanding of what is sufficient to obtain a visually smooth curve in practice.

2038

Submit the M-file, plots, and the discussions.

1.

Generate the following matrices: A = [2 4 6;3 5 1;7 5 9], B = [1 3 6], and C = [5;7;2;0].

1.

Generate a matrix D = [A;B].

2.

Now generate a new matrix E = [D C].

3.

Find the determinant of matrix E.

4.

Find the inverse of matrix E.

5.

Find the transpose of matrix E.

6.

Define a new matrix F = [3;17;12;-2].

7.

Define another matrix H = [5 7 4 -2;3 12 -6 14].

8.

Explain whether or not the following matrix multiplications are possible: (1) EE, (2) FF, (3) HH, (4) EF, (5) FE, (6) HE, (7) EH, (8) FH and (9) HF.

9.

In the cases for which multiplication is possible, perform it using MATLAB. Turn in a print out of your results (from the Command Window) of Parts (a)
through (e), and (h).

A = [12 14 16 40; 32 15 11 1; 7 25 19 10],

B = [9 1 36 4; 19 0 -31 2], and C = [7; 5; 7; 2; 0].

2039

Generate a matrix D = [A;B].

1.Now generate a new matrix E = [D C].

2.Find the determinant of matrix E.

3.Find the inverse of matrix E.

4.Find the transpose of matrix E.

5.Define a new matrix F = [16;3;17;12;-2].

6.Define another matrix H = [5 7 4 -2 -1;-9 3 12 -6 14].

7.Give reasons: which of the following matrix multiplications are possible – (1)

EE, (2) FF, (3) HH, (4) EF, (5) FE, (6) HE, (7) EH, (8) FH and (9) HF.

8.

In the cases for which multiplication is possible, perform it using MATLAB.

2040

Define the matrices: A = [12 16 4;23 1 21;9 10 1]

and B = [2 7 14;3 11 2;-9 10 12].

1.

Perform matrix multiplication AB.

2.

Perform matrix multiplication BA.

3.

Are the answers from Parts (a) and (b) the same? If yes, explain why. If not, explain why.

4.

Find the inverse of A, and call it matrix X.

5.

Find the inverse of B, and call it matrix Y.

6.

Perform matrix multiplication A*X.

7.

Perform matrix multiplication B*Y.

8.

Are the answers from Parts (g) and (h) the same. If yes, explain why. If not, explain why.

9.

Submit a printout of your results (from the Command Window) for Parts (a) through (h).

2041

Define the matrices A = [12 16 4;23 1 21;9 10 1], B = [2 7 14;3 11 2;-9 10 12], C = [43 12;13 12], and D = [1 2 3;4 5 6].

1.Perform the following additions: (1) A+B, (2) A+C, (3) A+D, (4) B+C, (5) B+D, and

(6) C+D.

2.

Are each of the above additions possible? If yes, explain why. If not, explain why.

2.

Perform the following operations: (1) A+B and (2) B+A. Is the answer to these tw additions the same? If not, explain why. If yes, which matrix addition
property i demonstrated using these two additions?

2.

2042

Submit a print out your results (from the Command Window) for Parts (a) and (c), and discussions for the Part (b).

Define a matrix A = [12 16 4;23 1 21;9 10 1] and

B = [2 7 14;3 11 2;-9 10 12].

1.Perform matrix multiplication A*B, and call this D.

2.Find the transpose of A, and call this E.

3.Find the transpose of B, and call this F.

4.Find the transpose of D, and call this G.

5.

Perform matrix multiplications: (1) E*F and (2) F*E.

2043

5.

Which of the above two multiplications are the same as the matrix D T ?

5.

Which property of the matrix multiplication is demonstrated from Part (f)?

5.

Submit a printout of your results (from the Command Window) for Parts (a) through (g).

(a) 3 x + 4 y = 12 and 4 x + 2 y =

(b) 3 x + 4 y = 12 and 4 x = 10.

(c) –4 x + y = 14 and 4 x + 3 y = 10.

(d) 13 x +12 y = –6, –4 x +7 y = –73, and 11 x - 13 y = 157.

(e) 2 x + 3 y - z = 8, 4 x - 2 y + z = 5, and x + 5 y - 2 z = 9. (f) 4 x –8 y +3 z = 16, – x +2 y –5 z = –21, and 3 x - 6 y + z = 7.

(g) 2 a + 3 b + c - 11 d = 1, 5 a - 2 b + 5 c - 4 d = 5, a - b + 3 c - 3 d = 3, and 3 a + 4 b - 7 c

+ 2 d = –7.

2044

1.

Write an M-file that defines a row vector of 50 elements with all ones.

2.

Add a code that replaces every element that is in an even place (for example the 2nd, 4th, 6th,…) with the number 2.

3.

Add a code that replaces every element that is in a place divisible by three (for example the 3rd, 6th, 9th,…) with the number 3.

4.

Turn in a printout of the final M-file and the output after running Parts (a) through (c).

5.

Write a function file in MATLAB that takes in one input and returns a single output. Call the function getSquared. The function should output the square
of the number that it takes as input. Remember that the function must actually RETURN the squared value, and not simply display it on screen. Save
the function file in some directory that you created. Turn in a printout of the function file.

6.

Write a script M-file called testSquared.m that defines a variable called xinput. Give any numerical value to xinput. From within this M-file, call the
function getSquared. Store the output from the function file in a new variable called xoutput. Write a statement in the M-file that will print both the
xinput and xoutput on the screen. Save the script M-file in the same folder as the function file. Turn in a printout of the M-file.

7.

Run the file testSquared.m from the command prompt. Turn in a printout of th output you get.

8.

Run the function file getSquared.m from the command prompt to calculate the square of any variable in your workspace. If you do not have one,
create it in th workspace. Turn in a printout of your command prompt output.

9.

Save your getSquared.m function as getSquaredSpecial.m. Modify this function. Add a test code in your new function to determine whether the input
number is greater than or equal to zero. If yes, then the function does exactly what it did before (that is, squaring). If not, then the function simply
returns the value -1. Turn in a printout of your getSquaredSpecial.m file.

10.

In a similar fashion as above, create the function testSquaredSpecial.m file. Run two cases: (i) xinput is a positive number, and (ii) xinput is a negative
number. Turn in a printout of the command prompt output for both cases.

11.

Write a function called sumHundred that takes an integer as the input. The function should determine whether the input is an integer between 1 and
100. If not, the function should display an appropriate error message. Turn in a printout of the function file.

12.

Test the function from the command prompt using (i) a number between 1 and 100, and (ii) a number greater than hundred. Turn in a printout of the
command prompt output for both cases.

13.

You will now modify your function sumHundred. Add some logic to it using for or while loops, such that the function evaluates the sum of all integers
from 1 to the input number. For instance, if the input number is 79, it should evaluate the sum of the first 79 integers. Do not use any built-in MATLAB
functions. Turn in a printout of the modified function file. Run two test cases from the command prompt and turn in a printout of the results along with
the M-file.

14.

Save your sumHundred function as sumEvenHundred. Add another logic code to the original function, such that now it evaluates the sum of all even
integers from 1 to the input number. For instance, if the input number is 51, it should evaluate the sum of the even integers between 1 and 51. Turn in
a printout of th function file and run it for two test cases from the command prompt. Turn in a printout of the results.

15.

Write a function called hiddenSum that takes two inputs and returns the sum of the two inputs. Turn in a printout of the function.

16.

Write a script M-file called testHiddenSum.m that defines two variables x and y Assign some values to these variables. Call the function hiddenSum
from within this script M-file and store the result in a local variable, z. Run the script M-file and turn in a printout with the value of z.

17.

Modify the function hiddenSum such that now it DOES NOT HAVE any output arguments. Now modify your script M-file such that it calls hiddenSum
using x and y as inputs and assigns the result to the variable z. You will need to further modify your function file. Submit a printout of the new function
and script files and command prompt results from running your script M-file.

18.

Now modify your function hiddenSum such that it DOES NOT HAVE any input OR output arguments. Modify your script M-file such that it calls
hiddenSum using x and y as inputs, and stores the result in the variable z. You will need to further modify your function file. Submit a printout of the
new function and script files, and the command prompt results from running your script M-file.

2045

The objective of this assignment is for students to:

• Develop, test and maintain a dynamic Internet application for business using an integrated suite of software tools.

You are required to further develop the website for South-East Eat Streetusing ASP.NET 4.5 and C#. You must develop the web pages according to the
specifications given in the assignment 2 document on the course website. This means that you must provide the functionality specified, produce the layout
specified and use the data and images provided on the course website. You may change the colour scheme and general styling, but you may not change the
layout or functionality described. The assignment specifications and resources are provided in the link below:

Attach 2045

2046

Need this paper 3000 word+ refenrces+presentation. Tutor need to meet each requirement.

Document Preview:
CIS2005 Principles of Information Security - Assignment 3 Description Marks out of Weighting Due date Security Audit Work Plan / Presentation based on CASE
STUDY: Gamble Bet (A fictitious analysis of a security breach) Length: 3000 words approx. plus Appendices This assignment assesses your understanding in
relation to the following three course objectives: 1. analyse information security vulnerabilities and threats and determine appropriate controls that can be applied
to mitigate the potential risks 2. explain why continual improvement is necessary to maintain reasonably secure information systems and IT infrastructure and to
describe the role of disaster recovery and business continuity plans in recovering information and operational systems when systems and hardware fail 4.
demonstrate an ability to communicate effectively both written and orally about the management of information security in organisations. This assignment
assesses the following graduate skills: Problem Solving, Academic & Professional Literacy and Oral and Written Communication at level 2. This assignment
relates to the topics covered in modules 1 to 10. This assignment can be completed by groups of two students or as an individual assignment. Details regarding
the allocation of students to teams will be provided on the course study desk. If working in a student team you will be expected work collaboratively as a team in
developing and discussing their approach to assignment case study and the required Security report and presentation. Regular participation by the team members
or an individual completing this assignment each week from Monday 7th September until Friday 16th October is expected. Each team member or an individual will
also be required to keep a journal of their activities and progress related to completing this assignment and will form part of the assessment for assignment 3. In
date order clearly list the following: date of research activity/discussion topics...

Attach 2046

2047

In a page and a half within APA style and correct citation and references complete the following:

As you prepare for the final presentation to the PVSS management team on your information systems audit, you want to ensure that they accept it and understand

your role as the certifying agent.
How would you describe the process of certification and accreditation?

Who do you think would be the actors (or people involved) for the information systems audit?

Explain your thoughts regarding the process of accreditation. Is it a formality, or will it guarantee that PVSS will actually correct the remediation
finding?

Would this opinion regarding accreditation hold true for other organizations? Explain.

1.

2048
Vision
Analyse the case study and produce a Vision document for a software system to solve the business issue identified in the case study (use template provided in
Resources section).
The Vision document should address the following points:
a) It should spell out the business case for development of the proposed system, identifying both the problem it is intended to solve, and the benefits to be
expected from solving it.
b) It should identify all the stakeholders relevant to the system and their interest in it.
c) It should identify the key needs the system should satisfy and the key features by which the proposed system will satisfy those needs.
d) It should identify key qualities and characteristics that the system should exhibit
e) It should identify key considerations and constraints which affect the technical solution to be developed.

1.

Use Case Model
Analyse the case study to determine the high level functional requirements for the new system. Express your understanding of those requirements with:
a) A use case diagram capturing at least all critical and significant use cases that the system will have to support
b) A document containing short use case descriptions for the use cases identified in the use case diagram.

1.

Domain Model
Analyse the case study to determine the classes required to express the problem domains structure and operation. Express your understanding of the problem
domain in:
a) A domain model.

1.

State Machine
Analyse the lifecycle and behaviour of the most complex stateful object* identified in your domain model and express its behaviour in:
a) A state machine diagram

2049

Suppose a person is typing forty words per minute at a keyboard. (A word is considered

to be five characters.) If a machine executes 500 instructions every microsecond (millionth

of a second), how many instructions does the machine execute during the time between the

typing of two consecutive characters?

2050

What error(s), if any, prevent the now first normal form compliant table or tables from being second normal form compliant?

2051

What error(s), if any, prevent the now first normal form compliant table or tables from being second normal form compliant?

2052

2. If the message

xxyyyxxxyxxyywere compressed using LZW with a startingdictionary whose first, second, and third entries were x, y, and space, respectively, what would be the
entries in the final dictionary?

2053

hye

2054

Exercise 1

Design a query to extract all the invoices and their line items—along with the Ship-to information and contact details for each invoice—as well as the product and
associated supplier information for each line-item product, for all the invoices that have a shipToState of ‘NSW’. The information extracted should be similar
(though not in the same format) as the sample invoices.xml file, which is included in this week’s downloads. Generate the XML file for the output, by setting the file
output options in DB2XML. Make sure the query to generate the XML output is included as an attribute of the table element of the XML document, as shown in the
above listing.
Exercise 2
One thing you will notice about the XML file generated in Exercise 1 is the relatively flat structure, as compared with the database it came from. This represents a
table-based mapping from the relational database to XML, based on the query used to select the data. When transmitting this XML to other applications, a more
hierarchical format may be more appropriate in order for this application to perform an object-relational mapping from the XML document to its own database. For
instance, a better hierarchical structure for the XML data might be something like the structure shown in the attached invoices.xml document.
Outline in as much detail as you can a process for taking the output from Exercise 1 and generating an XML document of a structure similar to the one above, to
provide a more hierarchical structure.
Exercise 3
Provide a mechanism to actually generate the desired XML hierarchical structure shown in the attachedinvoices.xml, from the XML output from Exercise 1. Submit
the files from this exercise as the solution, along with any instructions needed to perform the transform. (You should be able to do this with what we have learned
already in this and previous weeks, as well as the exercises).

Files associated with these exercises:
Document:ODBC for mySQL (PDF)

Document:Using DB2XML (PDF)

invoices.xml

Attach 2054

2055

how do i encode the follwing into (hex) ASII:

The cat in the hat

2056

can u give me some examples of two port networks?

Document Preview:
ITAS362 Introduction to Information Assurance and Information Security Wk 4 IP Due 9/15/15 The command office has asked for a presentation on security
mechanisms including access control models, authentication, authorization and encryption. Describe differences between them and identify situations where
appropriate. Discuss how encryption relates to storage, network traffic, secure Web access, and the e-mailing of documents. One topic of concern is symmetrical
versus public key. The presentation should include the following information: Comparison of security mechanisms An explanation of public key cryptography
Historical background of the development of encryption Typical uses of public key cryptography Symmetrical versus public key Encryption and how it relates to
storage, network traffic, secure Web access and e-mail Prepare an 8–15-slide presentation to address these points. Include speaker notes in the presentation.
Plan the presentation and speaker notes so that someone else could actually give the presentation. Be sure to document your references using APA format.

Attach 2056

2057

Write the statement that includes a friend function named before in the class dateType that takes as parameters two objects of type dateType and

returns true if the date represented by the first object comes before the date represented by the second object; otherwise, the function returns false.

2058

Write an application that reads daily temperatures for 12 months and allows the user to get statistics.

2059

Your Learning Team has been hired as consultants for Bubble Films, a Hollywood, California-based company that produces documentary films. The

company has 150 employees located in three states. Roughly 20% of the employees work virtually from home. Bubble Films has 200 personal computers, five
servers, and one mainframe computer. Your team is charged with making recommendations for the following categories of software:


Collaborative software: groupware

Financial software: accounting and cost analysis

Marketing and sales software: customer relationship management

Business intelligence software
Your deliverable must be a 20- to 30-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation. For each category, provide the following information:


Type of software

List of vendors and products reviewed, from at least three categories

Product selected

Reason the product was selected

Brief description of the software, including cost: Discuss the possibility of integrating with other software being recommended.

Advantages and disadvantages of using the software

Information about the vendor: How long have they been in business? How large are they in terms of number of employees, revenues, and so on?
What is their reputation?
The first slide must serve as the title page, the second slide must contain an executive summary, and the final slide must list APA formatted references. All slides
must contain speaker notes.

2060

Can someone help me with this assignment please

Document Preview:
ITAS362 Introduction to Information Assurance and Information Security Wk 4 IP Due 9/15/15 The command office has asked for a presentation on security
mechanisms including access control models, authentication, authorization and encryption. Describe differences between them and identify situations where
appropriate. Discuss how encryption relates to storage, network traffic, secure Web access, and the e-mailing of documents. One topic of concern is symmetrical
versus public key. The presentation should include the following information: Comparison of security mechanisms An explanation of public key cryptography
Historical background of the development of encryption Typical uses of public key cryptography Symmetrical versus public key Encryption and how it relates to
storage, network traffic, secure Web access and e-mail Prepare an 8–15-slide presentation to address these points. Include speaker notes in the presentation.
Plan the presentation and speaker notes so that someone else could actually give the presentation. Be sure to document your references using APA format.

Attach 2060

2061

Every School has many teachers and many students. Each student is assigned to one school and each teacher works for one school only. Each

teacher teaches more than one subject but a subject may be taught by more than one teacher. The database should store the number of hours a teacher spent
teaching a subject. Information held on each teacher includes his/her tax file number, name (first and last), gender and qualifications. The data held on each
subject includes subject title and type. Each student can study more than one subject and a subject may be studied by more than one student. Data held on each
student includes the student number, name (first and last), gender and date of birth. Each school is managed by one of its teachers. The database should keep
track of the date he/she started managing the school. Data stored on each school includes the school’s code, name, address (town, street and postcode) and
phone. For the above scenario, you need to perform the following tasks: 1. Draw ERD with key attributes. You can use any notation to draw the ERD. Must include
legend. (8 Marks) 2. Data dictionary for the above scenario (7 Marks) 3. Implement the database and populate with sample data for every table

2062
logically extend the functionality of the Maze Game in C# via the modification of the code base as well as documentation and implementation of
various user stories.
Document Preview:
labs/ITECH3201-7201 Lab 7.docx Lab week 7 – Implementing Move in the MazeGame Explore the codebase Download the “Lab 7” code (this code was
discussed in the lecture and has implemented the startup use case). Unzip the code and open up the solution in Visual Studio. Spend some time exploring the
code, change the startup location in the HardCodedData class and run the project to test the results. Create an Enterprise Architect project called Lab 7 and
reverse engineer the code to create class definitions. Create a single class diagram containing all of the classes in the Entity, Boundary and Control packages.
Creating a command parser Before we can get started on implementing commands and adding further functionality to the Maze Game we need a way of breaking
up the user input. Commands have a format of command ie: move west So what we need to do is break up our user input from a single string into a number of
words, and work out which are commands and which are arguments. We can assume that the first word encountered in user input is the command, and what

follows are the argument(s). We could even make our command parser a little more user friendly by dropping of commonly used words that are neither commands
or useful arguments. ie: if the user typed “go to the north” we could drop to and the. Let’s start by creating a class to represent our input after it has been parsed
into command + arguments. Create a new class in the Control package called ParsedInput and enter the following: using System; using System.Collections; using
System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; using System.Text; using System.Threading.Tasks; namespace Mazegame.Control { public class ParsedInput
{ private string command; private ArrayList arguments; public ParsedInput() { arguments = new ArrayList(); command = ""; } public ParsedInput(string command,
ArrayList arguments) { this.command = command; this.arguments = arguments; } ...

Attach 2062

2063

Security being a top concern for any organisation, choosing the correct security solutions is of utmost importance. Consider an area of information

technology (IT) security, such as, network security, e-mail security, database security and so on. Identify and researchthree different commercial IT security
solutions/products for the chosen security area. The three products must target the same security issues.

2064

Is HCI a term to describe any interaction with digital technology? Suggest a more appropriate phase to describe this. Also, explain your answer.

Whom or what are you interacting with, when you use a smart phone, a tablet, and a laptop? Google Glass or Microsoft Surface?

2065

How to we adapt “Quick Sort algorithm’s Partition procedure” to find the i

2066

In C++ Please:

th

order statistics in a given list of size

Describe an algorithm for counting the number of left external nodes in a binary tree, using the Binary tree ADT.

2067

The question asks for Pseudo Code, but my instructor wants a C++ program with screenshot of output, Here is the question:

Suppose you have a deque D containing the numbers (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8), in this order. Suppose further that you have an initially empty queue Q. Give a pseudocode description of a function that uses only D and Q (and no other variables or objects) and results in D storing the elements (1,2,3,5,4,6,7,8), in this order.
Here is my C++ code so far, I am getting errors unitialized variable d, and newPtr, Please help!!
#include "stdafx.h"
# include

# include
using namespace std;
/*----------------------------------------------*/
/* TYPES */
typedef int itemtype;
struct node {
struct node * previous;
itemtype item;
struct node * next;
};
typedef struct node node;
struct deque {
node * front; /* pointer to a dummy node. */
node * end; /* pointer to a dummy node. */
int *size;
};
typedef struct deque deque;
/*----------------------------------------------*/
/* PROTOTYPES */
deque newEmptyDeque(void);
int isEmpty(deque d);
void printFrontToEnd(deque d);
void insertAfterInDLL(itemtype i, node * nodePtr); /* auxiliary */
void addToFront(itemtype i, deque d);
void addToEnd(itemtype i, deque d);
itemtype getFront(deque d);
itemtype getEnd(deque d);
itemtype rmFront(deque d);
/*----------------------------------------------*/
int main(void) {
deque d;
d = newEmptyDeque();
printf("%d\n", isEmpty(d));
printf("Here is the deque, front to end: ");
printFrontToEnd(d);
printf(". Listing completed.\n");
addToFront(1, d);
addToFront(2, d);
addToFront(3, d);
addToEnd(4, d);
addToEnd(5, d);
addToEnd(6, d);
printf("Here is the deque, front to end: ");
printFrontToEnd(d);
printf(". Listing completed.\n");
printf("%d\n", isEmpty(d));
printf("%d\n", rmFront(d));
printFrontToEnd(d);
return 0;
}
/*----------------------------------------------*/
deque newEmptyDeque(void)
{
deque d;
d.front = (d.front);malloc(sizeof(node));
d.end = (d.end);malloc(sizeof(node));
d.size = (d.size);malloc(sizeof(int));
*(d.size) = 0;
(d.front)->next = d.end;
(d.front)->previous = NULL;
(d.end)->previous = d.front;
(d.end)->next = NULL;
return d;
}

/*----------------------------------------------*/
int isEmpty(deque d) {
return (d.front)->next == d.end;
}
/*----------------------------------------------*/
void printFrontToEnd(deque d) {
node * aux;
aux = (d.front)->next;
while ((aux->next) != NULL) {
printf("%d ", aux->item);
aux = aux->next;
}
}
/*----------------------------------------------*/
/* Auxiliary function to insert an item after a given node
in a doubly linked list.
*/
void insertAfterInDLL(itemtype i, node * nodePtr) {
node * nextPtr; /* next node after *nodePtr. */
node * newPtr; /* new node. */
nextPtr = nodePtr->next;
newPtr = (newPtr); malloc(sizeof(node));
newPtr->item = i;
nodePtr->next = newPtr;
newPtr->previous = nodePtr;
newPtr->next = nextPtr;
nextPtr->previous = newPtr;
}
/*----------------------------------------------*/
void addToFront(itemtype i, deque d) {
insertAfterInDLL(i, d.front);
*(d.size) = *(d.size) + 1;
}
/*----------------------------------------------*/
void addToEnd(itemtype i, deque d) {
insertAfterInDLL(i, (d.end)->previous);
}
/*----------------------------------------------*/
itemtype getFront(deque d) {
return (d.front)->next->item;
}
itemtype getEnd(deque d) {
return (d.end)->previous->item;
}
itemtype rmFront(deque d) {
itemtype x = (d.front)->next->item;
node * aux;
aux = (d.front)->next->next;
node * z;
z = (d.front)->next;
free(z);
return x;
}

2068
There is code for this question here, but it does not answer the question as asked, it only removes 1 entry and I need all entries removed till the array
is empty: please see the ENTIRE question PLEASE!!

Write a short C++ function that repeatedly selects and removes a random entry from an n-element array until the array holds no more entries. Assume that you
have access to a function random(k), which returns a random integer in the range from 0 to k.
Here is the code I have and I am using Visual

2069

Suppose that a window size in Selective and Repeat is 4, what is the minimum size of sequence number in bits required to have no problems at

receiver.

2070

Give (draw) a trace operation for Go-Back-N operation (similar to Figure 3.22 in text)(the image is attached) when pkt1 is lost.

Attach 2070

2071

Suppose host A send two TCP segments back to back to host B over a TCP connection. The first segment has sequence number 90; the second has

sequence number 110.

a) How much data is in the first segment?

b) Suppose that the first segment is lost but the second segment arrives at B. In the acknowledgement that host B sends to host A, what will be the
acknowledgement number?

2072

Consider the cross-country example shown in figure 3.17 (image is attached) of the textbook. How big would the window size have to be for the

channel utilization to be greater than 98 percent? Suppose that the size of a packet is 1,500 bytes including both header fields and data. R is equal to 1Gbps.

Attach 2072

2073

Consider the GBN protocol with a sender window size of 4 and a sequence number range of 1024. Suppose that at time t, the next in-order packet

that the receiver is expecting has a sequence number of “k”. Assume that the medium does not reorder messages. Answer the following questions:

1.

What are the possible sets of sequence numbers inside the sender’s window at time t? Justify your answer.

2.

What are all possible values of the ACK field in all possible messages currently propagating back to the sender at time t? Justify your answer.

2074

Host A and B are communicating over a TCP connection, and Host B has already received from A all bytes through byte 126. Suppose Host A then

sends two segments to Host B back-to-back. The first and second segments contain 80 and 40 bytes of data, respectively. In the first segment, the sequence
number is 127, the source port number is 302, and the destination port number is 80. Host B sends an acknowledgment whenever it receives a segment from Host
A.

1.

In the second segment sent from A to B, what are the sequence number, source port number and destination port number?

1.

If the first segment arrives before the second segment, in the acknowledgment of the first arriving segment, what is the acknowledgment number, the
source port number and destination port number?

1.

If the second segment arrives before the first segment, in the acknowledgment of the first arriving segment, what is the acknowledgment number?

1.

Suppose the two segments sent by A arrive in order at B. The first acknowledgment is lost and the second acknowledgment arrives after the first
timeout interval. Draw a timing diagram, showing these segments and all other segments and acknowledgments sent. (Assume there is no additional packet
loss).

2075

1. Using the Web (or past issues of computer industry magazines, such asComputerworld), locate a system that runs in a server-based environment.

On the basis of your reading, why do you think the company chose that computing environment?

2076

Implement a StringBinaryTreeTest class that uses the JUnit framework to test an implementation ofStringBinaryTree.The API of the corresponding

StringBinaryTree is as provided in assignment StringBinaryTree with Traversals and Iterator. You may depend on testers having version 4.8.2 of the JUnit
framework (even though 4.12 is the most recent).

Structure your tests so as to achieve good coverage and provide clear indicators of working and non-working functionality in the code under test. Your program
must use javadoc comments and follow the stylistic conventions for writing javadoc comments.
Submit one file, named StringBinaryTreeTest.java, that contains well-designed and documented source code for your test class. The source should be written as
though this test code will be maintained into the future.
I have provided a copy of the java class that we shall be creating a test for.
Document Preview:
//StringBinaryTree.java import java.io.File; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.PrintWriter; import java.util.Scanner; import java.util.List; import
java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.Objects; /* * A simple binary tree whose root holds a non-null String value. *
* The StringBinaryTree datatype is defined recursively as being comprised of a * value of type String, a reference to a left child of type StringBinaryTree, * and a
reference to a right child of type StringBinaryTree. As this datatype * represents a binary tree, there must be no duplicate references nor any * references to the
root. *
*
* The empty tree is distinguished by the following properties:
* numberOfNodes()==0,
* isEmpty()==true, and
* height()==­1. *

*
* Terminology:
*

ancestor = a parent, grandparent, great-grandparent, etc.
*

descendant = a child, grandchild, great-grandchild, etc.
*

height = the length of the longest path to a leaf
*

internal = a tree with at least one child
*

leaf = a tree with no children
*

root = any StringBinaryTree object
*

tree = a StringBinaryTree with all its descendants
*
* * @author Gideon Nyamachere * @version 1.0 */ /**. * Stores string values in a binary search tree structure */ public class StringBinaryTree { /** The node to the
left of current node */ private StringBinaryTree leftNode; /** The node to the right of current node */ private StringBinaryTree rightNode; /** The value of the current
node */ private String value = ""; /** * Construct an empty tree */ public StringBinaryTree() { this.value = null; rightNode = null; leftNode = null; } /** ...

Attach 2076

2077

sql statement

Document Preview:
Assignment Specification Commonwealth Transport Services (CTS) now require a partial implementation of the design made in Assignment 1. In order to keep
consistency between the assignments, database specification containing the ER diagram and the corresponding schema are provided in this document. You
should create your database according to this documentation. Make sure that your implementation is consistent with this design, i. e., your table names, field
names, and data types are according to the specifications provided in this document. The implementation phase includes writing SQL statements to create a
database and its tables, populating the tables with appropriate test data, and writing a number of queries to create reports that can be used by the management
team. You need to insert at least five records in each of the tables and ensure that each of the query returns at least one record. Implementation of the Database
and Manipulation of the Data You are required to perform the followings tasks: Create a text file named Create_.sql (for example, Create_3087654.sql) that will
contain SQL statements to: Create a database named CTSDBCreate all of the tables for the database according to the Database schema given at the end of this
document Create a text file named Insert_.sql that will contain SQL statements to: Insert at least five records in each of the tables. The test data inserted into the
table must ensure that each of the queries, specified in Task 3, outputs at least one record Create a text file named Query_.sql that will contain all the queries to
display the following A list of available Vehicles sorted according to seating capacity. Display the Model, Registration number, and the Seating capacity. A list of
Official sorted according to their First name followed by Last name. Display their country name as well as the languages they speak. List the drivers who speak...

Attach 2077

2078

A psychological study requires participants to answer a number of questions relatedto personality. The database should store the multiple choice

answers (A, B, C, D) to thequestions and information about each participant, such as participant id, age, and sex. Thedatabase should compute a score based on
the individual's answers. The score indicates one of 8personality categories. Each category has an identifying name and specifies that each of threequalities is
either true or false

2079

how much you charge for assignment 2 which is based on assignmenmt1?

Document Preview:
1 The Assignment-2 Specification and Marking Criteria In this assignment, you are to design and implement the Best Deal business database that you have
modelled in the assignment-1 and a series of SQL queries to reflect the business logic of the Best Deal. Note: If your assignment-1 was incomplete to cover the
application scenario or incorrect in some parts, you will need to remodel it before completing this assignment. Read the marking comments of assignment-1
carefully and talk to your marker if necessary. The specification of this assignment 1. Database implementation • You are to design and implement the ER model of
assignment-1, including entities/associative entities, relationships and cardinalities, into a Microsoft Access database. You need to ensure that your database is
compatible with MS Access 2007 for marking purpose. • You need to ensure that relations of your database meet 3NF. • Your database needs to include sample
data to support the required SQL queries. 2. SQL query As a way to demonstrate success, you are to implement a series of queries on the database to reflect the
business logic of the Best Deal. Note: You are to create the queries manually by using the SQL view of MS Access query builder to demonstrate your competency
in SQL. Failing to do so may result in marks to be deducted. Query-1: List all the sellers to show: • The seller names • The seller addresses Query-2: List all the
buyers to show: • The buyer names • The buyer addresses Query-3: List all the contact details of a seller or a buyer to show: • The buyer/seller name • The
contact type e.g. email • The contact details e.g. [emailprotected] 2 Note: the seller name is a parameter to enter when executing this query in Microsoft Access. A
seller or buyer could have more than one contact e.g. email, mobile and home phone. Query-4: List all the sellers and the products that they have already sold to
show: • The seller name • The product brand, model , sold price and sold amount Query-5:...

Attach 2079

2080

hii want to know how much you will charge for the assignment 2 based on assignment1 below

Attach 2080

2081

You will work on this part on details, you should cover all points of this discussion as follow:

1- Analyse (AITP - Association of Information Technology Professionals )for the computing profession. In your analysis,
2- explain the benefits of membership and
3- summarise three functions carried out by this professional body.
4- Additionally, evaluate two areas of impact/influence of your analysed professional body on society, business and individuals.
Support all of your work with at least three scholarly sources.
Document Preview:
Employees and researchers in large industries such as information technology often form professional organisations. Though there may be different nuances from
discipline to discipline, these organisations are created in an effort to maintain professional standards within the industry they oversee. When you consider some
of the many issues and concerns inherent with computing (privacy, data security, intellectual property protection, piracy and more) some form of governing body
that ensures consistency and upheld ethical standards is of paramount necessity. Examples of such bodies include the Association for Computing Machinery
(ACM) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Nevertheless, far more exist throughout developed nations. This week, you will reconvene
with your group from the last Group Project Assignment, ‘Understanding professionalism’ and begin on the second part of that project. Last time, you and your
group analysed professionalism as it applied to computing. For Part 2 of this project, you must analyse the phenomenon of ‘professional bodies’ in relation to
computing and the technology industry. Your challenge is to analyse at least two professional bodies in computing and evaluate how they impact society,
businesses and individuals. Also, note that this Assignment is not due until the end of Week 5. To complete this Assignment: Submit a paper in which you address
the concept of ‘professional bodies’ as it relates to the technology industry. To do this, first explain what is meant by ‘professional bodies’. Then, analyse two
professional bodies for the computing profession other than the examples (ACM and IEEE) given. In your analysis, explain the benefits of membership and
summarise three functions carried out by these professional bodies. Additionally, evaluate two areas of impact/influence of your analysed professional bodies on
society, business and individuals. Support all of your work with at least three scholarly...

Attach 2081

2082

A space agency wants to develop a database of all satellites that humans have launched into space. Data includes the satellite identification, date of

launch, destruction date, purpose, maximum orbital altitude, launching location, launching agency, and contact information for agency.

2083

A space agency wants to develop a database of all satellites that humans have launched into space. Data includes the satellite identification, date of

launch, destruction date, purpose, maximum orbital altitude, launching location, launching agency, and contact information for agency.

2084

Showthatlog7 n iseitheranintegerorirrational,where n isapositiveinteger. Use

whateverfamiliarfactsaboutintegersandprimesyouneed,butexplicitlystatesuch facts.

2085

please read specification files

Document Preview:
HBS725 Assessment Criteria Task 2 - 2015.docx Assessment criteria Task 2: Critical Appraisal (2,500 words) Mark Has included an effective introduction in the
assignment. Provides an overview of the selected topic area, including an overview of the provided articles and introduces key points. /10 Clearly identifies search
strategy, including databases and search terms. (5 marks) Demonstrates relevant use of the critical appraisal tool relevant to the article and research method.
(5marks) Provides an appendix demonstrating a broader literature search and key findings relevant to each article – even though all articles might not have been
referred to or used in the actual assignment. (5 marks) Demonstrates critical thinking (not just description) when appraising and comparing studies and relevant
findings. (5 marks) Clear explanations provided throughout, including specific and relevant examples, plus logical supporting evidence. Provides a conclusion
summarising key discussion points and recommendation based on the critical appraisal. /5 /5 /5 /5 /10 Written clarity and presentation of the assignment Logical
linking of paragraphs, use of appropriate sentence structure, punctuation, grammar and spelling. Includes margins and 1.5 spacing. Includes a title page with
student name, student number and word count. /5 References Harvard or APA style is applied correctly to the assignment, including in-text citations and reference
list. References are not included in the word count. /5 TOTAL OUT OF 50 /50 Unit Learning Outcomes for this assignment include: 1. Identify different types of
research used in health practice. 2. Decide upon the appropriateness of different types of research methods and findings 3. Critically appraise research articles
and defend this appraisal. I have understood the Learning Outcomes for this assignment: (highlight/bold or underline) Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly
Disagree No Opinion I have met the...

Attach 2085

2086

I need this as soon as possible

Attach 2086

2087

NEED PART A only.

Assignment Specification is attached.
PART - A only

Attach 2087

2088

Attached is the Assignment and the papers I have chosen to write a critique about.

The assignment specification are available in the Assignment. Any more questions, please don't hesitate to ask me.

Attach 2088

2089

For a Packet size equal to 1000 bits and Transmission Rate equals to 2Gbps. Find the following: (Assume RTT equals 30 msec)

a. The transmission Delay.

b. Sender Utilization.

c. Sender Utilization in case of a 5-packet pipelining is used.

2090

Assuming the sequence number space in Selective Repeat is (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). What is the maximum window size required to avoid problems at the

receiver?

2091

A manufacturer is evaluating options regarding his production equipment. He is trying to decide whether he should refurbish his old equipment for

$70,000, make

2092

The following data represent highway fuel consumption in miles per gallon (mpg) for a random sample of 55 models of passenger cars (Source:

Environmental Protection Agency).

2093

you must install a network with 20 computers

Document Preview:
FACULTY OF HIGHER EDUCATION Assignment One (PART I and PART II) HS1011 Data Communication and Networks Trimester 2 2015 Assignment Part I
-Individual: Date Due: Friday Week 10, 2015 by 5:00 PM) Marks: Weighting 15% Assignment II -Group: Date Due: Friday Week 12, 2015 by 5:00 PM) Marks:
Weighting 15% Student Name (Block letters) Student Number: ___________________________ _____________ HOLMES INSTITUTE FACULTY OF HIGHER
EDUCATION HS1011 Data Communication and Networks Trimester 2 2015 1 Total Marks = 30 (15+15=30% of total assessment) Purpose of the assessment: The
purpose of this assignment is to exercise and develop skills required to analyse and design networks to address the need of clients. In this assessment, students
will be able to • Apply their knowledge of networking technologies. • Apply their knowledge to analyse and evaluate a network to meet customers need • Decide
and choose among competing technologies and products Description of the assessment: Your lecturer will choose a Scenario out of three to prepare you
assignment PART I(Individual) and PART II(Group). Use the instructions within the Scenario to prepare a report for PART I on week 10 and PART II at week 12.
The object of this assignment is to improve your skill of collecting and analyzing network information. The assignment will also increase your knowledge regarding
practical implementation of those technologies in enterprise setup. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Scenario 1: [30
marks] You must install a network with 20 computers for a new business that wants to run TCP/IP and have access to the Internet. The ISP in town will assign you
only two public IP addresses, so you decide to assign the computers addresses in the range 172.16.1.1/16 through 172.16.1.125/16. You also need to install a
network monitoring tool to the central server to monitor network activities which shows status of each computer in the network. You...

Attach 2093

2094

Work with a classmate and provide a detailed critical analysis of the design document presented by the classmate. You could use Google Docs to
share your design documents with each other and your instructor. Click here to go to Google Drive, where you may create and share your documents.
Present a completely commented analysis of the design document.

At the bottom of the design document, include "future directions" for your classmate's design.

Include the link to a Google Drive presentation to illustrate what your Microsoft Word document states.
Support your analysis with appropriate examples and credible references.
Cite any sources in APA format.

2095

Issues involving security seem to arise almost daily. Sometimes these issues and controversies are reported in daily newspapers, such as the New

York Times, the Wall Street Journal, The Guardian and Le Monde as well as in weekly magazines such as TIME and Newsweek. ‘Cybercrime’ is also often
discussed in the ‘blogosphere’ (e.g. Web logs or ‘blogs’), and these issues are also now regularly tracked on some websites dedicated to the ethical and/or social
aspects of cyber technology.

Take some time to search the Web for such news, and locate a current story (within the last year) about a cyber-incident affecting privacy, security, intellectual
property, etc. For this Discussion, you will analyse the ethical and/or social issues involved in your story. How and why did these issues occur? What is being, or
was, done to remedy said issue? Do you think the solution(s) is/are effective? Would you do anything differently?

To complete this Discussion:

Post:Create an initial post in which you summarise a current story regarding a cyber-incident affecting privacy, security, intellectual property or any other similar
topic. Explain why you chose this story. Using the information you found regarding your story, analyse the ethical and/or social issues involved and how and why

they occurred. Explain what is being done (or was done) to resolve the issues in question and evaluate these solutions’ effectiveness. Justify your reasoning and
explain what you would do differently, if anything, and why.

2096

Write a Linux assembly program for the 64-bit Intel architecture, that takes an "encoded message" in its .rodata section, decodes it to a string, and

prints the string to stdout. The length of the message also is stored in the .rodata section. The encoding of the message is as follows: a 4-byte integer represents a
character, where 1 stands for "a", 2 for "b", ..., 26 for "z", 0 for the space character, and 42 for the newline character. All other numbers are invalid, and you may
assume that the message never contains those numbers.

For example, if your .rodata section contains the following:
.section .rodata message: .long 8, 5, 12, 12, 15, 0, 23, 15, 18, 12, 4, 42length: .long 12
then your program has to print out:
hello world
You will need to use the Linux write system call for this (see Bartlett, Appendix C). Note that the file descriptor number for stdout is 1. Your program also needs to
be efficient. For example, there should not be 28 separate compare instructions to decode the message. Nor should there be n calls to the write system call for a
message of length n. The program you submit should have the above .rodata section.
our submission for this task, include the full source code for the program. You also have to explainevery instruction in your code! Your code must compile with the
'as' assembler and successfully compile.Youmust use the labels "message" and "length" for your data items. Your .rodata section maynot contain anything
besides those two items. You manynot overwrite any bytes in any section of your program. You maynot use standard C libraries in your executable.

2097

1. The following bytes were originally encoded using odd parity. In which of them do you know that an error has occurred?

a. 100101101

b. 100000001

c. 000000000

d. 111000000

e. 011111111

2. Could errors have occurred in a byte from Question 1 without your knowing it? Explain your answer.

3. How would your answers to Questions 1 and 2 change if you were told that even parity had been used instead of odd?

2098

1.McCabe's cyclomatic complexity measure is computed as follows: V = e - n + 2 where e = number of edges; n = number of nodes. Explain why 2 is

added to (e - n) to compute the result. 2.McCabe's cyclomatic complexity measure is computed as follows: V = e - n + 2 or V = 1 + d where e = number of edges; n

= number of nodes; d = number of decision points. Explain why the above two equations will give the same result. 3.With reference to the diagram on page 31 of
the file ComplexityBig.pdf, explain why the essential complexity is equal to 4. 4.With reference to the diagram on page 32 of the file ComplexityBig.pdf, compute
the essential complexity and explain how you arrive at your answer. 5.With reference to the diagram on page 33 of the file ComplexityBig.pdf, compute the
essential complexity and explain how you arrive at your answer.

Attach 2098

2099

Hello - I would like assistance with my homework due next week. If possible, can you please submit a Visio file so i may learn how to build it on my

own? All the information I have is attached, but I'm happy to provide any additional information CSC 451 Database Design 702/711 Assignment 4 (10/2) Due
5:45pm, Monday 10/09 Below is an E-R Diagram for a landscaping company (given in both notations). AMECURRENT 711405461.1 03-Oct-14 11:01

Attach 2099

2100

Hi, need help with all of the questions as per attached. Please let me know if you need any further help. Question 1 The database used for this

question is based upon the following relational schema that represents a very simplified medical billing database (Primary Key, Foreign Key): Patient (PatientID,
FamilyName, GivenName, Address, Suburb, State, PostCode) Doctor (ProviderNo, Name)

Attach 2100

2102

1. The IT departments in a lot of companies keep a tight control over the hardware and software used in a company. For example, here at this

university we are required to use applications such as Microsoft Office and all of our computers generally come from one supplier. If we prefer a different computer
or would rather use another software package - too bad, not on a this university system. Discuss the pros and cons of this tight control. 2. Discuss how you think
the Internet can affect an organization's architecture. 3. In most companies, IT infrastructure is built in an ad hoc, piecemeal manner, with heavy investments made
on a project or operational basis and little forethought given to how it must support the enterprise's evolving strategy. Do you have any suggestions that would
ensure that thoughtful, deliberate decision making is made jointly by business and IT managers to ensure the strategic agility organizations need in a rapidly
changing world.

2103

perform a comparative analysis that studies the collision rates for various hash codes for character strings, such as various polynomial hash codes for

different values of the parameter a. Use a hash table to determine collisions, but only count collisions where different strings map to the same hash code (not if
they map to the same location in this hash table). Test these hash codes on text files found on the Internet. Question must be done in Java, using Java's built in
HashMap Class.

Attach 2103

2104

Course: CPCS-8810 Midterm Student Name: ______________________ S consists of your initials for all the following problems. 1. Write down sets S

, S * , S + 2. Suppose Language L consists of strings generated from S, such that strings in L have one and only one the initial of your last name. Draw a NFA that

accepts L. 3. Find a DFA that accepts all strings starting with your initials. Write down the quintuple in the DFA and the transition graph. 4. Give a regular
expression r such that L(r) consists of all strings that have at least one pair of consecutive your first name. (need to explain how you get the answer)

Attach 2104

2105

Now that you have learned about networking in this class, let us design your dream network for your home computers and/or network devices (TIVO,

iPad, Networked Blu-ray Player, XBox, PS3, Wii, etc). First, describe what you would have on your network (computers and other network devices). Describe any
specific needs that any one of those devices will have (for example, "iPad will require Wifi network"). Describe your specific network requirements. What topology
would you use? What network media will you use? What network equipment will you buy to set everything up? Find the equipment and price on a

Attach 2105

2106

4 Working Shoes Working Shoes is a multistate shoe store that offers an extensive selection of casual and dress shoes designed for men and women

who work on their feet. Working Shoes plans to launch a new Web site, and the company wants to develop a new set of product codes. Currently, 250 different
products exist, with the possibility of adding more in the future. Shoes and many accessories come in various sizes, styles, and colors. The marketing manager
asked you to develop an individualized product code that can identify a specific item and its characteristics. Your initial reaction is that it can be done, but the code
might be fairly complex. Back in your office, you give the matter some thought. Tasks 1. Design a code scheme that will meet the marketing manager's stated
requirements. 2. Write a brief memo to the marketing manager suggesting at least one alternative to the code she proposed, and state your reasons. 3. Suggest a
code scheme that will identify each Working Shoes customer. 4. Suggest a code scheme that will identify each specific order.

2107

Hi I am looking at your answer for this questionhttps://www.coursehero.com/tutors-problems/C++-Programming/8630068-Please-provide-code-and-

seudo-code-in-style-barber-shop-problem-atta/ and looks like you are missing the loan officer thread. I have the same assignment and I will pay you to implement
the rest of the solution because as of now it is incomplete

2108

2. Explain in detail three Models of Emotions along with their application. Q3. Many games have been ported from the PC platform to the cell phone.

Because of the screen size, however, they tend to be simpler and sometimes more abstract. images Two screenshots from the game Snake – the one on the left is
played on a PC and the one on the right on a cell phone. In both games, the goal is to move the snake (the blue thing and the black squares, respectively) towards
targets that pop up on the screen (e.g. the bridge, the star) and to avoid obstacles (e.g. a flower, the end of the snake's tail). When a player successfully moves his
snake head over or under a target, the snake increases its length by one blob or block. The longer the snake gets the harder it is to avoid obstacles. If the snake
hits an obstacle the game is over. On the PC version there are lots of extra features that make the game more complicated, including more obstacles and ways of
moving. The cell phone version has a simple 2D bird's eye representation, whereas the PC version adopts a 3D third-person avatar perspective To what extent
does this adaptation of the interface affect the experience of playing the same game? Select any of the three interfaces, other than the GUI and mobile ones (e.g.
tangible, wearable, and shareable) and describe how the game could be redesigned for each of these, taking into account the user group being targeted. For
example, the tangible game could be designed for young children, the wearable interface for young adults, and the shareable interface for elderly people. Q4.
Considering the following situation below, what kinds of data gathering would be appropriate and how you might use the different techniques introduced in this
course. You should assume that you are at the beginning of the development and that you have sufficient time and resources to use any of the techniques.
Scenario : You are looking to develop an innovative device for diabetes sufferers to help them record and monitor their blood sugar levels. There are some
products already on the market, but they tend to be large and unwieldy. Many diabetes sufferers rely on manual recording and monitoring methods involving a
ritual with a needle, some chemicals, and a written scale.

2109

For this project,research the topic (examining at least 3 papers or resources) and write a short-paper (max 6 pages) explaining the subject, with

references to the related literature. A template you may use bitcoins Your paper should summarize the subject with an introduction,explaining very clearly what the
re- search problem is and how the subject addresses it. It should also explain the subject in technical detail. To find resources on the subject, use Google and try
scholar.google.com to find relevant research papers. Wikipedia is another useful resource,however you must not copy it or any source verbatim. Afinal useful
resource is the Encyclopedia of Encryption and Security (PDFavailable on the campus network) When using these resources, you should look at the sources they
themselves cite to discover the relevant sources. Be sure to cite all sources you us you can use this link http://link.springer.com/referencework/10.1007%2F978-14419-5906-5

Attach 2109

2110

1. what are the weakest of Groupon's business model described in the video? 2. what features of contemporary e-commerce does Groupon Now!

utilize? 3. what value does this service provide subscribing merchants? What value does it provide customers? 4. what kind of businesses are mostly likely to
benefit from using Groupon? 5. Visit Groupon's web site and enter your zip code. What kind of deals are displayed? would you use Groupon? Why or why not?
Management Information Systems 13e KENNETH C. LAUDON AND JANE P. LAUDON

Attach 2110

2111

Risk A) Create an introductory section where you clearly DEFINE RISK. B) Research and Pick ONE organization that can you conduct a risk

assessment on. C) Identify the potential risks found in the organization and for it's ability to function in it's chosen business vertical (i.e. government, financial,
commercial, industrial, shipping& logistics, etc.).

2112

I am doing my computer science's homework, but i still do not know how to fit the requirement and can not continue to do. i upload the requirement of

hw. Please follow to the requirement PS : I am college student and the class is Object Oriented Programming With C++,do not use the advance code

Attach 2112

2113

Hi I need someone to help me with this assignment. But I will not give my rate till I get my grade that the assignment is correct because I had 3 bad

experience here with my previous assignments. All of them were wrong. I add the book to help you. look at chapter 12-13 Thx Packet Classification: Consider a
scenario where the packet classification process is used to determine the output port (either 1 or 2) for packets that match the rules. 1. F1 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 F2 1*
0* * 11* * Output port 1 2 1 2 2 10* 0* 0* 11* 1* Draw the geometric 2-D view of the rules above, and determine a new set of rules that shows the same forwarding
behavior, but uses the minimum number of rules by filling the following table. a. F1 F2 Output port b. Show hierarchical tree data structure that matches the new
rule set c. Show the set-pruning trees data structure that matches the new rule set d. Show area-based Quad-tree data structure that matches the new rule set 2.
Construct an 8-input Banyan by wiring the right connections between switches in the following diagram. Please follow the label for each output of switches.
Traverse “111” to switch 10.

Attach 2113

2114

CIS1000C Chapter 8 Linear ADTs Lab Note: To get credit, you must score 60 pts. or higher Name: Traci Bryan 1. Draw the binary search tree whose

elements are inserted in the following order: (25 pts.) 50 72 96 94 107 26 12 11 9 2 10 25 51 16 17 95 50 ? ? 26 72 ? ? 51 12 ? 96 ? ? ? 25 94 107 ? ? ? 9 16 95 ?
11 ? ? 2 2. ? 10 17 If Print is applied to the tree formed in Exercise 1, in which order would the elements be printed? (10 pts.) 2 9 10 11 12 16 17 25 26 50 51 72 94
95 96 107 3. Trace the Binary Search algorithm to find an item whose value is 15 Tree (25 pts.) IsThere(tree, item) call Return Value: 4. Trace the Binary Search
algorithm to find an item whose value is 26 Tree Return Value: IsThere(tree, item) call (25 pts.) 5. Given the following graph: a. b. c. (5 pts. Each) Is there a path
from Oregon to any other state in the graph? Is there a path from Hawaii to every other state in the graph? From which state(s) in the graph is there a path to
Hawaii? No Yes Texas

Attach 2114

2115

Write a program to find solutions to the n-queens puzzle for various valuesof n. To be specific, test your program for ?? = 4 and ?? = 8.

2116

Please complete the attached assignment

Attach 2116

2117

Can you please address the attached assignment. The focus should be on Questions 1, 2, 4, 5.

Attach 2117

2118

i have this ilab needed

Document Preview:
iLAB OVERVIEW Scenario/Summary In this iLab assignment, you will create a Visual Basic application that implements a loan payment calculator, based on the
business requirements, TOE chart, and pseudocode shown below. Payment Calculator Business Requirements The application will accept as inputs a loan
amount, an annual interest rate, and the number of years for the loan. The application will calculate the monthly payment amount for the loan. As output, the
application will display to the user the monthly payment amount formatted as currency with a dollar sign and cents. Payment Calculator TOE Chart Task Object
Event Get the following inputs from the user.
following processing.

Loan amount txtLoanAmount Annual interest rate txtAnnualRate Number of years txtYears

Calculate the monthly payment using the Pmt function btnCalcPayment Click Display the following output to the user.

formatted as currency with $ and cents lblMonthlyPayment

Perform the
Monthly payment

Pseudocode for Payment Calculator Application Start Declare numeric variables for Loan amount

Annual rate Years of loan Monthly payment Get inputs: Loan amount Annual rate Years of loan Calculate Monthly payment =-PMT(Annual rate /12,Years of loan
*12,Loan amount) Display Monthly payment formatted as currency with $ and cents Stop Deliverables Submit a Word document named
Lab2YourFirstLastName.docx (where YourFirstLastName = your first and last name; e.g., Lab2JohnSmith.docx) containing the following. Screenshot of the form
showing the application running, with correct input and output values displayed in the form Copy of button-click event code Category Points % Description Create
and rename form 10 20% A Windows form was created and named PaymentCalculator.vb. The form text property was set to Lab 2 Your Name (where Your
Name = your full name). Add controls to form 10 20% The following controls were...

Attach 2118

1.

2119
Full Use Case Description
Select the most critical core use case identified for the case study* and fully describe it to produce a full use case description. (use the template provided in
Resources section).
Make sure your full use case description identifies and describes all significant alternate flows
Guidance for selecting a use case will be provided during semester. If you wish to start this task before such guidance is provided, check your selection with the
lecturer before starting work. Your mark for the whole assignment will be negatively affected if the use case you select is not one of the approved use cases.

1.

Activity Diagram
Produce an activity diagram consistent with the full use case description. Make sure your activity diagram shows the same steps and flows as contained in the full
use case description.

1.

System Sequence Diagram
Produce a system sequence diagram consistent with the normal flow detailed in the full use case description.

1.

Operation Contract
Identify the most complex user-system interaction (input/response couplet) within the normal flow (ie the step with the most number of side effects, or most
complex internal logic), and produce an operation contract for that input-response couplet.
It is impossible to provide guidance as to which step of the use case to select for this task. However, your mark for this section will be negatively affected if the step
you select is clearly not the most complex interaction in the use case you describe.

Attach 2119

2120

please check it and let me knowcan you do it?

Attach 2120

2121

Search for two jured article fromJSTOR website andIdentify the Research Problem(Phishing) discussed in your downloaded articles Explain

the problem in your own words, and discuss the importance of the study.

Identify Hypotheses. Identify whether or not research hypotheses are present in such study.

Show how these articles relate to own research problem and how your research will be related to these articles.
Document Preview:
Phishing Problem statement Phishing is still a problem in the field of cyber security. Every day we came to know about cyber crimes which are affecting the lives of
the common man. Many of the people still do not know the importance of sharing their sensitive details to any body and cyber criminals always target the innocent
people who do not know about it. These are many complaints which are registered with the cyber crime handling departments in the police station that people
have been suffered because of the fraud done by the criminals online(Tambre, 2013). Phishing has different methods in which they manipulate people to get the
sensitive informations about them like username, account details, OTP numbers for online transactions, credit card details and etc. So it is still a big problem which
is needed to be solved by taken certain strict actions by the Information and Telecommunication department of the central government. Purpose statement The
main purpose for this is to find the effective solutions to stop the scams online. Phishing is considered as an online scam which is done by the cyber criminals and
hackers to gain the financial benefits by looting from the common and innocent people by getting their sensitive details. Proper knowledge about the kind of
Phishing scam that can be done by the criminals should be given to every citizen like banks are already doing it by sending the SMS or texts to the people in
different languages and also online users should also know how phishing mail can affect their financial belongings (Bhutt, 2011). Research questions The research
question which can be built after having a keep look over the sensitivity of the topic that: - What is the intent of doing phishing? What are the possible steps that
have been proposed by the specialist to handle the problem? What are the better ways that the knowledge should be provided to common and innocent people to
not to get trapped in the phishing scams? What are the kinds...

Attach 2121

2122
refer to PPSub040815_285389_12. please fix the report Advance_network_project.docx by follow the Marking criteria.
ps. please find Marking Criteria files.
Document Preview:
0.0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 2.0 0.75 3.0 0.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 10.0 0.5 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 3.0 0.25 2.0 0.0 5.0 0.25 5.0 0.25 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.5 10.0
0.5 5.0 0.75 5.0 0.0 2.0 0.25 2.0 0.5 4.0 0.75 2.0 0.75 0.0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 5.0 0.5 7.0 0.75 8.0 0.5 5.0 0.5 5.0 0.75 5.0 0.5 5.0 0.5 5.0 0.5 5.0 0.25 5.0 0.0 5.0
0.75 5.0 0.5 5.0 0.25 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.5 5.0 0.5 0.0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 2.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 COIT20234 Final Project - Marking Sheet Student
Name: Student Number: Group Number: Poor Excellent Security Plan - Section weighting (20 of Total marks available) Section Scores Note to the Marker
Introduction For each of the marking criteria, enter one and only one letter "x" in the Likert scale (0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1) Outlines the importance of the security plan
concisely, clearly and appropriately Some situations are described very vague. The calculation is automatically done Effectively outlines the objectives and
purpose of the security plan Scope Outlines the areas of the organisation that the security plan applies concisely and effectively The scope of project is described
as immesaurable. Assumptions List any assumptions made in order to prepare the plan Describe the nature of the assumptions made Justify the assumptions
made in the context of the Business Domain Not provided. Objectives of the Security Plan Clearly and concisely explains what the security plan is designed to
achieve Not clearly stated with appropriate heading Risk Analysis Assess and identify the assets to protect and the value of these assets. No risk matrix was
provided. Summarises the current organisation's risks, Did not provide. Highlights threats, challenges and vulnerabilities Besides the residual risks, no other forms
of risks were discussed. Categorises the cause of the risks Did not discuss. Security Policies Describes all security policies...

Attach 2122

2123

Have you received an email stating a violation of terms of service for an online game or social network you use? What about an ‘unauthorised’ attempt

to use your banking or credit card information? Perhaps you ‘won’ a contest you never entered? Regardless of the scenario, all of these emails probably asked you
to click on something to ‘verify’ your credentials. Hopefully you did not as each is a common example of a phishing scam, a type of online fraud that tries to trick
you into revealing personal financial information, passwords, credit card numbers, etc. As with the noted examples most phishing cases take the form of an email
message claiming to come from a seemingly legitimate source, but just how good do you think you are at recognising a phishing scam?

Take a few minutes to complete the SonicWALL Phishing and Spam IQ Quiz (Dell, 2012). How many did you get right? Which of the examples seemed hardest to
decide about? What specific things did you notice that helped identify a message as a fraud? What specific things led you to be fooled? For this Discussion, share
your results from the SonicWALL test and explain the methods you employed to decipher what was fraud and what was not.

Dell. (2012) SonicWALL phishing IQ test[Online]. Available from: http://www.sonicwall.com/phishing/ (Accessed: 08 January 2015).

To complete this Discussion:

Post: Create an initial post in which you share your results from the SonicWALL Phishing and Spam IQ Quiz. Include how many questions you answered correctly.
Your score will not have any effect on your grade. In your post, also evaluate which examples in the test were hardest to decide about and explain why.
Furthermore, explain what methods you utilised to identify a message as fraud. Based on the specific things that fooled you, evaluate your methods and
recommend what you could have done differently to avoid being fooled.

2124

i need your help to do my lab and i need it back on 9/12/2015 at 9:30 pm. and i want your to create all three indexes

Attach 2124

2125 Accept the three positive integers for date from the user (day , month and year) and check whether the date is valid or invalid.

2126

Evaluate the efficiency and reliability of both the most common nonpreemptive dispatch algorithms and the most common preemptive dispatch
algorithms used for scheduling decisions. Provide one (1) example of the best use for each dispatch algorithm.

2127

In cell F7, enter an IF function to calculate the Annual PMI. If the borrower’s total down payment (required and additional) is 20% or more of the

negotiated purchase price (multiply the cost by the PMI avoidance percentage), PMI is zero. If the total down payment is less than 20%, the borrower has to pay
PMI calculated by multiplying the amount of the loan by the PMI rate. Use range names whenever possible in the function.

2128

When a user program makes a system call to read or write a disk file, it provides an indication of which file it wants, a pointer to the data buffer, and

the count. Control is then transferred to the operating system, which calls the appropriate driver. Suppose that the driver starts the disk and terminates until an
interrupt occurs. In the case of reading from the disk, obviously the caller will have to be blocked (because there are no data for it). What about the case of writing
to the disk? Need the caller be blocking awaiting completion of the disk transfer?

2129

RFID

Document Preview:
Length: 1800 API type of referencing is Must I is necessary to have in text referencing This assignment is related to Assignment 1 (RFID Application) Must have 8
problem Domain with full explanation and exploration like in Assignment 1. Must be able to identify issues and each issues need 3 minimum in-test referencing
and explanation in details on below points What is the new technology? What does it do and what are the special features it has? When is it coming out in the
market and how much will it cost? What industry will the new technology affect? (Medical, agricultural, computer, business, etc….). In your opinion, will the new
technology be beneficial to society? Why or why not. What did you learn from a critical analysis of your sources of information on this new technology? That is a
research topic on its own, however I recommend the list of SIX structural elements below are found in most well written literature reviews: Interpretation and
valuation of an overview of recent trends in emerging technologies and innovation; Evidence of literature searches and critical analysis of the literature in the
chosen capstone topic; Critical reflection and synthesis of complex information, problems, concepts and theories in the chosen topic; Original opinion on the
benefits of your capstone project to others; Reflective comments on what was learnt from a review of the literature; Use of correct citations and referencing
conforming to recognised referencing format. The Checklist for the literature review elements can be used as a quality check as you write: Content Elements
Coverage of topic Depth of discussion Development of argument and reasoning Selection of literature Writing Style Elements Structure of review Technical
competence Use of citations and quotations Referencing Write a Literature Review following a set structure. The Literature Review is a critical examination of the
most relevant, recent and scholarly research on the...

Attach 2129

2130

You have been awarded the contract to create the web site for an international conference. The conference is titled

Seventeenth International Theraphosidae Workshop
The conference is to be held in the city ofRio de Janeiro from March 21 to 25, 2016.

This conference is expected to attract Theraphosidae (Tarantula) experts from around the world. Some of the broad topics of the workshop are:

Dwindling ecosystems

Adaptive survival traits in a changing environment

How Theraphosidae are perceived in the broader community

Theraphosidae as a valuable protein source for humanity

The conference organisers want their site in four parts:

1.

A program page that lists the sessions over the five days of the conference.

This page will also list the invited speakers of the conference—providing a picture of each speaker and the title of the talk they will be giving.

There should also be a session timetable.

2.

An accommodation page. A page listing the suggested hotels for the conference attendees to stay at while at the conference. Prices should be quoted
on this page.

3.

A tourist page outlining all the things that a visitor to the area can do while not at the conference.

4.

The site-map section. Normally this would be a simplified list of the main sections of the site or search facilites—all as an aid to navigation.

For these assignments the site-map section will be used by the student as a site-map for the marker—with links to required elements, discussion of the site
and reference links for downloaded elements.
Assignment OneThe first assignment is to set up the basic structure of the web site.Assignment Two will add extra features to the basic structure of Assignment
One. Please keep in mind the requirements ofAssignment Two when designing your site for Assignment One.

Site Design
The site should be broken up into a number of section:

There should be an entrance page to the site. This should be simple but convey the purpose of the site clearly.

From the entrance or welcome page there should be links to the major sections of the site.

The conference program section.

The accommodation section.

The tourist section.

The site-map section to be used by the student to document the solution for the marker. Required elements must appear in the other
sections of the site as well as being documented and linked to in this section.

2 Each main section of the site should consist of a minimum of two pages.

Page Design

The design of individual pages must be consistent across the site. This means ALL pages (the site-map section as well).

Required elements must be included in the site in a consistent way and be relevant to the page they are on.

You should attempt to apply the ideas discussed in Chapter 5 (Web Design) of the Study Book and Web Design and Usability Guidelines. The design
ideas you attempted to include into your site should be discussed in the site-map section with references to the ideas in Chapter 5 and Web Design and

Usability Guidelines. This discussion should be of order 300 words.
Simple and clear navigation elements must be part of each page's design. These elements should allow the visitor to navigate around the site without
any effort.

Your overall page design should be done using CSS positioning or float properties only. As browsers are notconsistent in their implementation of CSS
commands you must use either the Firefox browser or a Firefox clone such as Iceweasel to test your site as Firefox will be the browser used to mark your
assignment.
Required Tasks and ElementsThe following required elements must be included in the site in a consistent way and be relevant to the pages they are in.

Images

Transparent Logo
A conference logo should appear on every page. The image for the logo should have a transparent background.

Step by step instructions should be provided in the site-map documentation section for creating the transparent logo.

A link in the site-map documentation section to the logo using the ID attribute of the image element.
Image Map

Include a Client Side image map.

Step by step instructions should be provided in the site-map documentation section for creating the image map.

One possibility for a relevant image map could be a local map outlining tourist destinations or accomodation with links to pages describing the
destination or accomodation.
A link in the site-map documentation section to the image-map using the ID attribute of the image element.

XHTML Code
tidy is encouraged

Your pages should be written in well formed XHTML. The use of the utility

Always use the appropriate XHTML element if it exists—do not over-use div and span elements.

All links should work. All links should be relative - that is they should NOT contain

A machine name, or

start with a slash, and

the XHTML

base element should not be used.

The assignment will be unpacked on different machine, on a different file-system and all links must work.

To ensure that all links on your pages are relative try the following.

Start your web browser and load the assignment top page using the Open File pull down menu item. This will load the page directly off
disk into the browser. Now check that no links are broken. Do not have your server running when you do this.
Relative links should NOT contain a server name or start with a / (slash)!

2 Consider XHTML code to be similar to any traditional code, e.g., C, C++ &c. As such, pay attention to your coding style, e.g., your code should:

Be simple and elegant.



Always use the appropriate XHTML element (not div or span only)
Be documented, e.g., comments near the top of each document and on major sections of the document. (be aware that HTML comments
should not appear at the very top of a document as it can cause IE to have conniptions).
Have meaningful class/id attribute names.
Have an appropriate layout, e.g., consistent indentation and use of white space.

3 Write all the pages as XHTML or HTML and use the program

tidy to convert your HTML into XHTML or correct your XHTML.

Cascading Style Sheets

CSS3 style elements can be used but must be the style elements that work under Firefox (or Iceweasel)

All default style changes to XHTML elements— such as, font changes, text colours, background colours, background images, &c.— should be
modified using style sheets only. XHTML elements should not be modified by using deprecated HTML attributes. For example, do not use the deprecated
attributes of the BODY element to change the background colour.
Do not use style commands needlessly—creating a class name when an XHTML element already exists that could do the task


Effort is expected to be taken with the style of the site via CSS— half a dozen minor changes to text or element backgrounds is not enough.

Consider CSS code to be similar to any traditional code, e.g., C, C++ &c. As such, pay attention to your coding style, e.g., your code should:

Be simple and elegant,

Be documented, e.g., comments at top of each document and on major sections,

Use meaningful id and class names,

Have an appropriate layout, e.g., consistent indentation and use of white space.

Modularity, reuse and visibility, e.g., appropriate choice of CSS style rules and selectors, e.g., single use of user defined IDs.

Printer CSS
Provide a Monochrome Printer style sheet to allow the user to print the XHTML page without wasting paper. E.g., the print preview of your web page
should not include any navigational table of contents, unnecessary borders, colours, images, &c.

Standards

Your site should use W3C standard XHTML and CSS only. The addition of extra features via Javascript or any other technology will be ignored—
unless they do not work and interfere with site navigation or page layout then marks will be lost.
This assignment must work on a machine running Debian GNU/Linux using the supplied copy of Iceweasel (A Firefox clone) as the browser. Browsers
arenot consistent in their implementation of CSS. To save you effort, this assignment does not need to work on any other browser.

Documentation
Some specific requirements for the documentation have been provided earlier for individualRequired items. Additional, generic requirements for the documentation
are provided below.

Descriptions with examples from your site of all the Required items (e.g., transparent logo, and image map).

The actual use of the Required Items (e.g., transparent logo and image map) are all linked to with a NAME anchor.

Include links to all (non-XHTML) source code files in the documentation, e.g., CSS files.


Describe the purpose of the major and any complex sections of your CSS code. For example, discuss the page layout aspects of your CSS code. If
you have used CSS3 commands be sure to mention the fact. Do not bother to discuss minor aspects such as colours, and fonts.
You may use text and images from the Internet — but be sure to cite the URL sources in the site-map documentation section with links back to the
image or text in the main section (us the ID attribute to tag downloaded material).
Marking Scheme:
Transparent Logo

10

Image Map

10

Working XHTML, unbroken and clearly defined links, ease of navigation

25

Used CSS for Style and Page Formatting

20

Cascading Style Sheet for Printing

5

Overall design and discussion, style, standards and consistency

20

Documentation

10

Maximum

100

Notes:

Your assignment is supposed to look like a real site — not an assignment